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Study of Friction Reduction Potential in Light- Duty Diesel Engines by Lightweight Crankshaft Design Coupled with Low Viscosity Oil

General Motors-Salvatore Mafrici
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0006
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Over the last two decades, engine research has been mainly focused on reducing fuel consumption in view of compliance with more stringent homologation cycles and customer expectations. As it is well known, the objective of overall engine efficiency optimization can be achieved only through the improvement of each element of the efficiency chain, of which mechanical constitutes one of the two key pillars (together with thermodynamics). In this framework, the friction reduction for each mechanical subsystem has been one of the most important topics of modern Diesel engine development. The present paper analyzes the crankshaft potential as contributor to the mechanical efficiency improvement, by investigating the synergistic impact of crankshaft design itself and oil viscosity characteristics (including new ultra-low-viscosity formulations already discussed in SAE Paper 2019-24-0056). For this purpose, a combination of theoretical and experimental tools have been used to design an extremely lightweight crankshaft and to evaluate the effects of main and conrod bearings dimensioning, clearances and oil viscosity, considering not only the impact from a friction perspective but also from a structural and…
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Experimental Evaluation of Steady State Performance of an Automotive Electric Supercharger

Università Degli Studi di Genova-Silvia Marelli, Vittorio Usai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0008
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the electric supercharger for turbocharged downsized automotive engines is mainly used to improve torque at low engine speeds in order to obtain an improvement of the time to boost. These components are usually designed to fill the gap in terms of torque in transient operation caused by the main turbocharger with reference to the typical turbo lag issues. An advanced solution of the engine boosting system was taken into account, considering the adoption of an e-booster system coupled to a waste-gated turbocharger, typically adopted alone in order to provide a reduced turbo-lag, i.e. an optimized transient response of the system. In the experimental activity described in this work, the maximum speed of the e-booster used is about 70000 rpm, the maximum pressure ratio is 1.5 and the maximum power required on the shaft is less than 4 kW. The compressor unit have to be maintained in the idle condition in order to avoid excessive electric consumption and overheating problem when the boost given by this component is not required. In order to highlight the…
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On-Board Post-Combustion CO2 Capture in Light-Duty and Heavy-Duty transport

Politecnico di Milano-Davide Bonalumi, Stefano Campanari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0012
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The European Union set the CO2 emission limit in the transport sector that will decrease in the next years. The purpose of this work is to assess through technical analysis, a system that captures part of the CO2 from the exhaust gases of duty vehicles. Two distinct categories of vehicles are considered, those with a mass lower than 3.5 tons and those with a higher mass. For the light-duty category, the analysis is developed estimating the consumptions and emissions based on the WLTP homologation cycle by means of the software Excel. For the heavy-duty category, the consumptions and the emissions are determined by means of the software specifically developed by the European Union for heavy-duty vehicles named VECTO (Vehicle Energy Consumption calculation Tool). From a literature review, different technologies are considered. The most suitable technology is selected. A possible way is based on the adsorption through the metal-organic framework (MOF). A dedicated review to select the most promising material indicates which can assure the best performance. The performances are evaluated based on the features of…
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Development of the Active Sound Generation Technology using Motor Driven Power Steering System

Hyundai Motor Co.-Kyoung-Jin Chang
Mdynamix AG-Leonhard Angerpointner, Dominik Schubert, Matthias Niegl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1536
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
As original engine sound is usually not enough to satisfy the driver’s desire for the sporty and fascinating sound, active noise control (ANC) and active sound design (ASD) have been great technologies in automobiles for a long time. However, these technologies which enhance the sound of vehicle using loud speakers or electromagnetic actuators etc. lead to the increase of cost and weight due to the use of external amplifier or external actuators. This paper presents a new technology of generating a target sound by the active control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which is already mounted in vehicle. Firstly, an algorithm of this technology, called an active sound generation (ASG), is introduced with those signal conversion process, and then the high frequency noise issue and its countermeasure are presented. Secondly, ASG test bench is designed using a motor driven power steering (MDPS) system and then it is checked if ASG has any influence on an original function of MDPS. Thirdly, motor-induced vibration is measured in the transfer path and then the appropriate level…
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Estimation the Interior Sound Quality in BEV's Regarding Measurements on the Roller Test Bench: Focusing on Tonal Omponents

AVL Deutschland GmbH-Daniel Schecker, Eugen Deisling, Peter Uerlings
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1542
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Development of BEVs gains more and more importance for OEMs, Tier 1s and DSPs and the project volumes continue to grow steadily. Even though the complexity of electric drive trains is reduced in comparison to combustion drive lines, the requirements for NVH development increases. Masking effects of noise through combustion noise fall away, the overall noise level decreases and the high frequency noises from the electric motors, inverters and transmissions dominate the overall impression of this new technology. Because of the missing combustion noise also noises like rolling noise from tires and wind noise is felt more and more disturbing for customers and pedestrians. The NVH character of any vehicle is highly dependent on its operating condition. With BEVs, it mainly depends on the vehicle speed, torque, temperature and state of charge of the battery. For this reason customers usually want to measure many speed-ups with constant torque steps. During a 3 Year cooperation with a big OEM almost all premium BEVs on the German market were measured/benchmarked to get a feedback about the own…
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Inverse Vibration Problem Used for the Characterization of the Damping Added by a Trim Foam on a Plate

