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A Study of the Control Scheme of An Active Suspension Using Mpc and Preview Information

Korea University of Technology and Education-Byung-Kwan Cho, Gilha Ryu
University of California-J. Karl Hedrick
  • Technical Paper
  • 1999-10-0036
Published 1999-05-23 by SAE Australasia in Australia
This paper is concerned with the design and evaluation of an active suspension controller which maximizes the ride comfort of a vehicle and improves the handling characteristics. For this purpose, Model Predictive Control (MPC) is applied and it is assumed that the preview information of the oncoming road disturbance is available. The predictive control approach uses the output prediction and receding-horizon approach. It uses a predictor to forecast the output over a time horizon and determines the future control over the horizon by minimizing the performance index. The method developed is applied to a four- degree-of-freedom, half-vehicle model and numerical simulation shows that the MPC controllers achieves substantial improvement to the ride qualities and performances of a vehicle.
 

Driver fatigue caused by high level of CO2 inside vehicles

Automotive Safety Engineering Pty Ltd-G. Zivkovic
University of South Australia-I. M. Bidhendi, S. Crowe
  • Technical Paper
  • 1999-10-0040
Published 1999-05-23 by SAE Australasia in Australia
From the studies conducted over the years on car crashes, specially single vehicle crashes, it is generally concluded that driver fatigue has been one of the major causes of the accident. One of the contributing factors in driver''s fatigue could be attributed to the presence of high levels of carbon dioxide in the vehicle. The aim of this project was to test and record the levels of carbon dioxide experienced inside a modern family car, in order to establish whether the concentration present was comparable to those suggested in the literature and standards for the comfort level.
 

Environmental legislation and engine design

Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd.-M. L. Monaghan
  • Technical Paper
  • 1999-10-0003
Published 1999-05-23 by SAE Australasia in Australia
Gasoline engines have had to face increasingly tight limits on HC, CO and NOx. The engine designer has responded by building in features to minimize emissions and reduce the task for the aftertreatment system. At the same time pressure to reduce fuel consumption has forced changes in the design of the engine to minimize friction and reduce the penalties of cold start and warm-up operation.The same pressure on fuel consumption has led to the introduction of sophisticated small diesels for passenger car use, but these small diesels have been subjected to increasingly severe legislation. Particulates and NOx have been the main focus. The engine designer has responded in a similar manner to that adopted for the gasoline engine, but different design solutions are required for the light-duty diesel.The paper describes the approaches taken in the basic engine design to achieve compliance with projected emissions and fuel consumption levels.
 

Side impact protection improvements in motor vehicles

Automotive Safety Engineering Pty Ltd-G. Zivkovic
University of South Australia-I. M. Bidhendi
  • Technical Paper
  • 1999-10-0038
Published 1999-05-23 by SAE Australasia in Australia
One of the most frequent types of vehicle collision is side impact in which serious injuries occur mainly due to the structural inadequacy of the side doors. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the safety of vehicles by offering a new design concept to improve side protection of vehicles.In this research, some of the decorative components of the side doors were replaced with high tensile strength steel bars of different shapes, and the toughened glass side window was replaced with a polycarbonate window. A number of side crash tests were conducted to examine the effect of such a modification.
 

Why can't in-service safety checks mirror new vehicle design rules? Braking performance a good example

Vipac Engineers and Scientists Ltd.-Michael Smith
  • Technical Paper
  • 1999-10-0042
Published 1999-05-23 by SAE Australasia in Australia
The braking ability of a vehicle is one of the most significant safety elements in automotive vehicle design today. Braking performance is critical in the avoidance of accidents and almost every single accident involves the application of the vehicle brakes. The development of improved braking systems over the years has greatly improved the vehicle safety performance and it is well documented that the number of deaths attributed to the failure of braking systems is a very small number in percentage terms in most countries of the world. Braking systems however are a contributor in nearly all accidents and therefore the performance of the vehicle brake system compared to its original design is of particular importance to regulatory authorities.Most authorities throughout the world use brake regulations as part of their roadworthiness requirements but the type of rules and the methods used vary considerably throughout countries and even throughout States, such as in Australia and the United States. Many of these standards are based on old technologies and are considerably out of date when compared with theā€¦
 

Development of super-long-life tools with functionally graded materials

Honda Engineering Co., Ltd.-Mitsuo Kuwabara, Seiichi Hirai, Tsutomu Saka, Tadao Kanno
  • Technical Paper
  • 1999-10-0005
Published 1999-05-23 by SAE Australasia in Australia
A new super-hard material has been developed based on the technology gained through the research and development of ceramic production methods. The new super-hard material has the characteristics such that its surface has higher hardness, durability, and its inside is stronger and more tenacious including the internal current layer change physical properties and the components at a distance from the surface. This functionally graded material presents drills, reamers, and dies that are hard to break or wear. Production line tests have proved these to have the same or higher strength and have higher tenacity than the alternative high-grade, super-hard material, yet last 1.5 to 8 times longer.
 

