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SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

  • Journal
  • V129-10EJ
To be published on 2020-03-31 by SAE International in United States
This is the electronic format of the journal
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Aircraft Plenum Air Outlet Optimization Method

Embraer-Fernando Stancato
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0021
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
It is possible to observe a growing interest by mobility industry toward a increased passenger comfort perception. This tendency is being characterized in the aviation sector by interior project that would guarantee the passenger comfort in entertainment, ergonomics, lightning, air quality, acoustics and thermal environment. Regarding this last three aspects, the air distribution through the plenum has a great impact on them. In this work it is presented a method to select the best outlet orifice configuration. The method was applied on seven different plenums. Acoustic evaluation was done using a rig experiment. Based on noise levels of each configuration, the dominant frequency range is identified. Objectives metrics, such as overall levels, speech interference level (SIL3) and loudness were applied. Subsequently, subjective analysis was conducted using the paired comparison method. Finally, an acoustic performance classification was established. Draft effect and air temperature distribution inside the cabin was done using CFD simulation. Besides that, a one-dimensional duct model was done for each configuration to evaluate plenum velocity and pressure distribution. Through these models, it was possible…
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A Study of Paradrogue Aerodynamics

Forrest Jack Mobley
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0027
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Scaled paradrogue models were designed, built, and tested for the purpose of possible UAS aerial refueling application. Paradrogue chute gore patterns were changed between three models and studied using wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics simulations. Drag coefficient values, as well as vortex shedding characteristics through POD and DMD analysis, were compared between the three models, with an emphasis on possible affects on flight stability.
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Cable Impedance Calculations Employed in Designing Aerospace Electrical Power Systems

Astronics AES-Jon Fifield
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0037
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents design considerations in utilizing cable impedance calculations in the design of an aerospace electrical power system. (EPS) Past wiring design guidelines featured a tabular constructed single-point design reference. This results in a cable selection which adds unnecessary weight and under-utilized the wire’s performance ability when considering a vehicle’s design requirements. Present wiring design guidelines have lagged behind the growing movement to achieve an optimized wire selection. Understanding the shortfalls with past and present wiring design methods will improve future methods to comply with increasingly restrictive vehicle performance requirements. This paper will discuss two of the most important design requirements for future aerospace electrical power and distribution feeders, which are weight and thermal limits assigned to an EPS design.
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System integration in aircraft environment – Hydraulic performances through coupled simulations

Airbus Operations GmbH-Henning Witt lng
Airbus Operations India-Ashutosh Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0004
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
An Airbus methodology for the assessment of accurate hydraulic performance at early program stages in the complete aircraft and power consuming systems environment based on joint collaboration with Chiastek is presented. The aim is to comfort the prediction of an aircraft hydraulic performance in order to limit the need for a physical integration test bench and extensive flight test campaign but also to avoid late system redesign based on robust early stage model based engineering and to secure the aircraft entry-into-service
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Introduction to Control Volume Based Transient Thermal Limit

Army Corps Of Engineers-Mark Bodie
PC Krause & Associates-Rodney Yeu, Tim Deppen, Brian Raczkowski, Nicholas Jones, Eric Walters
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0039
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Advancement in modern aircraft with the development of more dynamic and efficient technologies has led to these technologies increasingly operated near or at their operation limits. More comprehensive analysis methods based on high-fidelity models co-simulated in an integrated environment are needed to support the full utilization of these advanced technologies. Furthermore, the additional information provided by these new analyses needs to be correlated with updates to traditional metrics and specifications. One such case is the thermal limit requirement that sets the upper bound on a thermal system temperature. Traditionally, this bound is defined based on steady-state conditions. However, advanced thermal management systems experience dynamic events where the temperature is not static and may violate steady-state requirements for brief periods of time. Due to the large thermal time constants for many components, such transient violations may not represent system failure and an understanding of transient temperature limits is beneficial. To meet this need, this paper introduces the transient thermal limit via control volume representation. Instead of a constant thermal limit, the transient thermal limit approach generates…
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A Systematic Approach to Development Assurance and Safety of Unmanned Aerial Systems

Textron Aviation-Cory R. Laflin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0043
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The unrestrained design space for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) presents challenges to accurate safety assessment and the assurance of development to appropriate levels of rigor within those systems. The established safety and development assurance standards and practices were developed for vehicles operating in highly controlled conditions with continuous oversight. The very nature of unmanned systems introduce new failure conditions, even in those systems operating within the strict rules of the National Airspace System (NAS), particularly failures of control and command, situational awareness, and control security. Beyond those, the new concepts of operation being conceived by UAS developers introduce their own new set of considerations with regards to operating in uncontrolled airspace, often in close proximity to bystanders. These new concepts require new technologies beyond those currently supported by the hardware and software development assurance processes. However, the established standards and practices of aircraft development assurance and safety assessment can be adapted for the broader world of UAS applications, provided that the considerations driven by the new concepts of operation can be identified and properly analyzed.…
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Extended Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle via Structural Electrical Power Storage and Energy Generation Devices

Geoffrey Smith Oetting
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0041
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Through the substitution of some aircraft structural components with power storage and generation devices that possess adequate structural strength and stiffness, flight endurance time and performance of solar powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s) may be increased by reducing the parasitic weight penalties of the power systems. This innovation of the ‘Flying Battery’ along with energy generation devices such as structural solar cells, thermo-electric generators, and vibration induced power generators are integral to creating a flying structure that will be more efficient and more useful to the electric powered commercial and hobby markets. This paper discusses plans and the progress toward achieving potential endurance and efficiency increases in unmanned aerial vehicles through laboratory and eventual model flight experiments of novel structural designs for graphene super-capacitors, solar cells, and other power generation devices.
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Design of Elevons for a Hybrid VTOL-Blended Wing Body Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Delhi Technological University-Amit Bainsla, Vikas Rastogi, Pranav Bahl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0047
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The two primary requirements for a safe flight of a UAV are its stability and manoeuvrability. The purpose of this study is to design and validate elevons for a UAV having Blended Wing Body configuration which requires knowledge of various domains applied in a complex combination. Elevons are the unconventional control surfaces for the flying wings which will cause a pitching moment when moved in same direction and will cause a rolling moment when moved differentially and their preliminary design is affected by the function which is dominant. A MATLAB© code was written to decide the position, shape and size of elevons and later on accurately evaluated using high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. The MATLAB© code calculates the required roll time rate taking into consideration the longitudinal and lateral control requirements. Using this coupled approach of MATLAB© code and Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations significant optimization is achieved in designing the elevons.
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Integrated Electrical UAV Propulsion Design and Testing For High Efficiency

DARcorporation-Wanbo Liu, Drew Darrah, Joel Eppler
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0053
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper covers the design, modeling and analysis of an electric ducted fan system for sUAV (<55 lb) and the verification of predicted performance with test data. Analysis shows that the operating condition of the motor can significantly affect performance and should be considered when selecting or designing a rotor and vice versa. Motor manufacturers usually provide a list of compatible propellers for a motor design with thrust at RPM data coupled with gram per Watt efficiency. However, the gram per Watt value is not constant across the range of operation and a better modeling is needed depending on thrust requirements. Many of the electrical losses can be difficult to calculate directly, such as flux and iron losses in the motor and switching losses in the ESC. Incorporating an estimation/approximation of such losses during the rotor design phase enables a more accurate performance predication and a better overall system efficiency. Two rotors are designed to work inside of the duct and both have identical geometry except for a small blade pitch changes to increase maximum…