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Experiment Studies of Charging Strategy for Lithium-ion Batteries

Xuezhe Wei
Tongji Univ-Pei Yu, Haifeng Dai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0792
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Regarding the lithium-ion batteries used in the electric vehicle, charging time and charging efficiency are the concern of the public. In this paper, a lot of experiments were conducted to investigate the common charging strategies, including the CC-CV (constant current-constant voltage) charging and the pulse current charging, for the LiFepO4 batteries, which are still widely used in commercial vehicles. Charging temperature and the charging current in the CC phase are the main influence factors to be studied for the CC-CV charging strategy, and the contribution of CC phase and CV phase to the whole charging is analyzed from three aspects, including the time percent, charging energy efficiency and the capacity of battery at different temperatures and charging current.Regarding the pulse charging strategy, the pulse frequency is determined from the perspective of energy loss, then the experiments for pulse charging with different pulse mode, different duty cycle, as well as different charging temperature and charging current were conducted to study the characteristic of pulse charging.In order to eliminate the battery polarization, we optimized the charging current…

Evaluation of Emissions from Light Duty Trucks with and without the Use of a Gasoline Particulate Filter

Environment and Climate Change Canada-Fadi Araji, Jonathan Stokes
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0971
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The goal of this study was to investigate the emission impacts of replacing the OEM three way catalyst on light duty trucks using various, commercially available, gasoline particulate filter (GPF) configurations. The three test vehicles were; a Port Fuel Injection (PFI) PFI_1 and two Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) GDI_1 and GDI_2. The testing of these vehicles was conducted on a chassis dynamometer in a controlled test cell environment at two temperatures (25 °C and -7 °C) using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) and the US06 test procedure. All three vehicles were tested in stock OEM configuration followed by testing PFI_1 and GDI_1 with a non-catalyzed GPF and GDI_2 with a catalyzed GPF. GDI_2 was also tested on-road using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) with and without the use of the catalyzed GPF. Results for the non-catalyzed GPF configuration on PFI_1 and GDI_1 showed a decrease in Total Particulate Matter (TPM) at both standard and cold temperatures, with the biggest decrease being 89.3% for GDI_1 during the FTP-75 at 25 °C. An increase in NOx…

Characterization of Particulate Matter Emissions from Heavy-Duty Partially Premixed Compression Ignition with Gasoline-Range Fuels

Aramco Research Center-Jong Lee
Aramco Services Co-Tom Tzanetakis, Yu Zhang, Michael Traver
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1185
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Low temperature combustion (LTC) engine technologies offer opportunities for higher efficiency and lower NOx emissions. Light-end distillate fuels have been shown to help promote LTC and produce very low soot emissions compared to ULSD fuel. In a previous study, a commercial 15L heavy-duty diesel engine was shown to produce lower PM emissions when using a light-end distillate fuel as a substitution for ULSD. In this study, the compression ratio of a commercial 15L heavy-duty diesel engine was lowered and the split injection strategy was developed to promote the partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) combustion. Various gasoline-like light-end distillate fuels were compared with ULSD fuel for performance and emissions. The PM was characterized with particle mass, size, and number measurements, organic/elemental carbon analysis, chemical speciation and thermogravimetric analysis. Using light-end distillate fuels, engine-out PM emissions at the same engine-out NOx level were significantly reduced compared to ULSD fuels, while hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were only slightly increased. Light-end distillate PM samples were found to contain higher volatiles, organic carbon, and nitrogenated HC species, not typically…

Comparison of Particulate Emissions of a Range Extended Electric Vehicle under Different Energy Management Strategies

Tongji Univ-Yaxin Wang, Diming Lou, Ning Xu, Piqiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1189
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Range extended electric vehicles achieve significant reductions in fuel consumption by employing as an energy source a small displacement combustion engine that is optimized for high efficiency at one, or a few, operating points. The present paper examines the impact of various energy management strategies on the particulate emissions from the auxiliary power unit (APU) of a range extended electric bus, including optimized auxiliary power unit (APU) on/off strategy, single-point strategy, two-point strategy, power-following strategy and equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). In addition, this paper also compares the particulate emissions of single energy storage system and composite energy storage system on single-point energy management strategy. The main conclusions in this paper are as follows: After optimizing the APU on/off strategy, the APU starts and stops frequently to make the cylinder temperature relatively low, which results in the reductions of both the particle mass (PM) and the particle number (PN). The application of two-point strategy and power-following strategy maximizes the output power of high load, and then the particulate emission presents significant increasing. With the…

Accuracy and sensitivity of yaw speed analysis to available data

MEA Forensic Engineers & Scientists-Bradley E. Heinrichs, Janice Lee, Cole Young
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0417
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Accident reconstructions rarely have complete data with which to determine vehicle speed, and so must bracket the true value with a range. Previous work has shown the effect of friction uncertainty in determining speed from tire marks left by a vehicle in yaw. The goal of the current study was to assess improvements in the accuracy of vehicle speed estimated from yaw marks using progressively more scene and vehicle information. Data for this analysis came from staged S-turn maneuvers that in some cases led to rollover of the SUV test vehicles. Initial speeds were first calculated using the critical curve speed (CCS) formula on the yaw marks from the first portion of the S-maneuver. Then computer simulations were performed with progressively more input data: i) the complete tire marks from the whole S-maneuver, ii) measured vehicle mass, iii) measured suspension stiffness and damping, and iv) measured steering history. Simulations based on the complete tire marks improved the average error compared with the CCS equation. Adding the remaining input data to the simulations did not further…

Control-Oriented Modeling of a Vehicle Drivetrain for Shuffle and Clunk Mitigation

