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The Road to the Top is Not on the Map: Conversations with Top Women of the Automotive Industry

Terry Barclay
Center For Automotive Research-Carla Bailo
  • Book
  • R-491
To be published on 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Carla Bailo, CEO of the Center for Automotive Research, and Terry Barclay, CEO of Inforum, bring together over 30 of the most influential women in the automotive industry to share their insight and advice. From suppliers to OEMs, they hail from every corner of the industry.


Automation of Sorting and Kitting from cutting tables

Broetje-Automation GmbH-Erik Berg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1899
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Within the current part production of carbon fiber parts a lot of manual work is included for sorting and kitting of automatic cut plies. This is required due to the high raw material costs and enables a good utilization of the materials. Automation of this non-value adding process will be a big benefit for the part production. The high variety of shapes and the different materials to be processed are complex boundary conditions, which are to be overcome. Broetje is in development of handling systems and automation solutions, which are used for a high variety of materials as well as for a high variety of shapes. These systems are meant to be an add-on for existing cutting tables as well as for fully integrated production systems with downstream automation equipment like draping hoods. Mayor challenges to overcome are safe gripping capabilities, detection of #non-cut fibers, high variety of shapes, complex logistic management. These challenges are addressed with Broetje’s ASK Solution. This paper will focus on the innovative automated sorting and kitting solution invented by Broetje-Automation.

Predictive CFD auto-tuning approach for in-cylinder EU6 LDD DI engine

Ricardo UK Ltd-Kenan Mustafa, Andy Ward, Nicholas Winder
Univ. of Brighton, Ricardo UK, Ltd.-Daniel Melusi Nsikane
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0033
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Tightening emission regulations and accelerating production cycles force engine developers to shift their attention towards virtual engineering tools. When simulating in-cylinder processes in commercial LDD DI engine development, the trade-off between runtime and accuracy is typically tipped towards the former. High-fidelity simulation approaches which require little tuning would be desirable but require excessive computing resources. For this reason, industry still favours low-fidelity simulation approaches and bridges remaining uncertainties with prototyping and testing. The problem with low-fidelity simulations is that simplifications in form of sub-grid-scale (SGS) models introduce multivariable tuning parameter dependencies which, if not understood, impair the predictive nature of CFD simulations. In previous work the authors have successfully developed a boundary condition dependant input parameter table. This parameter table showed outstanding results for lab-scale experiments for over 40 varying operating conditions. The objective in this paper is first to identify the necessary considerations to adjust for the inherent differences between lab-scale and real engine conditions and then implement this parameter table into industry relevant conditions. With this approach the appropriate simulation setup for of…

A sampling and conditioning particle system for solid particle measurements down to 10 nm

CERTH/CPERI-Leonidas Chasapidis, Anastasios D. Melas, Apostolos Tsakis, Dimitrios Zarvalis, Athanasios Konstandopoulos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0154
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
The measurement of vehicle particle number emissions and, therefore, regulation, necessitates a rigorous sampling and conditioning technology able to deliver solid emitted particles with minimum particle losses. European legislation follows a solid particle number measurement method with cutoff size at 23 nm proposed by the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP). Accordingly, raw exhaust is sampled with constant volume, subsequently passes through a volatile particle remover (VPR), and finally is measured with a particle counter. Lowering the 23 nm cutoff size with current VPR technologies introduces measurement uncertainties mainly due to the high particle losses and possible creation of artefacts. This study describes the development and evaluation of a sampling and conditioning particle system, the SCPS, specially designed for sub-23 nm solid particles measurement. The dilution process is achieved in two stages; the primary dilution is done with a porous tube while the secondary with an ejector diluter that also acts as a pump for the sampling flow. The SCPS offers flexibility in terms of dilution ratio (DR) which is real-time calculated with an algorithm based on…

Quantification of Linear Approximation Error for Model Predictive Control of Spark Ignited Turbocharged Engines

Rohit Koli
Clemson Univ-Daniel Egan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0014
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Modern turbocharged spark-ignition engines are being equipped with an increasing number of control actuators to simultaneously meet fuel economy, emissions and performance targets. The response time variations between a given set of engine control actuators tends to be significant during transients and necessitate highly complex actuator scheduling routines. Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithms have the potential to significantly reduce calibration and control tuning efforts as compared to current methodologies that are designed around integration of multiple single-input single-output sub-system controllers. MPC systems simultaneously generate all actuator responses by using a combination of current engine conditions and optimization of a control-oriented plant model. To achieve real-time control the engine model and optimization processes must be computationally efficient without sacrificing effectiveness. Most MPC systems intended for real-time control utilize a linearized model that can be quickly evaluated using a sub-optimal optimization methodology. Online linearization of the engine model is computationally expensive so it should be performed as infrequently as possible. Since engine dynamics are non-linear, a local linearity approximation error occurs during this process. This research presents…

Validation of Using a Steady-State Friction Model for Determining CO2 Emissions in Transient Driving Cycles

