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SAE International Journal of Transportation Cybersecurity and Privacy

  • Journal
  • V129-11EJ
To be published on 2020-06-30 by SAE International in United States
This is the electronic format of the journal.
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Unsettled Technology Opportunities for Vehicle Health Management and the Role for Health-Ready Components

  • Research Report
  • EPR2020003
To be published on 2020-03-18 by SAE International in United States
Game-changing opportunities abound for the application of Vehicle Health Management (VHM) across multiple transportation-related sectors, but key unresolved issues continue to impede progress. VHM technology is based upon the broader field of advanced analytics. Much of traditional analytics efforts to date have been largely descriptive in nature and offer somewhat limited value for large scale enterprises. Analytics technology becomes increasingly valuable when it offers predictive results or, even better, prescriptive results which can be used to identify specific courses of action. It is this focus on action which takes analytics to a higher level of impact and which imbues it with the potential to materially impact the success of the enterprise. AI and specifically machine learning technology show future promise in the VHM space, but it is not currently adequate by itself for high accuracy analytics. The recent push for health-ready components offers hope in resolving some of the issues slowing the implementation of VHM technology. Health-ready components are those components which provide the necessary functionality or information to allow them to be gracefully integrated…
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Cable Impedance Calculations Employed in Designing Aerospace Electrical Power Systems

Astronics AES-Jon Fifield
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0037
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents design considerations in utilizing cable impedance calculations in the design of an aerospace electrical power system. (EPS) Past wiring design guidelines featured a tabular constructed single-point design reference. This results in a cable selection which adds unnecessary weight and under-utilized the wire’s performance ability when considering a vehicle’s design requirements. Present wiring design guidelines have lagged behind the growing movement to achieve an optimized wire selection. Understanding the shortfalls with past and present wiring design methods will improve future methods to comply with increasingly restrictive vehicle performance requirements. This paper will discuss two of the most important design requirements for future aerospace electrical power and distribution feeders, which are weight and thermal limits assigned to an EPS design.
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A Systematic Approach to Development Assurance and Safety of Unmanned Aerial Systems

Textron Aviation-Cory R. Laflin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0043
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The unrestrained design space for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) presents challenges to accurate safety assessment and the assurance of development to appropriate levels of rigor within those systems. The established safety and development assurance standards and practices were developed for vehicles operating in highly controlled conditions with continuous oversight. The very nature of unmanned systems introduce new failure conditions, even in those systems operating within the strict rules of the National Airspace System (NAS), particularly failures of control and command, situational awareness, and control security. Beyond those, the new concepts of operation being conceived by UAS developers introduce their own new set of considerations with regards to operating in uncontrolled airspace, often in close proximity to bystanders. These new concepts require new technologies beyond those currently supported by the hardware and software development assurance processes. However, the established standards and practices of aircraft development assurance and safety assessment can be adapted for the broader world of UAS applications, provided that the considerations driven by the new concepts of operation can be identified and properly analyzed.…
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An Approach to Verification of Interference Concerns for Multicore Systems (CAST-32A)

Rapita Systems, Inc., Ltd.-Steven H. VanderLeest, Christos Evripidou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0016
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The avionics industry is moving towards the use of multicore systems to meet the demands of modern avionics applications. In multicore systems, interference can affect execution timing behavior, including worst case execution time (WCET), as identified in the FAA CAST-32A position paper. Examining and verifying the effects of interference is critical in the production of safety-critical avionics software for multicore architectures. Multicore processor hardware along with aerospace RTOS providers increasingly offers robust partitioning technologies to help developers mitigate the effects of interference. These technologies enable the partitioning of cores for different applications at different criticalities and make it possible to run multiple applications on one specific core. When incorporated into system-design considerations, these partitioning mechanisms can be used to reduce the effects of interference on software performance. In this paper we describe a novel approach to verifying the effectiveness of RTOS interference mitigation on the final hosted software. We showcase the use of the proposed approach on the NXP T2080 multicore board. The approach follows a V-model based methodology in which high- and low-level requirements…
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Accounting thermal exchanges in Coanda effect

Henri Coanda Labs LLC-Michele Trancossi
Universidade Da Beira Interior-Jose Pascoa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0026
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Modeling Coandã effect has been a fundamental issue in fluid dynamic research in the XX century. It has lost some interest because of the improvement in CFD, even if it could be still important in the area of the preliminary design of aerodynamic devices that benefits of fluid deflection by convex surfaces. An effective model of Coandã effect has not been defined, and fundamental questions are still open. One of the problems which affect many practical cases, but it is still marginally approached by scientific literature, is the influence of convective heat exchange on Coandã adhesion of a fluid stream on a convex surface in the presence of a temperature gradient between the fluid and the convex surface. This paper aims to start an effective research direction on the effects of convective heat exchange on Coandã effect. It approaches the problem with a set of CFD simulations. It analyses the previous hypotheses, which are based on Prandtl number and evidences the need of a more effective model that account also Reynolds number.
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Validation Testing of Lithium Battery Performance-Based Packaging for use in Air Transportation (SAE G-27)

