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Energy Recovery Rate from an Electric Air-cycle System under the Cruising Altitude and Speed.

Akita University-Takahiro Adachi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1905
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we focus on an electric air-cycle system in an electric aircraft, where the system has an electric compressor instead of a hydraulically-operated oil-based compressor. The electric compressor consumes the power to compress the rarefied air outside and take it in the system. The air goes through the air-cycle as a working fluid to exchange the heat and work. The main purpose of the air-cycle is to adjust the temperature and pressure in a cabin. Therefore, the working fluid of the air repeats compression and expansion. The working fluid passing through the cabin absorbs heat from the passengers and avionics. After that, the air is discharged outside with higher heat level and pressure levels. This means that the discharged air has a potential energy to recover the power consumption in the electric compressor. So, we have analytically estimated an energy recovery rate which is defined as a ratio of the potential energy of the discharged air to the energy consumption in the compressor, and shown the recovery rate under the condition of cruising…
 

NDT Application from Conventional to Digital Radiography for the Aircraft Maintenance Industry

SORT Engineering GmbH-Adel A. Ghobbar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1907
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Technological innovation can provide improved productivity, increased cost savings, and it can keep or make an organisation competitive. Digital radiography for non-destructive testing (NDT) is such a promising innovation. In organisations with large scale utilisation of non-destructive testing, a transition from film to digital radiography is easily justified. Nevertheless, this is not the case for every organisation. Next to the operational workflow, system flexibility, quality, and regulatory issues also play a role in the trade-off. Especially in the aircraft maintenance industry, where the non-destructive operation is related to a lot of different factors. Motivated by the developments of digital radiography, the NDT department of KLM Engineering & Maintenance (E&M) requested advice in reconsidering their conventional film radiography capabilities. The objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of digital radiography at KLM E&M. First, a thorough understanding of the technical and practical principles behind conventional radiographic testing was built up. Regulatory and process requirements were identified and several digital radiographic systems for industrial purposes were analysed. Based on the requirements, only computed radiography (CR)…
 

Improving and Evaluating Aircraft Maintenance On-Time Performance for Wide-Body A-Checks Delays

SORT Engineering GmbH-Adel A. Ghobbar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1909
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Martinair is based on Schiphol Oost and is part of the KLM Group since 2008. The KLM Group on its turn is part of the Air France – KLM Group. Martinair started as a charter company and was founded by Martin Schröder. Martinair is now a cargo operator with its own maintenance base at Hangar 32 on Schiphol Oost. It operates 7 McDonnell Douglas MD-11’s and 6 Boeing B747-400’s. The focus will be on the MD-11 tri-jet in this thesis. Due to the entry in the KLM Group in 2008, changes have been made for synergy reasons to the Martinair organisation. Martinair Maintenance and Engineering is now focussing on becoming a Regional Jet Center. The maintenance on the Embraer E-190 of KLM Cityhopper will be the main part of the work. Due to the new focus of the Martinair maintenance and engineering department, the maintenance capacity for a MD-11 A-check will no longer be available. It is therefore chosen to outsource the MD-11 A-check from Martinair maintenance and engineering to KLM engineering and maintenance. The…
 

Gradationally Controlled Voltage Inverter for More Electric Aircrafts

IHI Corporation-Hitoshi Oyori
Mitsubishi Electric Corp.-Tetsuya Kojima, Masahiro Sugahara, Yusuke Shirouchi, Hisatoshi Fukumoto, Akihiko Iwata
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1913
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Over recent decades, there has been a lot of progress toward a more electric aircraft (MEA) to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. In MEAs, many subsystems that previously used hydraulic or pneumatic power have been replaced by electrical systems with inverters and electrical machines. Therefore, MEAs reduce the weight, i.e. fuel consumption, and maintenance cost. To achieve advanced electrical systems, the weight of inverters has significant importance. In this work, a gradationally controlled voltage (GCV) inverter is proposed to reduce the weight and enhance reliability. A GCV inverter can supply gradational quasi-sinusoidal voltages combining two different voltages from a 3-phase 3-level (main) inverter and three single-phase H-bridge (sub) inverters. A dc power supply is required only for the main inverter. A main inverter with Si-IGBTs supplies the fundamental voltage by only one switching in the fundamental period. Consequently, the switching loss is minimized and hence the weight of cooling systems can be reduced. Sub inverters, which have the half of dc-link voltage of the main inverter, employ SiC-MOSFETs with higher switching frequency and compensate for…
 

Service-based modelling approach to ease the certification of multi-core COTS processors

ONERA-Frédéric Boniol, Youcef Bouchebaba, Julien Brunel, Kevin Delmas, Claire Pagetti, Thomas Polacsek, Nathanaël Sensfelder
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1851
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
PHYLOG is a four years DGAC (French Civil Aviation) project (2016-2020) that aims at offering a model-based and software-aided certification framework for aeronautics systems based on multi/many-core architectures. Among the objectives of the position paper MCP-CRI/CAST 32A, two types of analysis are required: interference analysis. and safety analysis. Because of the large size of the multi-core platforms and their complexity, those analyses can lead to combinatorial explosion and some misinterpretation. To simplify those analyses, we explore and classify multi-core platform properties in order to represent a platform as a set of services
 

