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Assembly and quality optimisation for wing structures throughout the application of Optical projection

Airbus-Luis Rivera PhD
Jose Angel Gonzalez Domingo-Jose Angel Gonzalez-Domingo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1903
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The existing fastener installation operations account for drilling and bolting a large number of holes through the wing skin. Because of its inherent complexity, these operations are prone to costly defects. Consequently, there is room for improvement and optimisation. Instead of focusing on expensive, complex and high-risk automation solutions, visual aid has proven to be a more suitable option. Particularly, optical projection would display operations information directly on the wing skin. This would grant the operators the help they need to cut down on defects and remove the need to follow large slaving maps, simplifying their tasks. Therefore, the aim of this project is to introduce and install this technology, which will display hole positions and its related operation information. Coupled with the system’s flexibility to display any shape and colour, this solution will be robust enough and fit for purpose to support these production operations. After a comprehensive market research to select the best technology, the selected option was programmed and optimised to perform in an Airbus environment and to satisfy Airbus’ requirements. The…

Improvement of Hydraulic system tests in Aircraft Manufacturing by applying Lean techniques

Airbus-Kevin Forster
Cranfield Univ-Philip Webb
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1901
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Lean Manufacturing is generally a challenge across all manufacturing companies. Especially in the aerospace industry where production costs have a significant impact on the overall business success. Additionally, the aircraft Takt time is gradually being reduced to accomplish ramp up requirements. The hydraulic system tests are considered as a production waste (Muda Type I) since it is mandatory but does not add any value to the end customer. Furthermore, due to health and safety aspects, no other production task can be done while the test is being performed. This research project aimed at performing a Kaizen analysis of the hydraulic system test stations to reduce or eliminate idle time while it is taking place. To do so, an extensive literature review has be conducted to provide its research framework. Then, all the project requirements and constraints were identified in order to generate a design specification. As a part of the methodology, several design proposals to accomplish this specification are created. In parallel, a reverse engineering case scenario is used to generate a DMU using a…

Energy Recovery Rate from an Electric Air-cycle System under the Cruising Altitude and Speed.

Akita University-Takahiro Adachi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1905
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we focus on an electric air-cycle system in an electric aircraft, where the system has an electric compressor instead of a hydraulically-operated oil-based compressor. The electric compressor consumes the power to compress the rarefied air outside and take it in the system. The air goes through the air-cycle as a working fluid to exchange the heat and work. The main purpose of the air-cycle is to adjust the temperature and pressure in a cabin. Therefore, the working fluid of the air repeats compression and expansion. The working fluid passing through the cabin absorbs heat from the passengers and avionics. After that, the air is discharged outside with higher heat level and pressure levels. This means that the discharged air has a potential energy to recover the power consumption in the electric compressor. So, we have analytically estimated an energy recovery rate which is defined as a ratio of the potential energy of the discharged air to the energy consumption in the compressor, and shown the recovery rate under the condition of cruising…

Hypersonic flow simulation towards space propulsion geometries

Universidade Da Beira Interior-Odelma Teixeira, Jose Pascoa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1873
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
With the actual tendency of space exploration, hypersonic flight have gain a significant relevance, taking the attention of many researchers over the world. This work aims to present a numerical tool to solve hypersonic gas dynamic flows for space propulsion geometries. This will be done by validating the code using two well-known hypersonic test cases, the double cone and the hollow cylinder flare. These test cases are part of NATO Research and Technology Organization Working Group 10 validation of hypersonic flight for laminar viscous-inviscid interactions. During the validation process several important flow features of hypersonic flow are captured and compared with available CFD and numerical data. Special attention is taken to the phenomenon of vibrational excitation of the molecules. Different vibrational non-equilibrium models are used and compared with the available data. The pressure and the heat flux along the surfaces are also analyzed. The CFD simulation is conducted using an open-source CDF solver for hypersonic flows using the OpenFOAM framework. The two-temperature CFD solver, employing central-upwind interpolation schemes of Kurganov, Noelle e Petrova, hy2Foam, is…

NDT Application from Conventional to Digital Radiography for the Aircraft Maintenance Industry

SORT Engineering GmbH-Adel A. Ghobbar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1907
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Technological innovation can provide improved productivity, increased cost savings, and it can keep or make an organisation competitive. Digital radiography for non-destructive testing (NDT) is such a promising innovation. In organisations with large scale utilisation of non-destructive testing, a transition from film to digital radiography is easily justified. Nevertheless, this is not the case for every organisation. Next to the operational workflow, system flexibility, quality, and regulatory issues also play a role in the trade-off. Especially in the aircraft maintenance industry, where the non-destructive operation is related to a lot of different factors. Motivated by the developments of digital radiography, the NDT department of KLM Engineering & Maintenance (E&M) requested advice in reconsidering their conventional film radiography capabilities. The objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of digital radiography at KLM E&M. First, a thorough understanding of the technical and practical principles behind conventional radiographic testing was built up. Regulatory and process requirements were identified and several digital radiographic systems for industrial purposes were analysed. Based on the requirements, only computed radiography (CR)…

Step & Repeat: Reduce Derivative Aircraft Development Risk with Design Reuse

Mentor, A Siemens Business-Muhammad Askar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1871
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Designing derivative aircraft is a complex process with potentially large amounts of program risk. In this paper we present new technologies such as digital interface control documents, and generative design that can transform this process. Employing these types of technologies makes the process more verifiable and repeatable. The paper explains how the technologies can be adopted from the early definition of components & LRUs, to their aggregation into reusable subsystems, as well as the automation and validation processes that can be built around them to reduce the associated complexity and program risk.