National Research Council Canada-Khalid Fatih, Manuel Hernandez
Transport Canada-Ian Whittal, Kiran Shoib
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0042
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The SAE G-27 committee was tasked by ICAO to develop a performance-based packaging standard for lithium batteries transported as cargo on aircraft. The standard details test criteria to qualify packages of lithium batteries & cells for transportation as cargo on-board passenger aircraft. Lithium batteries and cells have been prohibited from shipment as cargo on passenger aircraft since 2016. This paper summarizes the results of the tests conducted by Transport Canada and National Research Council Canada to support the development of this standard with evidence-based recommendations. It includes a description of the test specimens, the test set up, instrumentation used, and test procedures following the standard as drafted to date. The study considered several lithium-ion battery and cell chemistries that were tested under various proposed testing scenarios in the draft standard. The aim was to assess the feasibility of proposed tests, and to determine whether the tests are able to accurately capture hazards which may arise from a catastrophic battery or a cell failure within the package. Laboratory results were also simulated with Computational Fluid Dynamics…
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A MATLAB Simulink Based Co-Simulation Approach for Vehicle Systems Model Integration

Army Corps Of Engineers-Mark Bodie
PC Krause & Associates-Brian C. Raczkowski, Nicholas Jones, Tim Deppen, Charles Lucas, Rodney Yeu, Eric Walters
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0005
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a MATLAB-Simulink based general co-simulation approach is presented which supports multi-resolution simulation of distributed models in an integrated architecture. This approach was applied to simulating aircraft thermal performance in our Vehicle Systems Model Integration (VSMI) framework. A representative advanced aircraft thermal management system consisting of an engine, engine fuel thermal management system, aircraft fuel thermal management system and a power and thermal management system was used to evaluate the advantages and tradeoffs in using a co-simulation approach to system integration modeling. For a system constituting of multiple interacting sub-systems, an integrated model architecture can rapidly, and cost effectively address technology insertions and system evaluations. Utilizing standalone sub-system models with table-based boundary conditions often fails to effectively capture dynamic subsystem interactions that occurs in an integrated system. Additionally, any control adjustments, model changes or technology insertions that are applied to any one of the connecting subsystems requires iterative updates to the boundary conditions. When evaluating a large set of trade studies, the number of boundary condition models and time to generate these models…
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High Altitude Platform System Airship for telecommunication and border monitoring design and physical model

Henri Coanda Labs LLC-Michele Trancossi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0044
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an accurate analysis of a high altitude platform with an unconventional ellipsoidal shape during the most critical operation with the support of a large CFD analysis. The airship is designed accordingly to the specifications which have been analysed in terms of the required CONOPS (Concepts of Operations). Concepts of Operation (CONOPS) associated with the proposed High Altitude Pseudo-Satellite (HAPS) technology and special operations and to analyze the operational scenarios which are relevant to HAPS technology. An innovative cruiser feeder system is defined and studied. The CONOPS includes communications relays, support of intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition monitor “mobile targets”, and reconnaissance, including long-range ISTAR missions performed by the feeder, combining satellite vision and HAPS vision for a forest fire, disasters, naval accidents, maritime and ground borders. The paper realizes a multidisciplinary analysis that allows creating the design of the HAPS, referring to both cruiser and feeder according to the in different operative scenarios. Inside the digital twin model simulations will be performed in multiple cases allowing generating the best possible configuration by mean…
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A communication-free Human-Robot-Collaboration approach for aircraft riveting process using AI planning

Saarland University-Jörg Hoffmann
ZeMA gGmbH-Khansa Rekik, Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0013
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
In large scale industries attempts are continuously being made to automate assembly processes to not only increase productivity but also alleviate non-ergonomic tasks. However this is not always technologically possible due to specific joining challenges and the high number of special-purpose parts. For the riveting process, for example, semi-automated approaches represent an alternative to optimizing aircraft assembly and to reduce the exposure of workers to non-ergonomic conditions entailed by performing repetitive tasks. In (Mueller, Rainer, et al. 2019) a semi-automated solution is proposed for the riveting process of assembling the section barrel of the aft section to its pressure bulkhead. The method introduced a dynamic task sharing strategy between human and robot that implements interaction possibilities to establish a communication between a human and a robot in Human-Robot-collaboration fashion. Although intuitive, interacting with the robot constantly is still not natural for the worker as in the manual process no explicit communication between both workers is needed. In this work a communication-free Human-Robot-collaboration solution is presented. The method developed not only enables sharing assembly missions by…