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Design Approach for Secure Networks to introduce Data Analytics within the Aircraft Cabin

Hamburg University of Technology-Hartmut Hintze, Fabian Giertzsch, Ralf God
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1853
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In the past, aircraft network design did not demand for information security considerations. The aircraft systems were simple, obscure, proprietary and, most importantly for security, the systems have been either physically isolated or they have been connected by directed communication links. The union of the aircraft systems thus formed a federated network. These properties are in sharp contrast with today’s system designs, which rest upon platform-based solutions with shared resources being interconnected by a massively meshed and shared communication network. The resulting connectivity and the high number of interfaces require an in-depth security analysis as the systems also provide functions that are required for the safe operation of the aircraft. This network design evolution, however, resulted in an iterative and continuous adaption of existing network solutions as these have not been developed from scratch. Now, with the upcoming trend of data analytics and artificial intelligence applications, which demand for an extensive availability of data, holistic aircraft cabin networks are necessary to satisfy the associated requirements. For the development of such networks this paper proposes a…

Optimizing Cooling Fan Power Consumption for Improving Diesel Engine Fuel Efficiency Using CFD Technique

Tafe Motors and Tractor Ltd., India-Ajay Nain
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-04-0024
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
Fan cooling system of an air-cooled diesel engine is optimized using 3D CFD numerical simulation approach. The main objective of this article is to increase engine fuel efficiency by reducing fan power consumption. It is achieved by optimizing airflow rates and flow distribution over the engine surfaces to keep the maximum temperature of engine oil and engine surfaces well within the lubrication and material limit, respectively, at the expense of lower fan power. Based on basic fan laws, a bigger fan consumes lesser power for the same airflow rate as compared to a smaller fan, provided both fans have similar efficiency. Flow analysis is also conducted with the engine head and block modeled as solid medium and fan cooling system as fluid domain. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence (RANS) equations were solved to get the flow field inside the cooling system and on the engine liner fins. The Moving Reference Frame approach was used for simulating the rotation of a fan. Cowl geometry was modified for providing better guidance to flow over engine surfaces and to get…

ICICLE: A Model for Glaciated & Mixed Phase Icing for Application to Aircraft Engines

Rolls-Royce Plc-Geoffrey Jones, Benjamin Collier
University of Oxford-Alexander Bucknell, Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie, Xin Yang
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
High altitude ice crystals can pose a threat to aircraft engine compression and combustion systems. Cases of engine damage, surge and rollback have been recorded in recent years, believed due to ice crystals partially melting and accreting on static surfaces (stators, endwalls and ducting). The increased awareness and understanding of this phenomenon has resulted in the extension of icing certification requirements to include glaciated and mixed phase conditions. Developing semi-empirical models is a cost effective way of enabling certification, and providing simple design rules for next generation engines. A comprehensive ice crystal icing model is presented in this paper, the Ice Crystal Icing ComputationaL Environment (ICICLE). It is modular in design, comprising a baseline code consisting of an axisymmetric or 2D planar flowfield solution, Lagrangian particle tracking, air-particle heat transfer and phase change, and surface interactions (bouncing, fragmentation, sticking). In addition, an efficient particle tracking method has been developed into the code, which employs the representative particle size distribution at each injection location and a deterministic particle sticking method by using an in-situ particle based…
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Heat Transfer Enhancement in Stagnation Region of Aero-Engine Inlet Vanes due to Ejection Slot and Anisotropic Heat Conduction

AECC Commercial Aircraft Engine Co., Ltd-Kun Yang, Hongkui Zhou
Beihang University-Peng Ke, Jie Liu, Lukas Schaeflein
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Ice protection is important for aero-engine induction system, such as the inlet vanes. For the ice protection of such parts manufactured with low thermal conductivity polymer-based composite material, the combined heating method using interior jet impingement and exterior ejection film has certain advantages. The simulation model coupling CFD with solid heat conduction was developed and solved with the anisotropic thermal conductivities model to investigate the heat transfer enhancement in the stagnation region of aero-engine inlet vanes due to ejection slot and anisotropic heat conduction, which is related to the curved geometry, ejection slots and anisotropic heat conduction.The temperature distribution and heat flux ratio between the stagnation region on outside surface and the impingement region inside were calculated and analyzed for the configuration with different ejection angle and different materials. The results show that ejection slots and anisotropic heat conduction plays important roles of the heat transfer process. For the same ejection angles, the larger the thermal conductivity, the higher the temperature at stagnation point and the better ice protection. For the same material property, the…
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Global Temperature Mapping and Crystallization Analysis of Supercooled Water Droplet Freezing Using Luminescent Imaging Technique

University of Notre Dame-Wesley Chad Patterson, Hirotaka Sakaue
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
A prominent environmental phenomenon that greatly affects many industries including automotive, aeronautics, energy transmission, etc. is icing. One mechanism by which this occurs and plagues our machines and infrastructures that are exposed to the atmosphere is the icing of supercooled water droplets on a surface - either by impact against a surface or spontaneous nucleation and crystallization of a droplet at rest. The process by which nucleation propagates during the liquid-to-solid phase change and the thermodynamic implications in regards to latent heat generation and transfer are not fully understood on the single droplet scale. An attempt to better resolve these unknowns in both spatial and temporal domains has been made here. Previous efforts have implemented a unique temperature sensing technique utilizing luminescent dyes. A thermally sensitive luminescent paint coated onto the surface of interest allows direct mapping of the heat transfer from the supercooled liquid droplet undergoing freezing to the surface. This technique also provides insight into the nucleation propagation speed along the droplet-substrate interface. This, in conjunction with a high-speed color camera and an…
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An Assessment of LEWICE Roughness and Convection Enhancement Models