Beat resonance implications in automotive design

University of Wollongong-A. G. McLean
  • Technical Paper
  • 1999-10-0044
Published 1999-05-23 by SAE Australasia in Australia
Beat phenomena is often experienced and reported by both racing car and certain heavy prime mover drivers. Due to the increasing frequency of these reports it is appropriate to examine the occurrence of this phenomena. This examination reveals that large dynamic magnification factors apply in multi- model vibration systems when excited at particular operation frequencies. The existence of these large dynamic magnification factors for these multi-mode systems, which hitherto have been largely overlooked, have significant implications in regard to the design of vehicle suspensions, chassis and components. With the aim of overcoming this problem this paper first examines the existence and implications of the phenomena in regard to a single mode system. The analysis is then extended to multi-mode systems typical of vehicles. This extension allows identification of a systematic and convenient design procedure to effect design checks using current FEA packages. The procedure should prove most useful for vehicle designers.
 

Development of a new PM HSS-based material for exhaust valve seat insert in diesel engines

China National Heavy Duty Truck Co.-Qixian Shen, Ying Xin
Shandong Mechanical Research Institute-Fan Zheng
  • Technical Paper
  • 1999-10-0007
Published 1999-05-23 by SAE Australasia in Australia
This paper summarizes the current developments of PM (powder metallurgy) valve seat insert materials for high performance engines. Using a transient liquid phase sintering process in a vacuum furnace, the new PM HSS (high speed steel)-based exhaust valve seat insert material SGQ 123 is developed. The simulation testing under several high temperatures, pressures and burning atmospheres and 1000 h durability engine test of the exhaust valve seat inserts made of the new PM HSS-based material wee done and compared with foreign PM parts.The results show that the new PM HSS-based material SGQ 123 has an advanced combination of properties and high-temperature, temper-resistant behavior. The wear resistance of the new material is two to three times as high as that of foreign PM parts and the cost price of the new material is only one-third that of foreign PM parts. It indicates that the new PM HSS-based material is a potential material for the exhaust valve seat insert in diesel engines.
 

Simulation and experimental analysis of the stamping forming process of an automobile side-frame

Jiao Tong Univ.-Zhang Weigang, Lin Zhongqin, Hu Yimin, Xu Weili, Bao Youxia
  • Technical Paper
  • 1999-10-0011
Published 1999-05-23 by SAE Australasia in Australia
The stamping forming process of an automobile side-frame is studied by numerical simulation and experiment. It is predicted by simulation results and experimental stamping that strain distribution is sharply concentrated in several corner areas after forming, which might cause localized necking or splitting in following processes. According to numerical results of simulation, thickness, and safety of forming the parameters, of metal sheets for side-frame forming are discussed. The validity of modeling and the accuracy and reliability of simulation results are assessed by comparing calculated strains with experimental ones.
 

Opto-electronic torque, absolute angle and rate sensor for electric steering applications

Bishop Innovation Pty Ltd-Karl Eisenhauer, James Andrew, John Baxter, Desmond Boyton, Stuart Robinson
Centre Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique SA-Friedrich Heitger
  • Technical Paper
  • 1999-10-0046
Published 1999-05-23 by SAE Australasia in Australia
This paper describes the attributes, performance and development status of a high-performance, opto-electronic sensor intended for use in electric and electrohydraulic steering systems. This sensor can be used in both underhood and in-cabin environments and provides a measurement of torque, absolute angle and angular velocity to a steering controller.This device overcomes deficiencies of existing sensors that generally exhibit combinations of problems such as high cost, low stiffness, poor resolution, hysteresis, susceptibility to electromagnetic fields, drift from mechanical wear, overload or environmental extremes and other problems. It has been designed to eliminate the need for calibration during and after manufacture, and can be disassembled and reassembled without recalibration.In addition, the measurement of torque, absolute angle and angular velocity in a single transducer eliminates the need for additional sensors for other vehicle systems such as stability control or intelligent cruise control.