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SAE International Journal of Transportation Cybersecurity and Privacy

  • Journal
  • V128-11EJ
To be published on 2019-06-28 by SAE International in United States
This is the electronic format of the journal.

Design & Validation of Low-Cost Sound Intensity Probe

Michigan Technological University-Karan Gundre, Andrew Barnard
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1462
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Sound intensity measurement techniques, that used a two-microphone setup, were first developed in the late 1970s. Back then, the focus was on improving precision during testing or post-processing because the equipment available was inherently inaccurate. However, with the advent of modern, sophisticated equipment, the focus has shifted to the apparatus. Availability of phase-matched microphones has made post-test correction obsolete as the microphones eliminate a majority of the errors before the data is even collected. This accuracy, however, comes at a price, as phase-matched microphones are highly priced. This paper discusses employing the method of improving post-processing precision, using inexpensive, current equipment. The phase error of the system is corrected using a simple calibration technique and a handheld phase calibrator that is similar to the one used for amplitude calibration of microphones. The intensity probe is manufactured using rapid prototyping and the executable software that goes with the probe is designed in NI LabVIEW. The entire setup uses inexpensive parts to lower the cost and modern software to compensate for the errors due to these parts.…

Developing a Custom Data Acquisition Software Package for a Self-contained Acoustic Testing Facility

Kolano and Saha Engineers Inc-Sagar Patil, Pranab Saha
Kolano and Saha Engineers Inc.-Richard Kolano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1501
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper provides an overview of custom software developed for the sound generation, control and data acquisition of a self-contained acoustic testing facility system used for conducting random incidence sound absorption tests and sound transmission loss tests on small samples in accordance with SAE J2883 and J1400 standards, respectively. The paper discusses the thoughts behind developing user friendly algorithms and graphical user interfaces (GUI) for sound generation, control, data acquisition, and signal processing to obtain good data and precautions should there be any anomalies in the data.

A Non-Contact Technique for Vibration Measurement of Automotive Structures

Kettering University-Vanshaj Srivastava, Javad Baqersad
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1503
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The automotive and aerospace industries are increasingly using the light-weight material to improve the vehicle performance. However, using light-weight material can increase the airborne and structure-borne noise. A special attention needs to be paid in designing the structures and measuring their dynamics. Conventionally, the structure is excited using an impulse hammer or a mechanical shaker and the response is measured using uniaxial or multi-axial accelerometers to obtain the dynamics of the structure. However, using contact-based transducers can mass load the structure and provide data at a few discrete points. Hence, obtaining the true dynamics of the structure conventionally can be challenging. Thus, researchers and test engineers seek for non-contact measurement techniques that do not induce mass loading effects and provide full field response. In last decade, stereo-photogrammetry and three-dimensional digital image correlation have received special attention in collecting operating data for structural analysis. These non-contact optical techniques provide a wealth of distributed data over the entire structure. However, the stereo camera system is limited by its field of view of the cameras and can only…

Investigation and Improvement of a Bouncing Torsional Vibration in Automotive Dual Mass Flywheel by Combination of Testing and 1D CAE Modeling Approach

Doshisha University-Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Akihito Ito
EXEDY Corporation-Yoshihiro Yamakaji, Daisuke Yoshimoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1556
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF) is a well-known isolation system for vehicle drivetrain. There are two typical elastic energy storage systems for DMF i.e., long travel arc springs and in-series spring units including two or more springs and sliding shoes connected in series. DMF has a complex nonlinear characteristic such as torque-dependent torsional stiffness and rotational speed-dependent hysteresis friction due to its dependency of centrifugal force applied on components and radial force of springs. Because of this complexity, Subharmonic Vibration (SHV) may occur under a certain circumstance, such as under a light-load and high rotational conditions. In general, SHV frequency is 1/2 or 1/3 of combustion frequency of engine, and it may cause human discomfort. Therefore, it is important to design DMF robust against such nonlinear vibration. In this paper, in order to reduce the occurrence of SHV and to show a more robust design indicator, SHV causing mechanism is researched by test and 1D CAE modeling. In detail, DMF interior behavior in high-speed rotation is clear with high-speed cinematography on test bench, and high-resolution relative…

Assessment of Automotive Environmental Noise on Mobile Phone Hands Free Call Quality

FEV North America, Inc.-Jeffrey Pruetz, Channing Watson, Todd Tousignant, Kiran Govindswamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1597
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Environmental noises such as wind, road, powertrain, and HVAC are important aspects to consider when implementing a hands-free terminal for mobile phone calling. Traditionally these environmental noises have been exclusively considered for driver comfort, however, with the introduction of the hands-free terminals (HFT) and increasing consumer demand relative to mobile phone call quality, a broader implication of high background noise levels should be considered. HFT algorithm development and implementation can and does provide a high level of background noise suppression to mitigate these concerns, however, this is often done at the expense of computational power and cumulative delay during a phone call. A more advantageous solution would be to address the problem from a source and path perspective, however, this in itself is a challenging task and one that vehicle manufactures have and will continue to pursue as part of conventional vehicle development activities. The assessments shown throughout this paper establishes a sensitivity of HFT call quality to background noise levels, based on industry-standard metrics, including those defined by International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standards. This…

