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SAE International Journal of Transportation Cybersecurity and Privacy

  • Journal
  • V128-11EJ
To be published on 2019-06-28 by SAE International in United States
This is the electronic format of the journal.

A Study on Control Logic Design for Power Seat

Hyundai Motor Co.-Misun Kwon, Taehoon Lee, Sangdo Park
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0466
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The large luxury sedan seats have a maximum movement of 22 way, each of which offers wide moving ranges from 30mm to 260mm. Although the mechanism provides a wide range of adjustments to enhance passenger comfort performance, the seat’s operating range is the largest and widest out of all moving parts of the interior components, facing many constraints on its movement in the constrained interior space. In addition, the power seat is operated by a motor, which makes it difficult for users to determine the amount of adjustment, unlike the manual seat adjustment that allows users to decide the adjustment scope according to their power and feeling. IMS, one-touch mode, is also constrained by parameters such as indoor space package, user's lifestyle, etc. during function playback. In this regard, this paper aims to design the seat control logic to achieve the best seat comfort while satisfying each constraint. This paper discusses constraints of power seat movement through seat control logic and methods to devise robust design of control logic. The results of this study are…

Driver’s response prediction using Naturalistic Data Set

Ohio State Univ-Dennis Guenther
Ohio State University-Venkata Raghava Ravi Lanka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0128
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Evaluating the safety of Autonomous Vehicles (AV) is a challenging problem, especially in traffic conditions involving dynamic interactions. A thorough evaluation of the vehicle's decisions at all possible critical scenarios is necessary for estimating and validating its safety. However, predicting the response of the vehicle to dynamic traffic conditions can be the first step in the complex problem of understanding vehicle's behavior. This predicted response of the vehicle can be used in validating vehicle's safety. In this paper, models based on Machine Learning were explored for predicting and classifying driver's response. The Naturalistic Driving Study dataset (NDS), which is part of the Strategic Highway Research Program-2 (SHRP2) was used for training and validating these Machine Learning models. Various popular Machine Learning Algorithms were used for classifying and predicting driver's response, such as Extremely Randomized Trees and Gaussian Mixture Model based Hidden Markov Model, which are widely used in multiple domains. For classifying driver's response, longitudinal acceleration vs lateral acceleration plot (Ax-Ay plot) was divided into nine different classes and selected Machine Learning models were trained…

Experiment Studies of Charging Strategy for Lithium-ion Batteries

Xuezhe Wei
Tongji Univ-Pei Yu, Haifeng Dai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0792
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Regarding the lithium-ion batteries used in the electric vehicle, charging time and charging efficiency are the concern of the public. In this paper, a lot of experiments were conducted to investigate the common charging strategies, including the CC-CV (constant current-constant voltage) charging and the pulse current charging, for the LiFepO4 batteries, which are still widely used in commercial vehicles. Charging temperature and the charging current in the CC phase are the main influence factors to be studied for the CC-CV charging strategy, and the contribution of CC phase and CV phase to the whole charging is analyzed from three aspects, including the time percent, charging energy efficiency and the capacity of battery at different temperatures and charging current.Regarding the pulse charging strategy, the pulse frequency is determined from the perspective of energy loss, then the experiments for pulse charging with different pulse mode, different duty cycle, as well as different charging temperature and charging current were conducted to study the characteristic of pulse charging.In order to eliminate the battery polarization, we optimized the charging current…

Experimental PEM-Fuel Cell Range Extender System Operation and Parameter Influence Analysis

Vienna University of Technology-Johannes Höflinger, Peter Hofmann, Bernhard Geringer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0378
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Fuel cells as alternative propulsion systems in vehicles can achieve higher driving ranges and shorter refueling times compared to pure battery-electric vehicles, while maintaining the local zero-emission status. However, to take advantage of pure battery electric travel, an externally rechargeable battery can be combined with a fuel cell range extender. As part of a project funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG), an efficient air supply system for a fuel cell range extender is being developed. To this end, a 25 kW PEM fuel cell system test bench was set up at the Institute for Powertrains and Automotive Technology (IFA) of the Vienna University of Technology. The different parameter influences of the test bench, in particular of the air supply system, were analyzed and evaluated in terms of stack/system efficiency and functionality. The control software of the test bench was specifically developed for the flexible operating parameter variation. All adjustable variables of the system (air ratio, stack temperature, pressure, etc.) were varied and evaluated at steady-state operating points. Likewise, the system was analyzed during…

Evaluation of Navigation in Mobile Robots for Long-Term Autonomy in Automotive Manufacturing Environments