Mahle International GmbH-Tobias Funk, Holger Ehnis, Reiner Kuenzel
Universität Stuttgart-Michael Bargende
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0054
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
MAHLE is conducting extensive parameter studies regarding friction savings on the piston group of fired gasoline and diesel engines to further increase the efficiency of the internal combustion engine. For each tested piston variant, steady-state fired friction measurements are taken across the entire operating range of the engine using the indication method. Based on these measurements, an empirical model is created which describes the Friction Mean Effective Pressure (FMEP) depending on engine speed, engine load and coolant and oil temperature. The friction map is then used in a drive cycle simulation in order to determine fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. A drive cycle corresponds to transient conditions both as a result of the changes in operating point and the engine warm-up. The current legislative drive cycles aim to better reflect real-world driving conditions and thus contain frequent and steep transient events. This article therefore assesses if the confidence interval of the steady-state friction model is also valid in transient engine operation with warm-up. For this purpose, fired friction measurements are taken both with defined speed…

Inverted Brayton cycle as an option for waste energy recovery in turbocharged diesel engine

Universita degli Studi dell Aquila-Davide Di Battista, Roberto Cipollone PhD, Roberto Carapellucci PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0060
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Energy recovery in reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) is one of the most investigated options for the reduction of fuel consumption and GHG emissions saving in the transportation sector. In fact, the energy wasted in ICE is greater than that converted in mechanical form. The contribution associated to the exhaust gases is almost one third of the fuel energy, calling for an urgent need to be recovered into mechanical form. An extensive literature is oriented toward this opportunity, strongly oriented to ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle)-based power units. From a thermodynamic point of view, one option, not extensively explored, is certainly represented by the Inverted Brayton Cycle (IBC) concept and by the corresponding components which make possible this recovery. IBC is a thermodynamic (exhaust) gas cycle which considers an expansion (made by a turbine under the ambient pressure), an isobaric cooling and a compression in sequence which restores the pressure which is needed to evacuate the exhaust gases toward the atmosphere. Thanks to the expansion which decreases the pressure below the ambient pressure, mechanical work produced…

Effects of Droplet Behaviors on Fuel Adhesion of Flat Wall Impinging Spray injected by a DISI Injector

Hiroshima University-Hongliang LUO, Youichi Ogata, Keiya Nishida
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0034
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Owing to the short impingement distance and high injection pressure, it is difficult to avoid the fuel spray impingement on the combustion cylinder wall and piston head in Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine, which is a possible source of hydrocarbons and soot emission. For better understanding of the mechanisms behind the spray-wall impingement, the fuel spray and adhesion on a flat wall using a mini-sac injector with a single hole was examined. The microscopic characteristics of impinging spray were investigated through Particle Image Analysis (PIA). The droplet size and velocity were compared before and after impingement. The adhered fuel on the wall was measured by Refractive Index Match-ing (RIM). Time-resolved fuel adhesion evolution as well as adhesion mass, area, and thickness were discussed. Moreover, the relationships between droplets behaviors and fuel adhesion on the wall were discussed. The single droplet impingement models were compared in order to find the key factor which dominate the fuel adhesion during the spray-wall interaction. Results show that the gasoline spray im-pingement is more complicated compared to single droplet.…

Reduction of NOx in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Emissions Using Selective Non Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) with In-Cylinder Injection of Aqueous Urea

Univ of North Florida-Anthony Timpanaro, John Nuszkowski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0144
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
The subject of this study was the effect of in-cylinder selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of NOx emissions in diesel exhaust gas by means of direct injection of aqueous urea (NH2-CO-NH2) into the combustion chamber. A naturally aspirated single cylinder test engine was modified to accept an electronically controlled secondary common rail injection system to deliver the aqueous urea directly into the cylinder during engine operation. Direct in-cylinder injection was chosen to ensure precise delivery of the reducing agent without the risk of premature reactions. Aqueous urea also works as the primary reducing agent by breaking down into ammonia (NH3) and Cyanuric Acid ((HOCN)3). These compounds serve as the primary reducing agents in the NOx reduction mechanism explored here. The main reduction agent, aqueous urea, was mixed with glycerol (C3H8O3) in an 80-20 ratio by weight with the desire to function as a lubricant for the secondary injector. The injection timing and duration of the aqueous urea is critical to the reduction of NOx emissions due to the dependence of SNCR NOx reduction on critical factors…

Dynamic thermal behavior of a GDI spray impacting on a heated thin foil by phase-averaged infrared thermography

Istituto Motori CNR-Luigi Allocca, Alessandro Montanaro
University of Naples Federico II-Mattia Contino, Gennaro Cardone, Mirko Zaccara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0036
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
The regulations about pollutant emissions imposed by Community’s laws encourage the investigation on the optimization of the combustion in modern engines and in particular in those adopting the Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) configuration. It is known that the piston head and cylinder surface temperatures, coupled with the fuel injection pressure, strongly influence the interaction between droplets of injected fluid and the impinged wall. In the present study, the Infrared (IR) thermography is applied to investigate the thermal footprint of an iso-octane spray generated by a multi-hole GDI injector impinging on a heated thin foil. The experimental apparatus includes an invar foil (50 μm in thickness), clamped within a rigid frame heated at a fixed temperature (373 K) by Joule effect, and the GDI injector located 11 mm over the surface. Thermal images of the impinged spray are acquired from the opposite side of the injector at several time delays after the impact instant at two different injection pressures (10 and 20 MPa). The temperature difference distributions are employed to describe the unsteady dynamics of the…