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Multidisciplinary Investigation of Truck Platooning

Altair-Bastian Schnepf, Christian Kehrer, Christoph Maeurer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0028
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In the age of environmental challenges and with it, the demand for increasing energy efficiency of commercial vehicles, truck platooning is discussed as a promising approach. The idea is several trucks forming an automated convoy – with the lead truck sending out acceleration, braking and steering signals for the following trucks to react accordingly. The benefits address fuel savings, traffic capacity, safety requirements and convenience. In our study, we will motivate why platooning requires a multidisciplinary approach in the sense of connecting different modeling and simulation methods. The simulation topics covered are aerodynamic analysis, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, radar antenna placement and virtual drive cycle test for the energetic evaluation of a truck platoon in comparison to a single truck. Aerodynamic analyses are conducted using a transient Lattice Boltzmann approach on GPUs capturing the complex vehicle wake interactions for different platooning distances with acceptable computational effort. Thereby, a generic truck convoy, consisting of three vehicles, is considered for distance intervals between 7 and 40 meters. From these computations for each vehicle look-up-tables are derived for interpolation…
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On-Board Post-Combustion CO2 Capture in Light-Duty and Heavy-Duty transport

Politecnico di Milano-Davide Bonalumi, Stefano Campanari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0012
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The European Union set the CO2 emission limit in the transport sector that will decrease in the next years. The purpose of this work is to assess through technical analysis, a system that captures part of the CO2 from the exhaust gases of duty vehicles. Two distinct categories of vehicles are considered, those with a mass lower than 3.5 tons and those with a higher mass. For the light-duty category, the analysis is developed estimating the consumptions and emissions based on the WLTP homologation cycle by means of the software Excel. For the heavy-duty category, the consumptions and the emissions are determined by means of the software specifically developed by the European Union for heavy-duty vehicles named VECTO (Vehicle Energy Consumption calculation Tool). From a literature review, different technologies are considered. The most suitable technology is selected. A possible way is based on the adsorption through the metal-organic framework (MOF). A dedicated review to select the most promising material indicates which can assure the best performance. The performances are evaluated based on the features of…
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Experimental Rattle Source Characterization Using Matrix Inversion on a Reception Plate

Virtual Vehicle-Eugene Nijman, Bernhard Zeller
Virtual Vehicle Research Center-Josef Girstmair
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1541
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Minimising rattle noises is becoming increasingly important for hybrid and electrical vehicles as masking from the IC engine is missing and in view of the functional requirements of the office-like interiors of next generation automated vehicles. Rattle shall therefore be considered in the design phase of component systems. One hurdle is the modelling of the excitation mechanisms and its experimental validation. In this work we focus on excitation by loose parts having functional clearances such as gear systems or ball sensors in safety belt retractors. These parts are excited by relatively large low frequency displacements such as road-induced movements of the car body or low order rigid body engine vibrations generating multiple impacts with broad band frequency content. Direct measurement of the impact forces is in many cases not possible. An experimental procedure to measure the multi-DOF rattle impact forces in component systems is presented based on a reception plate transfer matrix inversion. The investigated component is mounted on the reception plate and rattle is induced by direct low frequency rigid body excitation of the…
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High Voltage Battery durability enhancement in electric mobility through 1D CAE

Tata Motors Ltd-Sambhaji Jaybhay, Kiran Kadam, Sangeet Kapoor
Tata Motors, Ltd.-Santosh Kumar Venu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0013
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
The public transport in India is gradually shifting towards electric mobility. Long range in electric mobility can be served with High voltage battery (HVB), but HVB can sustain for its designed life if it’s maintained within a specific operating temperature range. Appropriate battery thermal management through battery cooling system (BCS) is critical for vehicle range and battery durability This work focus on two aspects BCS sizing and coolant flow optimization in Electric bus. BCS modelling was done in 1D CAE by using KULI software from M/s Magna Steyr. The objective is to develop a model of battery cooling system in virtual environment to replicate the physical testing. Electric bus contain numerous battery packs and a complex piping in its cooling system. BCS sizing simulation was performed to keep the battery packs in operating temperature range. Iterations were carried out to maintain uniform flow at the battery packs as well as to sustain target coolant flow requirement in order to maintain thermal uniformity across the battery packs 1D simulation is vital when it comes to analyzing…
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Application of Phase Change Materials (PCM) for reducing cabin heat load

Tata Motors Ltd-Mayank Manoj Dubey, Suresh Tadigadapa, Abhijit DUBE, Ankit Shukla, Anurag Maurya, Y.S.Sarath Reddy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0037
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
In regions like Indian Subcontinent, Gulf or Saharan & Sub-Saharan Africa, where the sunshine is abundant almost all year round, air-conditioning is an important aspect of vehicles (passenger cars, buses etc). Higher heat means higher cooling demand which means bigger AC system which in turn. Now AC compressor is a parasitic load on the engine like other auxiliaries. Upcoming emission norms will result in more stringent constraints on the power that can be made available to auxiliaries by engine. Moreover, one of the most frequent customer complaint in JD Power rating survey results of passenger vehicles is "AC cooling not fast enough". Hence, the proposed idea suggests a way reduce the air conditioning power consumption, without compromising on the cool-down performance by eliminating the heat load source itself. The best way to beat the heat and reduce cabin heat load is the stop the heat build-up itself. The present paper explores one such mean of reducing cabin heat build-up by leveraging latent heat properties of phase change materials and thus improving the air condition performance.With…
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CFD investigation of exhaust gas bypass on truck trolley heating