Design Approach for Secure Networks to introduce Data Analytics within the Aircraft Cabin

Hamburg University of Technology-Hartmut Hintze, Fabian Giertzsch, Ralf God
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1853
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In the past, aircraft network design did not demand for information security considerations. The aircraft systems were simple, obscure, proprietary and, most importantly for security, the systems have been either physically isolated or they have been connected by directed communication links. The union of the aircraft systems thus formed a federated network. These properties are in sharp contrast with today’s system designs, which rest upon platform-based solutions with shared resources being interconnected by a massively meshed and shared communication network. The resulting connectivity and the high number of interfaces require an in-depth security analysis as the systems also provide functions that are required for the safe operation of the aircraft. This network design evolution, however, resulted in an iterative and continuous adaption of existing network solutions as these have not been developed from scratch. Now, with the upcoming trend of data analytics and artificial intelligence applications, which demand for an extensive availability of data, holistic aircraft cabin networks are necessary to satisfy the associated requirements. For the development of such networks this paper proposes a…
 

Statistical Process Control combined with a digital datalake usage is a scalable & automatisable mean to help for civil aircraft production rate increase

Project Management-Bernard Pierre RIBERE
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1881
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Aeronautical Industry faces several key challenges as far as the transport of passengers requires more and more vehicles every year. In the area of air transport, civil aircraft deliveries and in service availability have reached in the past year numbers which were not expected at the moment when the production and support industry were built. Talking about manufacturing of civil aircrafts, it is then needed to think about adapting the currently existing systems to be able to cope with the challenges as far as rate of production and recurring costs are concerned. Airbus plans to regularly, on a smooth mode, accelerate its production system to fulfil market’s expectations, securing in the same time both the safety and the quality of our aircrafts. On another hand, the digital revolution which is in application within Airbus provides with solutions of data storage, sorting and analysis, with purpose of contributing in a more adequate usage of information that each and every aircraft that Airbus manufactures may carry with himself, whatever during its manufacturing as well as its in…
 

Intelligent Real Time Inspection of Rivet Quality supported by Human-Robot-Collaboration

PIKON Deutschland AG-Benjamin Duppe, Albert Schulz
ZeMA gGmbH-Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Tobias Masiak
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1886
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft production is facing various technical challenges, such as large product dimensions, complex joining processes and the organization of assembly tasks. Meeting the requirements that come with large dimensions, low tolerances and small batch sizes, in combination with complex joining processes, automation and labour-intensive inspection task, is often difficult to achieve in an economically viable way. ZeMA believes that a semi-automated approach is the most effective for optimizing aircraft section assembly. An effective optimization of aircraft production can be achieved with a semi-automated riveting process for solid rivets using Human-Robot-Collaboration in combination with an intuitive Human-Machine-Interaction operating concept. While using dynamic task sharing between human and robot based on their skills, and considering ergonomics, the determined ideal solution involves placing a robot inside the section barrel. The robot’s workspace is expanded by mounting it on top of a lifting unit so that it can properly position the anvil. In the meantime, the human performs the more complex tasks of inserting the solid rivets and operating the riveting hammer from the outside of the section barrel.…
 

Low cost, fireproof, and light aircraft interior

Sardou Societe Anonyme-Max Sardou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1857
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Low cost, fireproof, and light aircraft interior Fire is a dramatic issue in aircraft nowadays, especially with composite air crafts. An additional issue is the dangerous use of flammable Li-Ion batteries in a lot of appliances. we propose in order to avoid dramas to produce aircraft interiors, fire doors, cargo bay walls, as well than cargo container able to contain a fire inside them, with our ceramic composite called TOUGHCERAM ®. We have developed a low-cost, ceramic, damage tolerant, this ceramic is flexible between minus 100°C and plus 350°C. TOUGHCERAM ® poly-crystalize between 60°C and 110°C and can be reinforced with fibbers like carbon or basalt one. TOUGHCERAM ® survive 90 minutes to a propane 1900°C torches. TOUGHCERAM ® does not burn, nor smoke. In this paper we will explain how it is possible to develop a fully mineral ceramic offering such unique mechanical and fire properties.
 

Concept of Modular and Reconfigurable Electronic Warfare System (EWS) Suite

AIRBUS Helicopters-Davide Baccello
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1888
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
A new concept of standardized EWS suite is proposed in order to match the different operational needs and the several platform constrains. The idea is do have an EW controller, connected with the core mission able to manage and reconfigure the suite depending to the sub-systems selected for the specific integration w/o H/W changes (except for the sensors identified for the installation). The full suite has to be qualified for all the platform classes (most demanding has to be considered) in order to avoid re-qualification/certification activities each time that new installation is required. The level of modularity is depending to the requirements allocated to the EWS suite and/or to the operational needs. The EWS suite is managing passive and active (countermeasure) subsystems connected with the controller by serial standards. Electronic System Measurement (ESM), Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) and Laser Warning Receiver (LWR) are just few example of passive subsystems that can be supported by the Suite as for active like: Chaff and Flares Dispenser System (CFDS) and Direct IR Countermeasure System (DIRCM). Only one modular…