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A “STEP” Forward for Product Lifecycle Management

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP10_02
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

The existence of countless proprietary file formats and the exchange of 3D CAD data has been a significant problem since the beginning of 3D CAD modeling. CAD applications and methods using digital data are constantly changing, which predicates the need for a solution to share validated and accurately translated data. Thus the birth of STEP242.

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Defining an Open System Architecture Standard for Defense Systems

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP10_04
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

For many years now, there have been efforts within the US defense community to adopt “Open System Architecture” principles (or OSA) for defense computing platforms. Stretching back to the mid-2000's there have been numerous efforts by all service branches to define sets of OSA principles or requirements on the embedded computing systems they procure and deploy. While these efforts have resulted in widespread adoption of POSIX functions for common tasks and a gradual shift in the use of common form factors and technologies such as VPX and Ethernet, there are still wide disparities between products from different suppliers, which creates difficulties for integrators. Product variations also make technology insertions or system configuration changes expensive, time consuming, and often locked to a particular vendor.

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Green's Function Extraction from Atmospheric Acoustic Propagation

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP10_08
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Understanding what affects acoustic waves propagating in the atmosphere is important for a variety of military applications including the development of new remote sensing techniques.

Acoustic waves propagating in the atmosphere may undergo many effects including refraction by temperature and wind velocity gradients, scattering by atmospheric turbulence, absorption by the atmosphere (fluid), diffraction by terrain features, and absorption and reflection by a porous ground. As a result, there may be insonification in acoustic shadow zones, amplitude and phase fluctuations of the propagating sound signals, loss of signal coherence, changes in the interference maxima and minima of the direct ground reflected waves, and multipath effects. Understanding these effects is important for a variety of military applications, such as acoustic source localization and classification, noise propagation in the atmosphere, and the development of new remote sensing techniques of the atmosphere.

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Defeating Commercial Drone Threats with Open-Source SDR

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP10_06
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

With the emergence of highly capable, low-cost, wirelessly controlled drones, bad actors can easily execute disruptive operations. Such incidents have created a need for drone defense systems that rapidly evolve with ever-increasing threat frequency and sophistication.

It's nearly impossible to look at technology news without seeing an article about drones. Whether detailing how Amazon wants to use drones to deliver packages or revealing amazing aerial video of drones following Olympic snowboarders, commercial drones are ubiquitous. Drone emergence has benefited many applications including sports broadcasting and wildlife preservation wilderness surveys. Offering powerful, intelligent software, drones are becoming less expensive and easier to use, with substantial operating range.

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SnowMicroPenetrometer Applications for Winter Vehicle Mobility

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP10_10
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Characterizing the mechanical properties of snow and their impact on vehicle performance could improve vehicle winter mobility modeling.

The U.S. Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) Military Engineering Program on Remote Assessment of Infrastructure for Ensured Maneuver (RAFTER) Boreal Aspects of Ensured Maneuver (BAEM) identifies the need for modeling over-snow vehicle performance, as many factors related to vehicle setup and land surface condition contribute to vehicle efficiency. Accurately estimating snow macromechanical characteristics-such as elastic modulus, stiffness, and strength-is critical for understanding how effectively a vehicle will travel over snow-covered terrain.

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Artificial Intelligence and Autonomous Vehicles

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP10_01
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

The use of artificial intelligence (AI) based machine learning technologies in autonomous vehicles is on the rise. Helping to drive this trend is the availability of a new class of embedded AI processors. A good example is NVIDIA's Jetson family, which includes small form factor system on modules (SoMs) that provide GPU-accelerated parallel processing. These high-performance, low-power devices are designed to support the deep learning and computer vision capabilities needed to build software-defined autonomous machines. They derive massive computing capabilities from the use of a parallel processing GPU device with many cores, enabling next-gen computing devices to take on many of the tasks that were historically handled by humans or multiple, traditional computers.

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The Challenge of Replacing Hard Chrome

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP10_03
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

The search for a suitable replacement for hard chrome on aerospace components has been a key supply chain priority for aircraft manufacturers. This is because of the documented health risks to workers and the impact on the environment from exposure to hexavalent chromium, a carcinogen that occurs during the chrome plating process and is the most toxic form of chromium.

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Influence of Leading-Edge Oscillatory Blowing on Time-Accurate Dynamic Store Separation

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP10_07
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Developing an understanding of, and potentially controlling, pitch bifurcation of a store release from an aircraft during flight could improve weapons delivery.

Increasing the operational efficiency of weapons employed in hostile environments is a high priority of the United States Air Force (USAF). In recent history, the USAF has made a move to smaller and internally stored weapons, especially for fighter aircraft. Maintaining a low radar cross section signature, and thus a low observable air vehicle, is desirable so the aircraft is less detectable by the enemy.

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Solid-State Microwave Power Module

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP10_05
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Historically, the term microwave power module (MPM) has been associated with a small, fully integrated, self-contained radio frequency (RF) amplifier that combines both solid-state and microwave vacuum electronics technologies. Typically, the output power of these MPMs is on the order of about 100 Watts CW over an octave bandwidth. Because of their smaller size and lower mass compared to conventional traveling-wave tube amplifiers, these MPMs may have applications in electronic warfare systems.

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Waveform Synthesis for Shock Response Spectrum Replication, Applied to Ground Vehicle Component Testing

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP10_09
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Improved test methods will help alleviate the impact of shock levels on military and commercial ground vehicle components.

The motivation for this work is to mitigate shock levels on vehicle components, through testing new designs of equipment. The objective is to generate a time history to perform shock testing on military and commercial ground vehicle components. The time histories are used to drive hydraulic actuators coupled to a test specimen.

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