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SAE International Journal of Transportation Cybersecurity and Privacy

  • Journal
  • V129-11EJ
To be published on 2020-06-30 by SAE International in United States
This is the electronic format of the journal.
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Heat Pumps for BEVs: Architectures and Performance Analysis

Centro Ricerche Fiat SCpA-Walter Ferraris, Federica Bettoja, Mauro Casella, Matteo Rostagno, Angela Tancredi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0030
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Electric vehicles have never been more popular, yet fears around being left stranded by an exhausted battery remain a key reason why some car buyers resist making a purchase. Bigger batteries are not always the solution because of the direct link with higher costs and high impact on weight. A re-engineering of the most energy-consuming auxiliaries is mandatory and the thermal management function is on top of the redesign request list. Heat Pump solution is considered one of the best way to save energy and reduce the impact on vehicle range of heating and cooling function, but the automotive application requires a careful definition of the system features to avoid unjustified growing up of complexity as well as an unneeded system over-sizing. The paper aims to give an overview on the heat pump design best practices through a virtual performance comparison of different lay-out configurations, which have been selected starting from a benchmark analysis crossed with a detailed vehicle segment-oriented functions selection. Control strategies role, costs, and target requirements have been used as drivers for…
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Investigation on the Dynamic Behaviour of a Torque Transmission Chain for an Innovative Hybrid Power Unit Architecture

Università degli Studi di Modena-Valerio Mangeruga, Matteo Giacopini, Saverio Barbieri, Michele Russo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0013
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In this contribution, the mechanical torque transmission between the Elecrtic Motor (EM) and the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) of a P0 architecture hybrid power unit is analysed. In particular, the system is made up of a brand new, single-cylinder 480cc engine developed on the basis of the Ducati "959 Superquadro" V90 2-cylinders engine. The thermal engine is assisted by a custom electric motor (30 kW), powered by a Li-Ion battery pack. The Ducati "959 Superquadro" engine is chosen because of its high power-to-weight ratio, and for taking advantage of its V90 2-cylinders layout. In fact, the vertical engine head is removed and it is replaced by the electric motor directly engaged to the crankshaft using the original valvetrain transmission chain, thus achieving a very compact package. This solution could be suitable for many V-type engines and aims to obtain a small hybrid power unit for possible motorcycle/small vehicle applications. The original timing chain object of this study is a silent chain, which is commonly employed as a transmission component in hybrid power unit because it…
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Multitarget Evaluation of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain Architectures considering Fuel Economy and Battery Lifetime

McMaster University-Phillip Kollmeyer, Ali Emadi
Politecnico di Torino-Pier Giuseppe Anselma, Giovanni Belingardi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0015
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) powertrains are characterized by a complex design environment as a result of both the large number of possible layouts and the need for dedicated energy management strategies. When selecting the most suitable hybrid powertrain architecture at early design stage of HEVs, engineers usually focus on fuel economy (directly linked to tailpipe emissions) and vehicle drivability performance solely. However, high voltage batteries are a crucial component of HEVs as well in terms of performance and cost. This paper introduces a multitarget assessment framework for HEV powertrain architectures which considers both fuel economy and battery lifetime. A multi-objective formulation of dynamic programming is initially presented as off-line optimal HEV energy management strategy capable of predicting both fuel economy performance and battery lifetime of HEV powertrain layout options. Subsequently, three different HEV powertrain architectures are considered as test cases for the developed HEV assessment methodology including parallel P2, series-parallel P1P2 and power-split layouts. A comparison of numerical results for the three HEV powertrain test cases is then performed in terms of optimal fuel economy…
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Energy Management for Electric Vehicle Application: Energy Demand for Cabin Comfort

FCA Italy S.p.A.-Antonio Tarzia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0031
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The rapid development of CO2 reduction policies pushes an equivalent effort by the OEM to design and produce Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) in order to lower the global CO2 emission of its fleet. The main effort has been done primarily to the electric traction architecture (electric traction motor and battery energy storage). Anyway, the BEV autonomy range is still a weak point and this is even more critical when the customer operates the air conditioning system to reach and maintain the cabin comfort. The aim of this work is to present how the cabin design have to evolve in order to allow the reduction of the energy demand by the Air conditioning system allowing the vehicle to increase the autonomy range.
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Next-Generation Refrigerant and Air Conditioner System Choice for Internal Combustion, Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Presentation Only) by Stephen O. Andersen, Jiangping Chen, Sourav Chowdhury, Tim Craig, Walter Ferraris, Jianxin Hu, Sangeet Kapoor, Carloandrea Malvicino, Prasanna Nagarhalli, Nancy J. Sherman, and Kristen N. Taddonio

