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Introduction to Control Volume Based Transient Thermal Limit

Army Corps Of Engineers-Mark Bodie
PC Krause & Associates-Rodney Yeu, Tim Deppen, Brian Raczkowski, Nicholas Jones, Eric Walters
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0039
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Advancement in modern aircraft with the development of more dynamic and efficient technologies has led to these technologies increasingly operated near or at their operation limits. More comprehensive analysis methods based on high-fidelity models co-simulated in an integrated environment are needed to support the full utilization of these advanced technologies. Furthermore, the additional information provided by these new analyses needs to be correlated with updates to traditional metrics and specifications. One such case is the thermal limit requirement that sets the upper bound on a thermal system temperature. Traditionally, this bound is defined based on steady-state conditions. However, advanced thermal management systems experience dynamic events where the temperature is not static and may violate steady-state requirements for brief periods of time. Due to the large thermal time constants for many components, such transient violations may not represent system failure and an understanding of transient temperature limits is beneficial. To meet this need, this paper introduces the transient thermal limit via control volume representation. Instead of a constant thermal limit, the transient thermal limit approach generates…
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A MATLAB Simulink Based Co-Simulation Approach for Vehicle Systems Model Integration

Army Corps Of Engineers-Mark Bodie
PC Krause & Associates-Brian C. Raczkowski, Nicholas Jones, Tim Deppen, Charles Lucas, Rodney Yeu, Eric Walters
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0005
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a MATLAB-Simulink based general co-simulation approach is presented which supports multi-resolution simulation of distributed models in an integrated architecture. This approach was applied to simulating aircraft thermal performance in our Vehicle Systems Model Integration (VSMI) framework. A representative advanced aircraft thermal management system consisting of an engine, engine fuel thermal management system, aircraft fuel thermal management system and a power and thermal management system was used to evaluate the advantages and tradeoffs in using a co-simulation approach to system integration modeling. For a system constituting of multiple interacting sub-systems, an integrated model architecture can rapidly, and cost effectively address technology insertions and system evaluations. Utilizing standalone sub-system models with table-based boundary conditions often fails to effectively capture dynamic subsystem interactions that occurs in an integrated system. Additionally, any control adjustments, model changes or technology insertions that are applied to any one of the connecting subsystems requires iterative updates to the boundary conditions. When evaluating a large set of trade studies, the number of boundary condition models and time to generate these models…
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Evaluation of On-board Heat Loss Prediction Model and Polytropic Index Prediction Model for CI Engines Using Measurements of Combustion Chamber Wall Heat Flux

Sophia University-Mitsuhisa Ichiyanagi, Zhiyuan Liu, Haoyu Chen, Koki Asano, Koki Otsubo, Emir Yilmaz, Takashi Suzuki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0543
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Diesel engines need to optimize the fuel injection timing and quantity of each cycle in the transient operation to increase the thermal efficiency and reduce the exhaust gas emissions through the precise combustion control. The heat transfer from the working gas in the combustion chamber to the chamber wall is a crucial factor to predict the gas temperature in the combustion chamber to optimize the timing and quantity of fuel injection. Therefore, the authors developed both the heat loss and the polytropic index prediction models with the low calculation load and high accuracy. In addition, for the calculation of the heat loss and the polytropic index, the wall heat transfer model was also developed, which was derived from the continuity equation and the energy equation. The present study used a single cylinder diesel engine under the condition of engine speed of 1200 and 1500 rpm, and measured the local wall temperature and the local heat flux of the combustion chamber. The measured data were compared with the prediction results of the heat loss and the…
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Improvement of On-board In-cylinder Gas Flow Model and Wall Heat Transfer Prediction Model for CI Engines Using CFD Analysis and PIV Measurements under Motoring and Firing Conditions

Sophia University-Mitsuhisa Ichiyanagi, Gerard Ndizeye, Yuji Sawamura, Reina Saito, Kotaro Takahashi, Koki Otsubo, Haoyu Chen, Suzuki Takashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0542
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
For the improvement of the transient driving performance and the thermal efficiency for diesel engines, it is effective to control the fuel injection by model-based control (MBC) on ECU with cycle-by-cycle calculation, and MBC requires six models; gas flow, spray development, mixture formation, combustion, ignition delay, and heat loss. The authors previously developed on-board in-cylinder gas flow and wall heat transfer prediction models to estimate the heat loss. However, the developed gas flow model has an undetermined coefficient called the turbulence intensity coefficient (TIC), which significantly influences the prediction accuracy of the wall heat transfer prediction model. The present study improved the gas flow model and the wall heat transfer prediction model by applying TICs obtained using the PIV and CFD analysis. In-cylinder gas flow in an optical single-cylinder diesel engine was measured by PIV under both motoring and firing conditions, and TICs were calculated and applied to the wall heat transfer prediction model. The heat flux values obtained from the model were compared with those from the experiments using heat flux sensors. It was…
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Oxygen Cylinder Quality, Serviceability, Maintenance Transfilling, and Marking

A-10 Aircraft Oxygen Equipment Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1059F
  • Current
Published 2020-01-17 by SAE International in United States

This document provides guidance concerning the maintenance and serviceability of oxygen cylinders beginning with the quality of oxygen that is required, supplemental oxygen information, handling and cleaning procedures, transfilling, and marking of serviced oxygen assemblies. This document attempts to outline in a logical sequence oxygen quality, serviceability, and maintenance of oxygen cylinders. Content of this document can also be used for refilling of oxygen cylinder while installed on aircraft, directly or through an intermediate charging port.