CEVAA-Nicolas Merlette
CEVAA, LAUM-Meryem LE DEUNF
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1580
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Many solutions exist to insure the NVH comfort of ground and air vehicles, like heavy mass (bitumen pads), viscoelastic treatments and absorbing foams. The trim foam is an alternative to heavy solutions. To know the potential of the foam, a study of its capacity to damp vibration is done. A system, composed by a suspended plate, with a foam on it, is characterized in different cases of contact at the foam-plate interface (glued or not) and with different types of foam. An experimental test facility is developed to identify the global damping of the structure: a laser vibrometer measures the displacement field of the foam-plate structure, an inverse method is used to determine the structural parameters. By changing the contact at the interface, it is possible to identify the contribution of the friction forces to the global damping of the structure. Another type of damping is the viscoelastic damping due to the intrinsic characteristics of the trim foam. With the help of FEA, it is possible to understand the influence of the damping effect. The…
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Wind Tunnel Test to Determine Pantograph Noise Contribution on a High-speed Train

Korea Railroad Research Institute-Heemin Noh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1517
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we investigated the characteristics and the influence of the aero-acoustic noise generated from a pantograph using various experimental approaches in a wind tunnel. First, the noise generated at various flow velocities was measured and analyzed using a full-scale pantograph model. Then, the noise generated from the main position of the pantograph was derived using a microphone array attached to one side of a wind tunnel. The noise contributions of the main components of the pantograph were derived from the noise measurements obtained from a step-by-step disassembly of the full-scale model.Through this study, we have investigated the aero-acoustic noise contribution of the major components of a pantograph, and we have developed effective noise-reduction measures for the panhead collector.
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Squeak&Rattle - New Equivalent Static Load (ESL) based on Dynamic Distortion in all Body Openings from both Test and Simulation

AFRY-Viktor Jönsson
BETA CAE Nordic AB-Mohamed Zaben
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1556
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The body stiffness has a major impact on the Squeak&Rattle (S&R) performance of a car. Since the body structure of electrical/automated cars will differ clearly from traditional bodies, an enhanced requirement is needed to limit the distortion in the closure openings. The new requirement can be derived from a complete vehicle simulation using the deformation of the diagonals in the closure openings. This simulation includes different test tracks by using the dynamic road load data which can be obtained from a multi body simulation of a complete vehicle. Since the requirement needs to be applied early in the development only an untrimmed body model (BIG) is available, which can be used for a simplified static load. This paper shows a new approach of defining an equivalent static load (ESL), which considers both the reduction from a complete vehicle to a BIG and from a dynamic load to a static load. The approach is based on the comparison of the deformation in the diagonals of all closure openings between the dynamic simulation of a complete trimmed…
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Innovative Material Characterisation Methodology for Tyre Static and Dynamic Analyses

Applus + Idiada Group, Spain-Bharath Anantharamaiah
Applus IDIADA Group, Spain-Carlos Fidalgo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1519
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Tyre structures are based on composite materials that constitute numerous layers, each providing specific properties to the tyre mechanic and dynamic behaviour. In principle, the understanding of the partial contributions of the individual layers requires knowledge of its mechanical properties. In case of non-availability of such critical information, it is difficult to perform tyre FE analyses. In the current work, a methodology is proposed to study the tyre static and dynamic behaviour to estimate its constituents properties based on the measured quasi-static responses of the tyre for certain specific loads. As a first step, a simplified tyre numerical model with standard rubber material properties is modeled that can substantively predict the necessary tyre static responses, i.e. radial, longitudinal and lateral stiffness. These responses are correlated with the physical tyre response that are measured using a kinematic and compliance (K&C) test rig in the laboratory. A Design of Experiments (DoE) study, followed by an optimization process, is performed by sampling the material properties of the rubbers to simulate the FE model and match the tyre responses…
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Inter-Laboratory Characterization of Biot Parameters of Poro-Elsastic Materials for Automotive Applications

Autoneum Holding AG-Francesca Ronzio, Claudio Bertolini
Faurecia S.A.-Minh Tan Hoang, Ludovic Dejaeger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1523
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Automotive suppliers provide multi-layer trims mainly made of porous materials. They have a real expertise on the characterization and the modeling of poro-elastic materials. A dozen parameters are used to characterize the acoustical and elastical behavior of such materials. The recent vibro-acoustic simulation tools enable to take into account this type of material but require the Biot parameters as input. Several characterization methods exist and the question of reproducibility and confidence in the parameters arises. A Round Robin test was conducted on three poro-elastic material with four laboratories. Compared to other Round Robin test on the characterization of acoustical and elastical parameters of porous material, this one is more specific since the four laboratories are familiar with automotive applications. Methods and results are compared and discussed in this work. Finally some guidelines are drawn to improve the confidence in the characterized parameters and to compare them under similar conditions possibly adapted to the final application.