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SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

  • Journal
  • V129-2EJ
To be published on 2020-03-31 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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High Frequency Vibration Transmission Analysis on Agricultural Tractor by Using Combined Dynamical Energy Analysis and Transfer Path Analysis Approach

University of Nottingham-Gregor Tanner, Martin Richter
Yanmar R&D Europe s.r.l-Satoshi Morita
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0527
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Dynamical Energy Analysis (DEA) has recently been introduced as a mesh-based high frequency method modelling structure borne sound for complex built-up structures. Using DEA, the structure-borne sound of an assembled agricultural tractor was calculated and good agreement between measurement and DEA calculations has been shown. However, it is still difficult to model a solid structure as currently DEA is based on wave-transmission calculations through plates and plate-to-plate junctions. Additionally, it is often difficult to generate accurate FE meshes of assembled complex structures because of welds, bolts, and rubber brushes between components. In this paper, we propose a novel method to generate DEA elements based on measurement data in order to model solid parts of a complex structures. The method of Advanced Transfer Path Analysis (ATPA) is employed to extract energy-transmission characteristics of a structure. Firstly, Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) are measured between interface points on a structure. Then the direct transfer functions between all interface points are calculated using ATPA. Finally, DEA elements connecting interface points are calculated. They are based on the ATPA result…
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Effects of Stepped-Lip Combustion System Design and Operating Parameters on Turbulent Flow Evolution in a Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ford Motor Company, USA-Eric Kurtz
USA-Stephen Busch
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0016
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
Interactions between fuel sprays and stepped-lip diesel piston bowls can produce turbulent flow structures that improve efficiency and emissions, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Recent experimental and simulation efforts provide evidence that increased efficiency and reduced smoke emissions coincide with the formation of long-lived, energetic vortices during the mixing-controlled portion of the combustion event. These vortices are believed to promote fuel-air mixing, increase heat-release rates, and improve air utilization, but they become weaker as main injection timing is advanced nearer to the top dead center (TDC). Further efficiency and emissions benefits may be realized if vortex formation can be strengthened for near-TDC injections. This work presents a simulation-based analysis of turbulent flow evolution within a stepped-lip combustion chamber. A conceptual model summarizes key processes in the evolution of turbulent flow for main injections starting after TDC. Differences in turbulent flow evolution are described for a near-TDC main injection, and potential variations in combustion system design and operating parameters to enhance vortex formation under these conditions are hypothesized. The parametric studies executed to…
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Hierarchical Predictive Control of a Combined Engine/SCR System with Limited Model Knowledge

SAE International Journal of Engines

Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen Nuremberg, Germany-Knut Graichen
MTU Friedrichshafen, Germany-Jens Niemeyer, Jörg Remele
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0015
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
In this article, the problem of minimizing the overall operational cost of a heavy-duty off-highway diesel engine combined with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst is considered. Here, we propose a hierarchical model-based scheme described as an optimal control problem. The sequence of resulting optimal control values are setpoints for the underlying engine controller, applied in a model predictive control (MPC) fashion. The presented scheme meets several demands. While minimizing the overall costs, it handles box constraints for the control variables as well as a nonlinear NOx-conversion rate constraint ensuring that a given emission target is met. The approach makes use of Gaussian process models for the input-output behavior of the underlying components and a technique for online adaptation. Thus, the presented hierarchical scheme is able to compensate model uncertainties and aging effects of engine, air path, and SCR catalyst. Moreover, in comparison to the literature, our approach doesn’t require detailed models of the underlying components, and the hierarchical, modular design allows the applicability to different engines and SCR controllers. We illustrate the proposed approach…
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Latticed Crane Boom Systems - Analytical Procedure

Cranes and Lifting Devices Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1093_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-15 by SAE International in United States

This SAE information report applies to wire rope supported, latticed crane boom systems mounted on mobile construction type cranes for lift crane service.

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Cutting Edge - Double Bevel Cross Sections

MTC1, Loaders, Crawlers, Scrapers and Mounted Attachments
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J738_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-15 by SAE International in United States

This standard is for cutting edge sections typically used in earth-moving machinery defined in SAE J1116 and ISO 6165:

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A Recommended Method of Analytically Determining the Competence of Hydraulic Telescopic Cantilevered Crane Booms

Cranes and Lifting Devices Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1078_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-15 by SAE International in United States

This analysis applies to crane types as covered by ASME B30.5.

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B-GAS: Conversion system to Internal Combustion Engine (Diesel) for using alternative energetic source for application in Agricultural Machinery

Giovana Queiroz da Silva, Cléber Willian Gomes, Guilherme Bugatti dos Santos, Paulo Eduardo Wey Nunes da Costa, Pedro Augusto Talib Soares, Renato Zerbinatti Raduan, Vinícius Trento Gomes
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0235
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Fuel has a huge port in the operating costs of agribusiness, the increase on the price and the shortage of this energy resource has a direct impact on agricultural production costs. In this context, regions that are farther from refineries and lack the presence of fuel distribution centers tend to suffer more from the availability and cost of this resource. Economically speaking, agribusiness has a prominent position in the national scenery. The world fuel source had an evolution from the predominance of solid fuels to the current age of liquid fuels derived from petroleum and seeing the future and growing age of gas fuels as the predecessor stage of electric vehicles in some markets. Thereby, agricultural organic waste has the potential to generate an alternative energy, clean and ecological matrix, also reducing the emission of polluting gases, soil, groundwater, rivers and weir are still prevented, and the release of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as methane and carbon dioxide. In Brazil, animal waste is normally used for the generation of biofuel, and only 14%…
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Commercial vehicle pedal feeling comfort ranges definition

Ford Motor Company-Wesley Bolognesi Prado, Silvia Faria Iombriller, Marco André Rodrigues da Silva, Lázaro Renato Oliveira
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0016
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The brake pedal is the brake system component that the driver fundamentally has contact and through its action wait the response of the whole system. Each OEM defines during vehicle conceptualization the behavior of brake pedal that characterizes the pedal feel that in general reflects not only the characteristic from that vehicle but also from the entire brand.Technically, the term known as Pedal Feel means the relation between the force applied on the pedal, the pedal travel and the deceleration achieved by the vehicle. Such relation curves are also analyzed in conjunction with objective analysis sheets where the vehicle brake behavior is analyzed in test track considering different deceleration conditions, force and pedal travel.On technical literature, it is possible to find some data and studies considering the hydraulic brakes behavior. However, for pneumatic brake systems, the pedal feel theoretical study is not usual, where is normally used for these developments, exclusively the subjective evaluation which become necessary to have more specialists to define the brake pedal behavior.Throughout this article will be revised the characteristics concepts…
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Performance Levels and Methods of Measurement of Electromagnetic Compatibility of Vehicles, Boats (up to 15 m), and Machines (16.6 Hz to 18 GHz)

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Standards
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J551/1_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-10 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Standard covers the measurement of radio frequency radiated emissions and immunity. Each part details the requirements for a specific type of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) test and the applicable frequency range of the test method.