Ford Research & Advanced Engineering-Maruthi Ravichandran, Mary Farmer, Jeff Doering
Michigan Technological Univ.-Prithvi Reddy, Kaushal Darokar, Darrell Robinette, Mahdi Shahbakhti, Jason Blough
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0345
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Flexibility and backlash of vehicle drivelines typically cause unwanted oscillations and noise, known as shuffle and clunk, during tip-in and tip-out events. Computationally efficient and accurate driveline models are necessary for the design and evaluation of torque shaping strategies to mitigate this shuffle and clunk. To accomplish these goals, this paper develops two control-oriented models, i.e., a full-order physics-based model and a reduced-order model, which capture the main dynamics that influence the shuffle and clunk phenomena. The full-order model comprises several components, including the engine as a torque generator, backlash elements as discontinuities, and propeller and axle shafts as compliant elements. This model is experimentally validated using the data collected from a Ford truck. The validation results indicate less than 1% error between the model and measured shuffle oscillation frequencies. The reduced-order model is derived by lumping 24 inertia elements into 2 elements, 4 stiffness and damping elements into 2 elements, and 2 backlashes into 1 element. As part of the reduced-order model development, the paper investigates: (i) the effect of lumping transmission and final…

Validation Platform of Autonomous Capability for Commercial Vehicles

Isuzu Technical Center of America Inc-Yong Sun, Hanxiang Li, Weilun Peng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0686
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Global deployment of autonomous capability for commercial vehicles is a big challenge. In order to improve the robustness of autonomous approach under different traffic scenarios, environments, road conditions, and driver behaviors, a combined approach of virtual simulation, vehicle-in-the-loop (VIL) testing and proving ground testing have been established for algorithms validation. During the validation platform setup, different platforms for different functionalities have been studied, including open source virtual testing environment (CARLA, AirSim), and commercial one (TruckMaker from IPG). We also cooperate with Mcity to do proving ground validation. In virtual testing, the functionality of sensors (camera, radar, Lidar, GPS, IMU) can be applied in the virtual environment. In VIL testing, real world and virtual test will be connected for different validation purposes. The proving ground testing is performed for specific real-life scenarios and high safety. Several challenges have been overcome during implementation, including sensor system consistency, data communication protocol establishment, FLOPs of computing device and etc. In this paper, a self-implemented autonomous driving framework, including perception, planning and control algorithm, will be validated in different virtual…

Gasoline Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions Measurement in a Wide Range of EGR in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Lund Univ.-Mengqin Shen
Lund University-Sam Shamun, Per Tunestal, Martin Tuner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0761
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A large number of measurement techniques have been developed or adapted from other fields to measure various parameters of engine particulates. With the strict limits given by regulations on pollutant emissions, many advanced combustion strategies have been developed towards cleaner combustion. EGR is widely applied to suppress NOx and reduce soot emissions. On the other hand, gasoline starts to be utilized in compression ignition engines due to great potential in soot reduction and high engine efficiency. New trends in the engine raise the need of good sensitivity and suitably accuracy of the PM measurement techniques to detect particles with smaller size and low particle mass emissions. In this work, we present a comparison between different measurement techniques for particulate matter (PM) emissions in a compression ignition engine running on gasoline fuel. A wide-range EGR was used with lambda varied from 3 down to 1. The compared equipment includes AVL smoke meter, AVL Micro soot sensor, Pegasor and Cambustion Differential Mobility Spectrometer. The goal of this paper is to compare the recorded values and show the…

Reconstruction of 3D Accident Sites Using USGS LiDAR, Aerial Images, and Photogrammetry

Kineticorp LLC-Toby Terpstra, Jordan Dickinson, Alireza Hashemian, Stephen Fenton
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0423
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The accident reconstruction community has previously relied upon photographs and site visits to recreate a scene. This method is difficult in instances where the site has changed or is not accessible. In 2017 the United States Geological Survey (USGS) released historical 3D point clouds (LiDAR) allowing for access to digital 3D data without visiting the site. This offers many unique benefits to the reconstruction community including: safety, budget, time, and historical preservation. This paper presents a methodology for collecting this data and using it in conjunction with aerial imagery, and camera matching photogrammetry to create 3D computer models of the scene without a site visit. To determine accuracies achievable using this method, evidence locations solved for using only USGS LiDAR, aerial images and scene photographs (representative of emergency personnel photographs) were compared with known locations documented using total station survey equipment and ground-based 3D laser scanning. The data collected from three different site locations was analyzed, and camera matching photogrammetry was performed independently by 5 different individuals to locate evidence. On average, the resulting evidence…

Some experimental studies on use of Tyre Pyrolysis Oil (TPO) in an agricultural diesel engine

CASRAE, Delhi Technological University-Naveen Kumar
Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology-Ashwni goyal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0796
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Globally, the demand for energy is increasing due to both increase in population and enhancement in lifestyle of people. Most of the energy demand at present is met from fossil fuels, which are not only exhaustible but also a threat to the environment. Various routes of sustainable energy resources are being explored to address the above mentioned issues and fuel made from used tyre may be one of the promising options. India is one of the fastest growing economy and every year 10 million vehicles are registered. Due to poor road conditions, nearly four fold tires of this number are dumped as waste. This large stock of dumped tires are non-biodegradable and creates other problems like breeding site for mosquitos, or source of pollution in case of accidental fire. In order to cope with the large pile up of used tyres, pyrolysis of these tyres could be a sustainable route. Pyrolysis is a thermo-chemical process carried in absence of oxygen and a sustainable option for conversion into Tyre Pyrolysis Oil (TPO). In the present work,…