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Interiors, Cabins, and Cockpits
Head-up displays
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Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems (HVAC)
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Identification of Automotive Cabin Design Parameters to Increase Electric Vehicles Range, Coupling CFD-Thermal Analyses with Design for Six Sigma Approach

FCA ITALY S.p.A.-Andrea Alessandro Piovano, Giuseppe Scantamburlo, Massimo Quaglino, Matteo Gautero
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0032
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The ongoing global demand for greater energy efficiency plays an essential role in the vehicle development, especially in case of electric vehicles (EVs). The thermal management of the full vehicle is becoming increasingly important, since the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system has a significant impact on the EV range. Therefore the EV design requires new guidelines for thermal management optimization. In this paper, an advanced method is proposed to identify the most influential cabin design factors which affect the cabin thermal behavior during a cool down drive cycle in hot environmental conditions. These parameters could be optimized to reduce the energy consumption and to increase the robustness of the vehicle thermal response. The structured Taguchi’s Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach was coupled with CFD-Thermal FE simulations, thanks to increased availability of HPC. The first control factors selected were related to the thermal capacity of panel duct, dashboard, interior door panels and seats. Surface IR emissivity and solar radiation absorptivity of these components were then added to the study. Car glass with absorptive…
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Heat Pumps for BEVs: Architectures and Performance Analysis

Centro Ricerche Fiat SCpA-Walter Ferraris, Federica Bettoja, Mauro Casella, Matteo Rostagno, Angela Tancredi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0030
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Electric vehicles have never been more popular, yet fears around being left stranded by an exhausted battery remain a key reason why some car buyers resist making a purchase. Bigger batteries are not always the solution because of the direct link with higher costs and high impact on weight. A re-engineering of the most energy-consuming auxiliaries is mandatory and the thermal management function is on top of the redesign request list. Heat Pump solution is considered one of the best way to save energy and reduce the impact on vehicle range of heating and cooling function, but the automotive application requires a careful definition of the system features to avoid unjustified growing up of complexity as well as an unneeded system over-sizing. The paper aims to give an overview on the heat pump design best practices through a virtual performance comparison of different lay-out configurations, which have been selected starting from a benchmark analysis crossed with a detailed vehicle segment-oriented functions selection. Control strategies role, costs, and target requirements have been used as drivers for…
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Simulation of Driving Cycles by Means of a Co-Simulation Framework for the Prediction of IC Engine Tailpipe Emissions

Exothermia SA-Vasileios Tziolas, Nikolaos Zingopis
Politecnico di Milano-Gianluca Montenegro, Angelo Onorati, Gianluca D'Errico, Tarcisio Cerri, Andrea Marinoni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0011
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The current European legislation concerning pollutant emissions from IC engine vehicles is very stringent and demanding. In addition, the CO2 fleet emission must obey to a significant reduction path during the next decade, to cope with the prescribed targets recently agreed. The prediction of pollutant emissions from IC engines has been a challenge since the introduction of the emission regulation legislation. During the last decade, along with the more tightening limits and increased public concern about air quality, the capability of simulating different operating conditions and driving cycles with an acceptable computational effort has become a key feature for modern simulation codes. The role of 1D thermo-fluid dynamic simulation models is extremely important to achieve this task, in order to investigate the performances of the next generation of IC engines working over a wide range of operating conditions, under steady-state and transient conditions. This work is based on the idea of integrating two different 1D simulation tools in a co-simulation environment, realizing a strict numerical coupling between the two codes. The main goal is to…
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The Virtual Engine Development for Enhancing the Compression Ratio of DISI-Engines by Means of Water Injection and Variable Valve Timing

FKFS-Antonino Vacca, Francesco Cupo, Marco Chiodi, Michael Bargende
Ford Werke GmbH-Oliver Berkemeier, Maziar Khosravi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0010
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
With the aim of significantly reducing emissions, while keeping CO2 production under control, gasoline engines are faced with a new challenge to survive the constraints imposed by the RDE cycles. Current downsized engines are developed with the most recent techniques for increasing efficiency, such as high direct injection pressure, selective valve actuation, variable turbine geometry, and innovative thermal management system. The factor limiting their further step towards enhanced efficiency is the onset of abnormal combustion process. Therefore the challenge for the further boost of modern engine efficiency is the improvement of the combustion process. Different combustion technics such as HCCI and the employment of pre-chamber have been investigated, but the possibility of effectively use them in a wide range of the engine map, by fulfilling at the same time the needing of fast load control are still limiting their dissemination. For these reasons the technologies for improving the characteristics of a standard combustion process are still deeply investigated. Among these water injection in combination with either early or late intake valve closing offers the possibility…
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Impact of Thermal Management of the Three-Way Catalyst on the Energy Efficiency of a P2 Gasoline FHEV

Università del Salento-Marco Benegiamo, Andrea Valletta, Antonio Carlucci
Università di Roma Tor Vergata-Vincenzo Mulone
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0019
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline Full Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FHEVs) are recognized as a cost-effective solution to comply with upcoming emissions legislation. However, several studies have highlighted that frequent start-and-stops worsen the HC tail-pipe emissions, especially when the light-off temperature of the three-way catalyst (TWC) has not been reached. In fact, strategies only addressing the minimization of fuel consumption tend to delay engine activation and hence TWC warming, especially during urban driving. Goal of the present research is therefore to develop an on-line powertrain management strategy accounting also for TWC temperature, in order to reduce the time needed to reach TWC light-off temperature. A catalyst model is incorporated into the model of the powertrain where torque-split is performed by an adaptive equivalent consumption minimization strategy (A-ECMS). The developed A-ECMS operates on a domain of power-split combinations between electric machine and internal combustion engine, which, aside from satisfying the torque demand, also ensure a controlled ICE torque derivative as well as a controlled ICE start-and-stop frequency. Hence, the algorithm which is extended for TWC thermal management, incorporates a penalty on…
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Energy Management for Electric Vehicle Application: Energy Demand for Cabin Comfort