Improving and Evaluating Aircraft Maintenance On-Time Performance for Wide-Body A-Checks Delays

SORT Engineering GmbH-Adel A. Ghobbar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1909
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Martinair is based on Schiphol Oost and is part of the KLM Group since 2008. The KLM Group on its turn is part of the Air France – KLM Group. Martinair started as a charter company and was founded by Martin Schröder. Martinair is now a cargo operator with its own maintenance base at Hangar 32 on Schiphol Oost. It operates 7 McDonnell Douglas MD-11’s and 6 Boeing B747-400’s. The focus will be on the MD-11 tri-jet in this thesis. Due to the entry in the KLM Group in 2008, changes have been made for synergy reasons to the Martinair organisation. Martinair Maintenance and Engineering is now focussing on becoming a Regional Jet Center. The maintenance on the Embraer E-190 of KLM Cityhopper will be the main part of the work. Due to the new focus of the Martinair maintenance and engineering department, the maintenance capacity for a MD-11 A-check will no longer be available. It is therefore chosen to outsource the MD-11 A-check from Martinair maintenance and engineering to KLM engineering and maintenance. The…

Gradationally Controlled Voltage Inverter for More Electric Aircrafts

IHI Corporation-Hitoshi Oyori
Mitsubishi Electric Corp.-Tetsuya Kojima, Masahiro Sugahara, Yusuke Shirouchi, Hisatoshi Fukumoto, Akihiko Iwata
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1913
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Over recent decades, there has been a lot of progress toward a more electric aircraft (MEA) to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. In MEAs, many subsystems that previously used hydraulic or pneumatic power have been replaced by electrical systems with inverters and electrical machines. Therefore, MEAs reduce the weight, i.e. fuel consumption, and maintenance cost. To achieve advanced electrical systems, the weight of inverters has significant importance. In this work, a gradationally controlled voltage (GCV) inverter is proposed to reduce the weight and enhance reliability. A GCV inverter can supply gradational quasi-sinusoidal voltages combining two different voltages from a 3-phase 3-level (main) inverter and three single-phase H-bridge (sub) inverters. A dc power supply is required only for the main inverter. A main inverter with Si-IGBTs supplies the fundamental voltage by only one switching in the fundamental period. Consequently, the switching loss is minimized and hence the weight of cooling systems can be reduced. Sub inverters, which have the half of dc-link voltage of the main inverter, employ SiC-MOSFETs with higher switching frequency and compensate for…

Reconfigurable Jig Tooling and In-Process Metrology for High Accuracy Prototype Compound Helicopter Wing Assembly

University of Nottingham-Richard J. Crossley
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1877
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper documents the potential use of reconfigurable reusable jig tooling based on the box-joint system for use in the assembly of a prototype compound helicopter wing. Due to the aircraft configuration the wing design is pinned at both ends and therefore requires a higher degree of accuracy (typically 0.2mm), over the 4m length, than conventional wings. In this paper the cost benefit of reusable tooling in a low volume prototype scenario is examined followed by the design of the jig and location features to enable accurate build and metrology documentation. A prototype 4m test jig comprising of commercially available components and bespoke machined ‘pick-ups’ is presented here. Hardware and measurement process cost modelling is documented along with results for the positional and hinge-line concentricity setting accuracy that was achieved using a laser tracking system. Subsequent measurements over a 24hr period are also discussed along with potential sources of the observed reduction in jig accuracy over time.

Design and Experimental Verification of a High Force Density Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Motor for Aerospace Application

Daido University-Yoshiaki Kano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1911
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the design and construction of a high force density tubular permanent-magnet (PM) linear motor. A strut structure of a tubular PM linear motor developed to improve resistance to impurities and structural rigidity is described. In the design, computationally efficient two-dimensional finite-element analysis is used to estimate the motor force density. The motor’s design is optimized for the major pole number/slot number combinations of 8/24, 16/24, 20/24, 28/24, 32/24, and 40/24. The optimized motor design of a three-phase 16/24 combination with one-layer winding achieved the highest force-to-mass density. The force-to-mass density of the designed motor is higher than that of the first prototype motor by a factor of 5. The validity of the proposed design method and the expected drive characteristics are experimentally verified using the prototype.