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Market Experience on NissanS Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-T. Ashizawa, A. Iwamoto, T. Kikuchi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2002-33-0001
Published 2002-11-27 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
A number of vehicle manufacturers have introduced directinjection gasoline (DIG) engines to the Japanese and European markets with the aims of improving fuel consumption and boosting WOT torque. At Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., with the objective of improving fuel consumption through stratified charge combustion, we first launched a 3.0-liter V6 DIG engine in the Japanese market in 1997. Since then, we have put on the Japanese market six DIG engines and eleven car models fitted with such engines. This paper presents an overview of the DIG engines developed to date and describes the many different issues that were encountered and how they were resolved in the course of bringing these engines to market.

Di-Motronic-Cost-Optimized Solutions for All SI Engines

Robert Bosch GmbH-Juergen Gerhardt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2002-33-0005
Published 2002-11-27 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
Gasoline Direct Injection (DI) was launched mainly to enhance the Fuel Economy of the Spark Ignition Engine (SI Engine). Derived from an analysis of the three major requirements on today's and future engine and engine management concepts, a requirement triangle is defined.Based on this requirement triangle, all currently discussed DI concepts are evaluated in terms of fuel consumption, noxious emission and driveability. Included are wall-guided, spray-guided and homogeneous concepts and their combinations with turbocharging.This evaluation leads to the introduction of a set of DI components with the flexibility to be tailored to the different requirements in the various segments of the market

Engine Downsizing, a Contribution to Greenhouse Effect Reduction

Renault SA-B. Hauet, Y. Maroger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2002-33-0003
Published 2002-11-27 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
The analysis of current European automotive manufacturers' engine line up shows that even a strong increase of diesel market share will not be enough to comply with 2008 140 g CO2/km Cafe self-commitment and possible future regulations. New technologies should be introduced in gasoline engines in order to reduce their fuel consumption by 10 to 20%.To be affordable those new technologies have to ensure a fuel economy improvement for both certification cycles (NMVEG cycle) and real driving customer behavior. This paper compares the most promising technologies and focus on turbocharged downsized gasoline engines, including low end torque enhancement.

The New Generation of Nox Storage Catalysts

OMG AG & Co. KG-Markus Kögel, Gerardo Carelli, Ulrich Göbel, Thomas Kreuzer, Dieter Lindner, Lutz Ruwisch, Juliane Theis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2002-33-0007
Published 2002-11-27 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
The launching of the direct injection gasoline engine is currently one of the major challenges for the automotive industry. In addition to its potential for a notable reduction of fuel consumption, the direct injection gasoline engine offers increased power during stoichiometric and lean operation and therefore offers a considerable market potential for the direct injection concept in the near future.In order to meet the increasingly more stringent European emission levels (EU IV) whilst at the same time retaining the advantages of fuel economy, new strategies for the exhaust gas aftertreatment are required. The most promising technique developed in recent years, especially for the NOx conversion in lean exhaust gas, is the NOx storage catalyst. The NOx storage technology achieves a high level of NOx conversion by storing nitrogen oxides reversibly as nitrates during lean operating conditions, while the periodic regeneration of the NOx storage components takes place under rich, i.e., under reducing conditions. To take advantage of the fuel savings over the entire lifetime of the vehicle, the most important challenge for the catalyst developer…

The CoD2 Reduction Potential of Gasoline Engines With Variable Valve Train Systems

AVL List GmbH-D. Denger, P. Kapus
  • Technical Paper
  • 2002-33-0009
Published 2002-11-27 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
To comply in the best way with the conflicting requirements for low emission, high fuel economy and performance, variable valve actuation (VVA) systems are applied. The most simple variants, cam phasers are already a standard technology and are utilized both for improvement of performance and fuel economy at moderate cost. The next step, continuously variable mechanical valve actuation systems result not only in a further improvement of fuel economy, however, increase the production requirements over proportionally. A huge step in fuel economy is obtained with VVA systems which allow cylinder deactivation. Comparable simple on/off cylinder deactivation systems are preferably applied with cylinder numbers equal to or larger than six. The highest potential for low emission and fuel consumption is given by camless fully variable valve actuation. Whereas long time electromechanic systems were favored, currently a real break through is more expected with electrohydraulic systems.

Less CoD2 Thanks to the Bmw 4-Cyl. Valvetronic Engine

BMW-B. Ludwig
  • Technical Paper
  • 2002-33-0011
Published 2002-11-27 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
BMW's new generation engine family represents a major step forwards in the field of engine development. The first engine in the NG family, the 1.8-liter, 4-cylinder N42, has been in series production since April 2001. The NG engine family has since been extended with 1.6 and 2.0 liter variants of the 4-cylinder engine and 4.4 and 3.6 liter variants of the 8 cylinder engine.The effective reduction in consumption experienced by customers in comparison with the predecessor is primarily attributable to VALVETRONIC, a charge control system which operates according to the principle of ""advanced intake valve closing.'' This makes it possible to reduce the pumping work which is inherent to the throttled engine due to its very operating principle. Only current advances in all areas of mechatronics have enabled the implementation of this technology. In particular, aspects of consumption will be dealt with in the following.