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Accelerated Exposure of Automotive Interior Trim Materials Using Outdoor Under-Glass Controlled Sun-Tracking Temperature and Humidity Apparatus

Textile and Flexible Plastics Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2230_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-15 by SAE International in United States

This SAE standard specifies operating procedure for the exposure of automotive interior trim materials in an outdoor behind-glass apparatus in which the temperature is controlled in a 24 hour cycle. The humidity is controlled during the dark (night) portion of the cycle.

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A Coupled Approach Using CFD and FEA Solution for Solving the Cooling of Automotive Disk Brake

Siemens Industry Software-Joel Sanvezzo Junior, Douglas Dutra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0012
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The cooling efficiency of automotive disk brakes comprises an important area of development, since the system performance is directly related to the overheating level that is being achieved during the braking period. The heat generation occurs during the conversion of kinetic energy into heat. After this process, it is crucial an effective thermal dissipation in order to assure the decay of temperature levels. Such thermal dissipation results mainly from the interaction of the brake components with the external airflow in the wheel arch, where there are the occurrence of heat transfer mechanisms including conduction, convection and radiation. In this sense, through the application of simulation models, it is possible to predict the thermal- structural behavior by combining solutions in the fluid dynamics and structural areas. In this work, a one-way fluid-structure approach is proposed by combining conventional CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) and FEA (Finite Element Analysis) models. The CFD modeling aim to solve the disk brake cooling during the airflow passage in the wheel arch and its interaction with the brake components. The FEA modeling…
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Finned surfaces in air-cooled internal combustion engine: influence of geometry and flow conditions

Federal Institute of Espírito Santo - IFES-Gomes C. L., Arruda C. A. M., Sian J. G. A, Schaeffer L. C., Favalessa L. B., Monhol F. A. F.
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0160
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The internal combustion engine cooling is very important to its proper functioning, since high temperatures can shorten the durability of internal components and hence increase fuel consumption. In air-cooled engines it is common to use extended surfaces (fins), which provide an increase in the convective and radiative heat exchange. Thus, the present work investigates the phenomenon of convection between the external air and the motor casing through computational simulations. The finite differences method was applied for two fin geometry (annular and rectangular). The temperature distribution and the heat transfer rate in the fin were obtained for different ambient temperatures (20 - 40 °C) and flow rates (0 - 25 m/s). The analysis was based on a typical 150-cylinder motorcycle engine with fins made of 204-aluminum alloy. It was observed that under zero flow conditions and ambient temperature of 30 °C there was a temperature gradient of 38.49 °C on the annular fins and only 7.76 °C on the rectangular ones. For forced convection conditions (at 25 m / s) the gradient on the annular fins…
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Pulsating Heat Pipe Automotive Application

Magneti Marelli Sistemas Automotivos, Universidade Estadual-Rafael Beicker Barbosa de Oliveira, Sergio Gradella Villalva, Luiz Paulo Rodrigues Filho, Fernando Luiz Windlin, Guilherme Henrique Mayer Alegre, Rogério Gonçalves do Santos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0227
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
It is proposed a study to evaluate PHP (pulsating heat pipes) device application in battery thermal management systems for HEV (hybrid-electric vehicle) and EV (electric vehicle). Firstly, it is necessary to understanding Li-ion (lithium ion) batteries for HEV/EV, the electrical energy supply state-of-the-art. The analyzed aspects were battery framework and configuration; working principles and mechanisms; and market penetration and potential. Secondly, the adverse effects of temperature over such batteries were discussed. After understanding the case study, a battery modeling survey was performed in order to later evaluate BTMSs (battery thermal management systems). Well comprehended case study and battery modeling, then, it was possible to examine current automotive battery cooling and heating solutions. Finally, PHP was evaluated as a possible BTMS regarding technical and commercial aspects, explaining what would be the requisites in order to attend automobile heat dissipation demands and the challenges for embedding it.
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Footrest Design to Reduce Lower Leg Injury in Frontal Crashes

General Motors do Brazil-Tsuguo Eduardo Kimura, Gilvan Prada Rossi, Paulus Hanser de Freitas
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0090
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The frontal impact is the most common vehicle crash type in accidents involving cars. During a vehicle frontal impact, the injuries are caused by occupant body moving forward and impacting the vehicle interior parts. The performance of the vehicle body and the interior parts design may influence on the occupant injury levels. Injuries in the occupant lower body are usually affected by the vehicle lower body deformation and the design of the interior lower parts (lower instrument panel, pedals, floor and footrest). When the purpose is to reduce the injury of a specific body region, the modification of the interior part design can be more effective in terms of impacts in mass, costs and development time than a modification in the vehicle body. The objective of the study was to develop a new footrest design to reduce the injury level of the left driver leg in a frontal crash condition. It was also evaluated the influence of the vehicle body deformation on the driver leg injury. There were manufactured footrest prototypes with different shapes and…
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