Clemson University - ICAR-Jasprit Singh Gill, Mark Tomaszewski, Yunyi Jia, Pierluigi Pisu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0505
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Thus far, the focus of autonomous mobile robot researchers has been primarily on developing the functionality and optimizing its performance. In recent times, a number of reference implementations of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) and navigation techniques have been made publicly available via the ROS Community. Several implementations have transitioned to commercial products (vacuum robots, drones, warehouse robots, etc.). However, in such cases, in being specialized and optimized for their specific domains of deployment, they became a “black box”. In particular, their success criteria have been based primarily on mission completion and safety of humans around them. In this light, deployment in any new operational design domain (ODD) requires at least a careful verification of performance and often re-optimization. We seek the technological gaps that need to be addressed to ensure the mobile robots are fit for automotive manufacturing environments. Automotive final assembly environments pose significant additional challenges for mobile robot deployment. They are replete with relatively unstructured tasks with significant uncertainty, involve tasks with skills that require robots to work in collaboration with humans…

A Framework for Vision-Based Lane Line Detection in Adverse Weather Conditions Using Vehicle-To-Infrastructure (V2I) Communication

Oakland University-Modar Horani, Osamah Rawashdeh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0684
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Lane line detection is a very critical element for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Although, there has been significant amount of research dedicated to the detection and localization of lane lines in the past decade, there is still a gap in the robustness of the implemented systems. A major challenge to the existing lane line detection algorithms stems from coping with bad weather conditions (e.g. rain, snow, fog, haze, etc.). Snow offers an especially challenging environment, where lane marks and road boundaries are completely covered by snow. In these scenarios, on-board sensors such as cameras, LiDAR, and radars are of very limited benefit. In this research, the focus is on solving the problem of improving robustness of lane line detection in adverse weather conditions, especially snow. A framework is proposed that relies on using Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication to access reference images stored in the cloud. These reference images were captured at approximately the same geographical location when visibility was clear and weather conditions were good. The reference images are used to detect and localize lane…

Evaluation of Different ADAS Features in Vehicle Displays

Univ of Michigan-Dearborn-Pranove Bandi, Sang-Hwan Kim
Univ. of Michigan-Dearborn-Abhishek Mosalikanti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1006
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
With ever-rising automotive safety standards, automotive manufacturers have been pushing towards improving occupant safety and convenience by adding sophistication to vehicles using ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems). Recent developments in the industry have been towards adding additional display systems to work in collaboration with the aforementioned ADAS systems to educate the passengers on vehicle status and information. The current study presents the results of an experiment on driver performance including reaction time, eye-attention movement, mental workload, and subjective preference when different features of ADAS warnings (Forward Collision Warning) are displayed, including different locations (HDD (Head-Down Display) vs HUD (Head-Up Display)), modality of warning (text vs. pictographic), and a new concept that provides a dynamic birds eye view for warnings. Sixteen normal drivers drove a high-fidelity driving simulator integrated with display prototypes of the features. A full factorial between subject design was employed in the experiment. Independent variables were displayed as modality, location, and adjustability of the warnings with driver performance as the dependent variable including driver reaction time to the warning, EORT (Eyes-Off-Road-Time) during braking…

Automated Vehicle Disengagement Reaction Time Compared to Human Reaction Times in Both Automobile and Motorcycle Operation

Dynamic Analysis Group LLC-Jeffrey T. Dinges, Nicholas J. Durisek
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1010
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous Vehicle Disengagement Reports have been published by the California Department of Motor Vehicles since 2015. Some of the autonomous control system manufacturers and vehicle manufacturers provide information that includes the time that it takes for a human driver to take manual control of the vehicle when reporting on vehicle disengagements. This study compares the reported autonomous vehicle operation disengagement reaction time to field literature in testing and experimentation on human reaction times for both automobile and motorcycle operation. The study will address the types of autonomous vehicle disengagements that occurred during the collection along with the understood conditions that surround the disengagement. It will also address how autonomous vehicle disengagements and general human perception and reaction performance influences autonomous vehicle operation.

Comparison of Particulate Emissions of a Range Extended Electric Vehicle under Different Energy Management Strategies

Tongji Univ-Yaxin Wang, Diming Lou, Ning Xu, Piqiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1189
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Range extended electric vehicles achieve significant reductions in fuel consumption by employing as an energy source a small displacement combustion engine that is optimized for high efficiency at one, or a few, operating points. The present paper examines the impact of various energy management strategies on the particulate emissions from the auxiliary power unit (APU) of a range extended electric bus, including optimized auxiliary power unit (APU) on/off strategy, single-point strategy, two-point strategy, power-following strategy and equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). In addition, this paper also compares the particulate emissions of single energy storage system and composite energy storage system on single-point energy management strategy. The main conclusions in this paper are as follows: After optimizing the APU on/off strategy, the APU starts and stops frequently to make the cylinder temperature relatively low, which results in the reductions of both the particle mass (PM) and the particle number (PN). The application of two-point strategy and power-following strategy maximizes the output power of high load, and then the particulate emission presents significant increasing. With the…