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Oxygen Cylinder Quality, Serviceability, Maintenance Transfilling, and Marking

A-10 Aircraft Oxygen Equipment Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1059F
  • Current
Published 2020-01-17 by SAE International in United States
This document provides guidance concerning the maintenance and serviceability of oxygen cylinders beginning with the quality of oxygen that is required, supplemental oxygen information, handling and cleaning procedures, transfilling, and marking of serviced oxygen assemblies. This document attempts to outline in a logical sequence oxygen quality, serviceability, and maintenance of oxygen cylinders. Content of this document can also be used for refilling of oxygen cylinder while installed on aircraft, directly or through an intermediate charging port.
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Experimental Investigation on the Impact of Engine Oil on RTV Silicone

Saginaw Valley State University-John Herman, Kirk Donaldson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5002
Published 2020-01-17 by SAE International in United States
Silicone-based RTV sealants see widespread use in the automotive industry. In the uncured state, RTV silicone has the consistency of thick toothpaste and can be easily applied to form an effective seal. However, a significant amount of anecdotal evidence suggests issues exist with RTV’s ability to maintain a satisfactory seal in some long-term engine sealing applications. ASTM D7216 is used to evaluate the effects of different oil blends on a set of standard molded reference samples after submersion in an elevated temperature oil bath. The evaluated material properties are hardness, percent volume change, tensile strength, and ultimate elongation. A library of such results is readily available through Savant Laboratories of Midland, Michigan. Given RTV’s widespread use, surprisingly no such library of information exists concerning an engine oil’s effects on different RTVs. Due to difficulties in obtaining the reference oil, a commercially available engine oil was selected as a reference and RTV specimens were evaluated against the ASTM D7216 reference silicone (VMQ) for comparison. Both the hardness of the RTV and VMQ decreased by ~30%, though…
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Oil, Reference, for “L” Stock Rubber Testing

AMS CE Elastomers Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3020B
  • Current
Published 2020-01-17 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a petroleum-based reference oil.
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New Architectural Design of the Runtime Server for Remote Vehicle Communication Services

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Germany-Vladivy Poaka
Technische Universität Clausthal, Germany-Sven Hartmann
  • Journal Article
  • 12-03-01-0002
Published 2020-01-17 by SAE International in United States
This article addresses the issue of a design to provide remote vehicle communication services sustainably. These services include new features such as remote repair of Electronic Control Unit (ECU)’s software errors and feature on demand, to mention just a few key objectives. With the usual implementations of the Modular Vehicle Communication Interface (MVCI) runtime server [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14] many difficulties remain [15]. They are not sustainable and require dedicated hardware. The Dictionary Server discussed here provides necessary data to diagnostic applications in general, without putting at risk Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)’s expertise. It also provides data to the road infrastructure for V2V- and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2X)-based services. This crucial diagnostic data contains ECUs’ communication parameters, memory programming data, and other available functions. They are kept confidentially by OEMs. Furthermore, our solution is nondisruptive, as it also supports traditional vehicle communication services. We evaluated a prototype in terms of time complexity, scalability, and availability.
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BOLT, MACHINE - DOUBLE HEXAGON EXTENDED WASHER HEAD, DRILLED, PD SHANK, SILVER PLATED, NICKEL ALLOY, UNS N07718, 185 KSI MIN, .4375-20 UNJF-3A

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS3254D
  • Current
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Two-Speed Transmission Gear Shift Process Analysis and Optimization Using Genetic Algorithm