The Utilization of Onboard Sensor Measurements for Estimating Driveline Damping

Michigan Technological Univ-Jason Blough, DARRELL Robinette
Michigan Technological Univ.-Jon Furlich
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1529
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The proliferation of small silicon micro-chips has led to a large assortment of low cost transducers for data acquisition. Production vehicles on average exploit more than 60 on board sensors and that number is projected to increase beyond 200 by 2020 per vehicle. Such a large increase in sensors is leading the fourth industrial revolution of connectivity and autonomy. One major downfall to installing many sensors is compromises in their accuracy and processing power due to cost limitations for high volume production. The same common errors in data acquisition such as sampling, quantization, and multiplexing on the CAN bus must be accounted for when utilizing an entire array of vehicle sensors. A huge advantage of onboard sensors is the ability to calculate vehicle parameters during a daily drive cycle to update ECU calibration factors in real-time. One such parameter is driveline damping that changes with gear state and drive mode. A damping value is desired for every gear state and recent years has seen an increasing number of forward gear ratio’s ranging from 8-10 in…

Effect of Optimal Hypoid Gear Tooth Profile Modifications on Vehicle Axle System Dynamics

Chongqing University-Shouli SUN
Chongqing University of Technology-Weiqing Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1527
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The vehicle axle gear whine noise and vibration are key issues for the automotive industry to design a quiet, reliable driveline system. The main source of excitation for this vibration energy comes from hypoid gear transmission error (TE) and transmits through the flexible axle components, then radiates off from the surface of the housing structure. Thus, the design of hypoid gear pair with minimization of transmission error is one way to improve the dynamic behavior of the vehicle axle system. In this study, an approach to obtain minimum transmission error and improved dynamic response with optimal tooth profile modification parameters is discussed. A neural network algorithm, named Back Propagation (BP) algorithm, with improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to predict the transmission error if some tooth profile modification parameters are given to train the model. With the optimal Hypoid gear tooth profile modification, a system level analysis of vehicle axle system is performed to verify the improvement on dynamic response aiming at minimizing the transmission error. A case study of a Hypoid gear pair…

On the impact of next generation of automotive radio tuners on Active Noise Cancellation and Engine Sound Enhancement system capabilities

Müller-BBM Active Sound Technology GmbH-Stefan Kerber, Rolf Schirmacher PhD, Katharina Schmidt, Rita Reger
NXP Semiconductors-Qian Ni lng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1570
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Active Noise Cancellation and Engine Sound Enhancement nowadays are proven standard technologies for low frequency engine noise reduction and sound quality enhancement for conventional as well as modern electric and hybrid electric powertrains. They make use of audio system components to generate the required acoustical output to the vehicle interior. As these technologies define the acoustical character and attributes of the vehicle and its powertrain, their application and the resulting sound must not depend on the actual vehicle audio system level. Therefore, integration of these technologies within the vehicle head-unit, which is typically independent of the actual audio level, is a preferred solution to reduce overall system development and integration complexity. This integration strategy has been strongly supported by the inclusion of freely programmable, open DSP cores within radio tuner and audio SoCs as e.g. the NXP Dirana 3. Currently the next generation of such radio tuner and audio SoCs becomes available. They show significant changes on their open DSP cores which are used for ANC and ESE processing, including newer generation of DSP cores…

Power Electronic Noise - Simulation Measurement Comparison

AVL LIST GmbH-Markus Resch, Thomas Resch, Stephan Brandl
AVL Software and Functions Gmbh-Peter Olbrich, Hartwig Reindl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1451
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
A growing development of hybrid or fully electrical drives increase demand for accurate prediction of noise and vibration characteristic of electric and electronic components. This paper describes the numerical and experimental investigation of noise emission from power electronics, as a one of the new important noise sources in electric vehicles. Emitted noise from the printed circuit board (PCB) equipped with multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) is measured and used for calibration and validation of numerical model. Material properties are tuned using results from experimental modal analysis with special attention on orthotropic characteristic of PCB glass-reinforced epoxy laminate sheet (FR-4). Structural vibrations are calculated with commercial FEM solver with modal frequency response analysis. Sound radiation is simulated using the wave based approach. Simulation and experimental results are compared in frequency range up to 10 kHz. Developed simulation methodology can successfully identify the main noise sources from equipped PCB. Critical peak noise responses are identified both in experiment and simulation.