Scenario and Trends on Hybrid Propulsion Technologies

Centro Ricerche Fiat-G. Rovera, V. Ravello
  • Technical Paper
  • 2002-33-0015
Published 2002-11-27 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
Over recent years a variety of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) have been realized both at prototype and production level. Architecture complexity ranges from the simplest parallel and series configurations, to the combined and mixed ones, demonstrating the potential benefits associated with new functionalities (fuel economy, emissions reduction, low speed electric cruising, reduced external noise, etc.).This paper presents an overview of the evolution of hybrid architectures, with specific reference to solutions which are potentially suitable for general-purpose applications, satisfying the expectations of the mass-market both in term of environment performance and perceived qualities.Parallel and split architectures adopting ICEs supported by electric machines are able to meet all these requirements, avoiding the complexity, weight and costs of series hybrids or the burden of battery packs for zero emission operation.The analysis of hybrid functionalities (energy management, engine control, electric boosting, stop & start, regenerative braking) leads to the specification of the main components and subsystems. Furthermore the technology evolution trend shows further potential to improve performance and costs before the end of this decade. However the costs of…

Electromechanical Valve Train-Prospect of Future Si Combustion Technology

FEV Motorentechnik GmbH-P. Wolters, W. Salber, J. Geiger
RWTH Aachen-S. Pischinger, J. Dilthey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2002-33-0013
Published 2002-11-27 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
The present discussion about CO2 emissions makes the improvement of fuel consumption a central topic in gasoline engine development. There are different opportunities for improvement. Concepts with direct fuel injection, downsizing and unthrottled load control by variable valve trains are possible solutions. Additional concepts are the controlled auto ignition and the homogenous lean-burn combustion. Of course other combinations are possible.For Europe, direct injection is a popular solution but comes along with a very expensive exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Downsizing is a very effective solution but may lead to problems with customer acceptance due to reduction of engine capacity and cylinder numbers. Because of using a conventional exhaust gas aftertreatment system, the variable valve train is a very attractive solution for reduction of fuel consumption on gasoline engine applications. Controlled auto ignition is a concept by which fuel consumption as well as the NOx emissions are reduced, but only in a limited engine map area. In combination with a supercharged combustion system tuned for excellent lean burn capability the homogenous lean-burn combustion enables a significant increase…

The Opportunity for Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the Us

General Motors Corp.-P. J. Savagian
  • Technical Paper
  • 2002-33-0017
Published 2002-11-27 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
This paper examines the potential demand for hybrid electric vehicles in the United States Automobile market. Hybrid vehicles reduce fuel consumption and can be part of an automaker's portfolio of products used to meet customer preference and regulatory needs. There are several types of hybrid systems possible which offer more or less benefit at more or less cost. An economic framework is offered in this work to help identify the factors of hybrid vehicle's potential to create value for the vehicle owner and the vehicle manufacturer.Even though fuel consumption and subsequent CO2 generation are global issues, several important factors are regionally dependent. The US automobile market differs significantly from the European or Japanese scenes in fuel prices, driving patterns, fuel availability, customer preference, vehicle size and performance, government regulations for emissions and air quality, and government incentives that make the challenges and opportunities for hybrid vehicles in the US different. The nature of those factors and their effect on the outlook for various hybrid applications and challenges are discussed.

Cleaner Engine Oils for Cleaner Exhaust Gas Emissions

DaimlerChrysler AG-N. Pelz, M. Schenk
  • Technical Paper
  • 2002-33-0019
Published 2002-11-27 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
A very old storyOne of the first car races on mountain roads started in Nice in 1901 and the gold medal was won by the driver of a Mercedes arriving first in La Turbie. Why to begin here with that very old story? In our documents of that car race engine oil of good quality is mentioned for the first time to be essential for the endurance of the engine under hard operating conditions.The old storyNeither the cars of these old years nor the engines, nor the lubricants have much in common with the cars, engines and lubricants of today. Of course, most principles remained the same; 4 wheels, the combustion engine, the fossil fuel and the need for good engine oil. But the details changed to a very big extent! Let us now concentrate on the engine oil: what means ""good engine oil""? There are certain criteria which have to be met simultaneously: The most important criteria control the engine for function, friction, wear, cleanliness, long oil drain intervals, and fuel efficiency.The quality of…