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd., China-Zhan Cao, Jiansen Yang, Xinyu Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 08-09-01-0001
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
Electric Vehicle (EV) equipped with two-speed transmission has benefit in improving dynamic performance and saving battery consumption. However, during gear shift process, torque interruption and shift impact may lead to a bad shift quality. This work investigates gear shift process in an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) configuration-based two-speed transmission. First of all, a typical gear shift process is analyzed. Parameters like motor speed, shift force, motor torque change rate, and speed difference between synchronizer and target engage gear are all included to find the relationships with shift duration. Then vehicle jerk is introduced as a criterion to evaluate shift impact. Besides, a comprehensive shift control strategy is developed. While keeping the output torque at wheels unchanged, the shift strategy also improved motor working efficiency after gear shift. Therefore, to determine an optimum shift strategy and achieve a balance among different parameters, Genetic Algorithm (GA) multi-objective optimization method is implemented. Through GA optimization, several solutions are presented and discussed. The final results can well satisfy the requirements of different objectives. This work provides a novel and…
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Effects of Stepped-Lip Combustion System Design and Operating Parameters on Turbulent Flow Evolution in a Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ford Motor Company, USA-Eric Kurtz
USA-Stephen Busch
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0016
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
Interactions between fuel sprays and stepped-lip diesel piston bowls can produce turbulent flow structures that improve efficiency and emissions, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Recent experimental and simulation efforts provide evidence that increased efficiency and reduced smoke emissions coincide with the formation of long-lived, energetic vortices during the mixing-controlled portion of the combustion event. These vortices are believed to promote fuel-air mixing, increase heat-release rates, and improve air utilization, but they become weaker as main injection timing is advanced nearer to the top dead center (TDC). Further efficiency and emissions benefits may be realized if vortex formation can be strengthened for near-TDC injections. This work presents a simulation-based analysis of turbulent flow evolution within a stepped-lip combustion chamber. A conceptual model summarizes key processes in the evolution of turbulent flow for main injections starting after TDC. Differences in turbulent flow evolution are described for a near-TDC main injection, and potential variations in combustion system design and operating parameters to enhance vortex formation under these conditions are hypothesized. The parametric studies executed to…
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BOLT, MACHINE - DOUBLE HEXAGON EXTENDED WASHER HEAD, DRILLED, PD SHANK, SILVER PLATED, NICKEL ALLOY, UNS N07718, 185 KSI MIN, .3125-24 UNJF-3A

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS3252E
  • Current
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Enhancement of Design for Manufacturing and Assembly Guidelines for Effective Application in Aerospace Part and Process Design

GITAM School of Technology-Mani Rathinam Rajamani, Eshwaraiah Punna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-6001
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
An aircraft’s detail part and assembly product design and development phase contribute to about three-fourths of the total cost spent in its entire product life cycle and determine the fate of the aircraft’s life as a whole. Each aerospace design organization presently has developed their own set of design rules, focusing on improving product design capability by enhancing the determined “Design for X” factor, with the focus on continual optimization and improvements. However there is huge variation among these design principles due to the nonstandardization of these design guidelines. To meet this gap, the use of Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA®) principles applicable for aerospace has to be developed. DFMA®) principles have been proven effective as guidelines to designers and manufacturing engineers in various discrete manufacturing and process industries. The use of DFMA® principles have resulted in proactively simplifying designs with reduced product costs and improved efficiencies in product design. Aerospace Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) industries are highly oligopolistic in nature, and their designs are widely reliant on the specific intellectual knowledge gained by…
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Energy Release Characteristics inside a Spark-Ignition Engine with a Bowl-in-Piston Geometry

West Virginia University-Jinlong Liu, Cosmin Emil Dumitrescu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5003
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
The conversion of compression ignition (CI) internal combustion engines to spark-ignition (SI) operation by adding a spark plug to ignite the mixture and fumigating the fuel inside the intake manifold can increase the use of alternative gaseous fuels (e.g., natural gas) in heavy-duty applications. This study proposed a novel, less-complex methodology based on the inflection points in the apparent rate of heat release (ROHR) that can identify and separate the fast-burning stage inside the piston bowl from the slower combustion stage inside the squish region (a characteristic of premixed combustion inside a diesel geometry). A single-cylinder 2L CI research engine converted to natural gas SI operation provided the experimental data needed to evaluate the methodology, at several spark timings, equivalence ratios, and engine speeds. The results indicated that the end of the bulk combustion traditionally defined as the location of 90% energy release was not greatly affected by the change in operating conditions. Moreover, the actual duration of the rapid-burning stage was 60-80% shorter than the crank angle interval between 10% and 90% energy release.…
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