Baylor University-Timothy Shannon, Stephen T. McClain
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
During aircraft design and certification, in-flight ice accretions are simulated using ice prediction codes. LEWICE, the ice accretion prediction code developed by NASA, employs a time-stepping procedure coupled with a thermodynamic model to calculate the location, size and shape of an ice accretion. LEWICE has been extensively validated for a wide range of icing conditions. However, continuing improvements to LEWICE predictive capabilities require better understandings of 1) the fundamental physics of turbulent flow generated by ice accretion roughness during an icing event and 2) the mechanisms responsible for convective enhancement of real ice accretion roughness. Recent experiments in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA Glenn Research Center have enabled significant insights into the nature of ice accretion roughness spatial and temporal variations. Other recent investigations have employed scans from the IRT to generate scaled test surfaces to investigate convection enhancement and skin friction interactions of flow over the surfaces with real ice roughness. For this investigation, the measurements of ice roughness characteristics, skin friction, and convection heat transfer enhancement are compared directly to predictions…
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An Experimental Study on the Effects of the Layout of DBD Plasma Actuators on Its Anti-/De-Icing Performance for Aircraft Icing Mitigation

Iowa State University-Cem Kolbakir, Yang Liu, Haiyang Hu, Hui Hu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Recently developed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma-based anti-icing systems have shown great potential for aircraft icing mitigation. In the present study, the ice accretion experiments were performed on to evaluate the effects of different layouts of DBD plasma actuators on their anti-/de-icing performances for aircraft icing mitigations. An array of DBD plasma actuators were designed and embedded on the surface of a NACA0012 airfoil/wing model in different layout configurations (i.e., different alignment directions of the plasm actuators (e.g., spanwise vs. streamwise), width of the exposed electrodes and the gap between the electrodes) for the experimental study. The experimental study was carried out in the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (i.e., ISUIRT). While the dynamic anti-icing operation is recorded by using a high-resolution imaging system, a high-speed Infrared (IR) thermal imaging camera is used to quantitatively map the temperature distributions over the surface of the airfoil model during the anti-/deicing processes. Results show that, heat dissipation mechanism of the plasma actuator array in either streamwise and spanwise configurations differ one from another noticeably.…
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An Experimental Study on a Hot-Air-Based Anti-/De-Icing System for the Icing Protection of Aero-Engine Inlet Guide Vanes

Iowa State University-Linkai Li, Linchuan Tian, Yang Liu, Hui Hu
Pratt & Whitney-Isaac Hogate
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
In the present study, an experimental investigation was conducted to characterize a hot-air-based anti-/de-icing system for the icing protection of aero-engine inlet guide vanes(IGVs). The experimental study was conducted in a unique icing research tunnel available at Iowa State University (i.e., ISU-IRT). A hollowed IGV model embedded with U-shaped hot-air flowing conduit was designed and manufactured for the experimental investigations. During the experiments, while a high-speed imaging system was used to record the dynamic ice accretion or anti-/de-icing process over the surface of the IGV model for the test cases without and with the hot-air supply system being turned on, the corresponding surface temperature distributions on the IGV model were measured quantitatively by using a row of embedded thermocouples. In addition to investigating the characteristics of the convective heat transfer over the surface of the heated IGV model, a comprehensive parametric study was also conducted to evaluate the effects of the operation parameters of the hot-air-based anti-/de-icing system on its performance for IGV icing protection. The acquired ice accretion or anti-de-icing images were coordinated with…
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Computational Simulation of an Electrically Heated Ice Protection System for Composite Leading Edges of Aircraft

Gyeongsang National University-Prince Raj Lawrence Raj, Hojin Jeong, Rene Roy, Jin-Hwe Kweon, Rho Shin Myong
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The performance of an electrically heated aircraft ice protection system for a composite leading edge was evaluated. The composite leading edge of the model is equipped with a Ni alloy resistance heater. A state-of-the-art icing code, FENSAP-ICE, was used for the analysis of the electrothermal de-icing system. Computational results, including detailed information of conjugate heat transfer, were validated with experimental data. The computational model was then applied to the composite leading edge wing section at various metrological conditions selected from FAR Part 25 Appendix C.
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A Refined In-Flight Icing Model and its Numerical Implementation

FH Joanneum GmbH-Wolfgang Hassler
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
A refined in-flight icing model is proposed whose primary focus lies on an improved prediction of the runback dynamics. The most significant capabilities/properties of the model are:Incorporation of surface tension and wetting effects in the runback modelFully transient treatment of the ice accretion/depletion process and the runback flowTreatment of unsteady heat transfer in the runback layer, the accreted ice layer and the underlying substrate as well as phase transitions solid/liquid in the ice layerStrict mass- and enthalpy-conservative growth/depletion of the ice layer (this is achieved by a specially designed mesh deformation algorithm)An essential part of the paper is devoted to the treatment of surface tension and wetting effects: These effects result from disjoining pressure contributions to the pressure terms in the runback continuity equation, i.e., these effects are inherent properties of the simulated runback dynamics. In particular, phenomena such as film rupture, bead formation and bead coalescence naturally appear in the computed runback flow, and also contact angle hysteresis effects can be simulated with the current wetting model. Besides the treatment of wetting effects the…
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