Centro Ricerche Fiat SCpA-Walter Ferraris
FCA ITALY S.p.A.-Carloandrea Malvicino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0029
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
With the passage of Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol in 2016, HFC-134a will need to be phased down in all markets worldwide due to its high global warming potential (GWP=1300). Meanwhile, global adoption of electric vehicles is accelerating. Improved MAC and heat pump efficiency is critically important to extend vehicle range. Engineers must design MAC and heat pump systems using low-GWP refrigerants that are simultaneously cost-effective, energy efficient, safe, reliable, affordable for consumers, and able to provide both cooling and heating of the cabin and thermal management of vehicle components like power electronics and batteries. This is a challenging and complex task. Fortunately, solutions are available, but they may diverge from traditional direct expansion systems of the past. This paper: 1) documents the global history and market status of the development of alternatives to HFC-134a, including secondary-loop (SL-MAC) systems; 2) outlines the existing and expected regulations demanding low-GWP MAC refrigerant and high fuel efficiency; 3) explains the importance of comprehensive LCCP analysis when evaluating MAC climate impacts instead of focusing on only one component…
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On-Board Post-Combustion CO2 Capture in Light-Duty and Heavy-Duty transport

Politecnico di Milano-Davide Bonalumi, Stefano Campanari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0012
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The European Union set the CO2 emission limit in the transport sector that will decrease in the next years. The purpose of this work is to assess through technical analysis, a system that captures part of the CO2 from the exhaust gases of duty vehicles. Two distinct categories of vehicles are considered, those with a mass lower than 3.5 tons and those with a higher mass. For the light-duty category, the analysis is developed estimating the consumptions and emissions based on the WLTP homologation cycle by means of the software Excel. For the heavy-duty category, the consumptions and the emissions are determined by means of the software specifically developed by the European Union for heavy-duty vehicles named VECTO (Vehicle Energy Consumption calculation Tool). From a literature review, different technologies are considered. The most suitable technology is selected. A possible way is based on the adsorption through the metal-organic framework (MOF). A dedicated review to select the most promising material indicates which can assure the best performance. The performances are evaluated based on the features of…
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Pixelated-LEDs Car Headlight Design for Smart Driving and CO2 Reduced Emissions.

University of Versailles-Sidahmed Beddar, Jean-Baptiste Millet, Yasser Alayli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0018
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The advent of Electroluminescent Diode (LED) technologies has been one of the major sources of energy reduction in the domestic lighting sector as well as in the automotive and aerospace fields. In vehicles, the use of LEDs allows a reduction of 110W to 40W useful for the function Dipped-beam is a gain of about 350W in energy consumption of the vehicle with a combustion engine (from 2 to 5g of CO2 per kilometer). In 2010, Adaptive Dipped Beam (ADB (also called glare-free high beam) appeared. The objective of the ADB is to adapt the beam to the presence of vehicles in both directions to improve the driver's long-range visibility without causing discomfort, distraction or glare to other road users. The ADB is a lighting function with high added value in terms of comfort and road safety. The new lighting technologies make this function more and more efficient and effective with a resolution and the number of pixels that increases Pixelated LEDs, by offering various advantages over other architectures, are gaining market shares. They are more…
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A Detailed Finite Element Thermal Analysis of a 18650 Format Battery Cell for Automotive Applications

University of Modena and Reggio Emilia-Saverio Giulio Barbieri, Valerio Mangeruga, Dario Cusati, Matteo Giacopini, Francesco Cicci
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0022
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a methodology for the thermal analysis of a cylindrical Li-Ion battery cell. In particular, the 18650 format is considered. First, an electrical current drain cycle is applied to measure the electrical internal resistance of the cell and to estimate the consequent thermal energy release. A battery cell is then dissected and the inner structure is reproduced in detail with the adoption of microscopic images. By this way, the heat generation areas and the different thermal paths are correctly identified. Thermal Finite Element analyses are performed faithfully reproducing the inner geometry of the cell, and different cooling strategies are compared. The numerical results are then validated versus experimental evidence obtained considering the thermal behaviour of a small section, made by three cells, of a water cooled battery pack. The proposed approach can drive the design process towards more efficient battery pack cooling strategies. The numerical model may be then applied to perform thermo-structural analyses and, consequently, structural failures of the battery cells might be predicted.
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A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of the Coulomb Counting Method and Estimation of the Electrified-Vehicles Electricity Balance Over the WLTP

European Commission Joint Research-Alessandro Tansini, Georgios Fontaras
Politecnico di Torino-Federico Millo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0020
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The energy storage devices of electrified vehicles (Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicles) are required to operate with highly dynamic current and power outputs, both for charging and discharging operation. When calculating the vehicle CO2 emissions and electrical energy consumption from a trip, the change in electrical energy content at vehicle-level has to be accounted for. This quantity, referred to as the electricity balance in the WLTP regulation, is normally obtained through a time-integration of the current or power supplied by the vehicle batteries during operation and the efficiency factor is often assumed to be unitary (as in the official type-approval procedure). The Joint Research Centre has collected experimental data from different electrified vehicles with regards to electrical energy use and battery State Of Charge (SOC) profile; the latter was used as a reference to quantify the actual vehicle electricity balance from a trip or driving cycle. In this work, the approach of using a simple Coulomb counting method with unitary efficiency for charging and discharging for the quantification of the vehicle electricity balance…