FCA Italy S.p.A.-Antonio Tarzia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0031
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The rapid development of CO2 reduction policies pushes an equivalent effort by the OEM to design and produce Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) in order to lower the global CO2 emission of its fleet. The main effort has been done primarily to the electric traction architecture (electric traction motor and battery energy storage). Anyway, the BEV autonomy range is still a weak point and this is even more critical when the customer operates the air conditioning system to reach and maintain the cabin comfort. The aim of this work is to present how the cabin design have to evolve in order to allow the reduction of the energy demand by the Air conditioning system allowing the vehicle to increase the autonomy range.
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Next-Generation Refrigerant and Air Conditioner System Choice for Internal Combustion, Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Presentation Only) by Stephen O. Andersen, Jiangping Chen, Sourav Chowdhury, Tim Craig, Walter Ferraris, Jianxin Hu, Sangeet Kapoor, Carloandrea Malvicino, Prasanna Nagarhalli, Nancy J. Sherman, and Kristen N. Taddonio

Centro Ricerche Fiat SCpA-Walter Ferraris
FCA ITALY S.p.A.-Carloandrea Malvicino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0029
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
With the passage of Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol in 2016, HFC-134a will need to be phased down in all markets worldwide due to its high global warming potential (GWP=1300). Meanwhile, global adoption of electric vehicles is accelerating. Improved MAC and heat pump efficiency is critically important to extend vehicle range. Engineers must design MAC and heat pump systems using low-GWP refrigerants that are simultaneously cost-effective, energy efficient, safe, reliable, affordable for consumers, and able to provide both cooling and heating of the cabin and thermal management of vehicle components like power electronics and batteries. This is a challenging and complex task. Fortunately, solutions are available, but they may diverge from traditional direct expansion systems of the past. This paper: 1) documents the global history and market status of the development of alternatives to HFC-134a, including secondary-loop (SL-MAC) systems; 2) outlines the existing and expected regulations demanding low-GWP MAC refrigerant and high fuel efficiency; 3) explains the importance of comprehensive LCCP analysis when evaluating MAC climate impacts instead of focusing on only one component…
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A CFD Model of Supercritical Water Injection for ICEs as Energy Recovery System

University of Basilicata-Antonio Cantiani, Annarita Viggiano, Vinicio Magi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0001
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Supercritical water injection for ICEs may be a valid option to recover engine wall heat transfer and energy from exhaust gases, with benefits in terms of efficiency and performances. Water is recovered from exhaust gases and is brought up to supercritical conditions by employing the waste heat during engine operations. A preliminary study of this energy recovery approach has already been performed in an authors’ previous work, by employing a port fuel injection (PFI) internal combustion engine quasi-dimensional model, which has been validated against experimental data, returning satisfactory results in terms of overall efficiency gain. In this work, in order to obtain a more reliable and accurate evaluation of the achievable energy recovery with supercritical water injection, a multidimensional CFD model of the engine has been set and validated. As regards the engine geometry, a simplified axial symmetric engine has been used, in order to reduce the computational time and storage. The combustion has been modelled with an ECFM model using an 88-species and 349-reactions chemical kinetics mechanism, in order to evaluate the pollutant emissions…
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Vehicle Interior Sound Quality Dynamic Objective Evaluation Inidex Analysis

Jilin University-Xiaolin Cao, Jiankun Yuan, Si Sun, Jing Chen
Jilin University Automotive Engrg Colleg-Dengfeng Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1544
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The studies pertaining to vehicle interior sound quality have been gaining popularity in the last couple of decades. The vehicle subjective assessment and objective measurement are two hot research spots of this research field. For the objective evaluation, the traditional indexes that most researches used were based on a short time stationary assumption. However, when the vehicle is running, the interior sound environment is a dynamic processing. It is inconsistent with the assumption obviously. In this paper, the standard deviation and the range of several traditional psychoacoustic indexes were introduced as dynamic objective evaluation indexes to reflect the volatility and fluctuation range of these indexes. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these dynamic objective evaluation indexes, some subjective evaluation indexes were chosen as reference parameters. Then we compared the importance degrees between the proposed dynamic objective indexes and some traditional objective evaluation indexes to the reference parameters based on the rough set theory. After the analysis, ranks of importance degree were obtained. The results are helpful to find suitable dynamic objective indexes as necessary…
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Asian Consumers Challenging the NVH Performance of European Cars – Implications on the Product Development in the 2020ies

MAGNA STEYR Automotive Technologies-Paulo Padilha
NVH Experts-Christoph Fankhauser
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1552
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Sales of SUV and luxury cars on the largest market of the world – China – are growing at a high rate. The highways in large cities like Beijing or Shanghai are increasingly populated with cars from all over the world like Japan, USA, Europe and Korea and even some refined domestic brands. More than 10 million rich people can afford those cars and are skilled drivers. This huge group of potential consumers is targeted by luxury brand OEMs and by startup companies. It has been understood, that these people have a strong attitude towards comfort. The twistbeam rear axle was replaced by multilink, double clutch transmissions were improved by comfort-mode drive programs, interior trims raised to Western standard performance levels, tyres specially developed for comfort in China, localized insulation materials and packages engineered to a one vehicle class higher level. The European avant-garde is capable of such high levels of complete vehicle NVH performance, whereas premium brands often compromise NVH with respect to high vehicle dynamics performance and passive safety requirements. At the same…