John Deere India Private, Ltd.-Nitin Dewangan
John Deere India Pvt Ltd-Megha anawat
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0006
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Most of the automobile and off-road vehicles leave the 100% exhaust gases to atmosphere. The temperature of the exhaust gas ranges from 200-350 deg C and the exit velocity of the gas is about 40-100 m/s based on the outlet pipe design. Dump trucks are used to transport mud, sticky waste garbage and sometime ice from one place to dump yard. The paper will describe the approach of partially use the exhaust gases for truck trolley by heating the trolley surfaces from the walls. CFD software is used to evaluate the exhaust system pressure drop and bypass exhaust flow rate requirements for effective heating on trolley wall. The simulation also helped to design the appropriate baffle position for optimum pressure drop and recirculation. Conjugate heat transfer CFD analysis is carried out to predict the flow behavior.
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Numerical Investigations on Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics of Climate Control Systems in Electric Vehicles

Pranav Vikas India Pvt Ltd-Vijayaraghavan S, Govindaraj D
Pranav Vikas India Pvt Ltd.-Mahendravarman Radha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0010
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Earth's surface temperatures would increase from 2.90 C to 3.40 C by the year 2100 due to global warming, leads to conceivable calamitous effects on human livelihoods, livestock, ecosystems and biodiversity. Overall globally several policies were made to reduce the carbon dioxide emission and other greenhouse gases. The transportation sector is one of the prominent sources of carbon dioxide emissions. On account of the significant emissions caused by conventional buses, migrating to electric buses which have zero tailpipe emissions for public transport fleets is essential. Taken into consideration of the energy density of traction batteries, and cost, energy utilized for HVAC applications should be optimized. Heat transfer and flow characteristics in the condenser and the evaporator zone of climate control system for electric buses were numerically studied and compared with experimental results. Grid independence and turbulence studies were carried out to develop the CFD methodology for this analysis. Air velocity and temperature was measured at different locations in the climate control system to calculate the flow and thermal performance. Fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics…
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Gear Shift Pattern Optimization for Best Fuel Economy, Performance and Emissions

Chidhanand S.
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Lemuel Paulraj, Saravanan Muthiah
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1280
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As the FTP-75 drive cycle does not have a prescribed gear shift pattern, automotive OEMs have the flexibility to design. Conventionally, gear shift pattern was formulated based on trial and error method, typically with 10 to 12 iterations on chassis dynamometer. It was a time consuming (i.e. ~ 3 to 4 months) and expensive process. This approach led to declaring poor fuel economy (FE). A simulation procedure was required to generate a gear shift pattern that gives optimal trade-off amongst conflicting objectives (FE, performance and emissions). As a result, a simulation tool was developed in MATLAB to generate an optimum gear shift pattern. Three different SUV/UV models were used as test vehicles in this study. Chassis dyno testing was conducted, and data was collected using the base and optimized gear shift patterns. Dyno test results with optimized gear shift pattern showed FE improvement of ~ 4 to 5% while retaining the NOx margin well above engineering targets. This labeling FE improvement method did not require any hardware or software changes, thus, involved no additional expense.…
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Alleviating the Magnetic Effects on Magnetometers using Vehicle Kinematics for Yaw Estimation for Autonomous Ground Vehicles

Michigan Technological University-Ahammad Basha Dudekula, Jeffrey D. Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1025
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicle operation is dependent upon accurate position estimation and thus a major concern of implementing the autonomous navigation is obtaining robust and accurate data from sensors. This is especially true, in case of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensor data. The IMU consists of a 3-axis gyro, 3-axis accelerometer, and 3-axis magnetometer. The IMU provides vehicle orientation in 3D space in terms of yaw, roll and pitch. Out of which, yaw is a major parameter to control the ground vehicle’s lateral position during navigation. The accelerometer is responsible for attitude (roll-pitch) estimates and magnetometer is responsible for yaw estimates. However, the magnetometer is prone to environmental magnetic disturbances which induce errors in the measurement. The present work focuses on alleviating magnetic disturbances for ground vehicles by fusing the vehicle kinematics information with IMU senor in an Extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the vehicle orientation represented using Quaternions. In addition, the error in rate measurements from gyro sensor gets accumulated as the time progress which results in drift in rate measurements and thus affecting the vehicle…
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Real-Time Embedded Models for Simulation and Control of Clean and Fuel-Efficient Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

Daimler Trucks North America-Marc Allain, Siddharth Mahesh
University of Michigan-Saravanan Duraiarasan, Rasoul Salehi, Fucong Wang, Anna Stefanopoulou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0257
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The ever increasing demand for fuel economy and stringent emission norms drives researchers to continuously innovate and improve engine modes to implement adaptive algorithms, where the engine states are continuously monitored and the control variables are manipulated to operate the engine at the most efficient regime. This paper presents a virtual engine developed by modeling a modern diesel engine and aftertreatment which can be used in real-time on a control unit to predict critical diesel engine variables such as fuel consumption and feed gas conditions including emissions, flow and temperature. A physics-based approach is followed in order to capture vital transient airpath and emission dynamics encountered during real driving condition. A minimal realization of the airpath model is coupled with a cycle averaged NOx emissions predictor to estimate transient feed gas NOx during steady state and transient conditions. The complete airpath and NOx emission model was implemented on a rapid prototyping controller and experimentally validated over steady state and transient emission cycles. The overall performance of the reduced order model was comparable to that of…