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Fuel Rate Curve-Based Reverse Engineering Approach for Common Rail Diesel Injectors

Norwegian University of Science and Technology-Vladimir Krivopolianskii, Nicolas Lefebvre, Sergey Ushakov, Eilif Pedersen
Published 2019-09-20 by SAE International in United States
When focusing on optimization of the combustion process in a direct injection engine, it is essential to understand its dynamic performance with respect to engine loading settings. One of the most important factors influencing the energy conversions efficiency is fuel delivery characteristics. The understanding of the injector performance is usually associated with availability of a high-fidelity model based on the geometric and hydraulic features of the injector. In this paper, a so-called reverse engineering method was applied to characterize the internal arrangement of a solenoid-driven common rail injector using fuel rate curves and solenoid valve excitation current profiles. Operational modes corresponding to a highly transient injector state were considered during spray momentum flux experiments to examine the injector flow characteristics. The experimental results were eventually used as a reference for the parameter search algorithm to tune a hypothetical model of the studied injector. In this work, the multi-start trust region optimization method was chosen as a relatively computationally cheap algorithm that allows realistic constrained parametrization of injector components. Based on the obtained results, it could…
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Ring, Retaining-Spiral, Internal, Light Duty, Cres

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS3217B
  • Current
Published 2019-09-20 by SAE International in United States

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Effect of Inventory Storage on Automotive Flooded Lead-Acid Batteries

American Automobile Association Inc.-Matthew Garrett Lum
University of Central Florida-Matthew W. Logan, Arturo D. Annese, Fernando J. Uribe-Romo
Published 2019-09-20 by SAE International in United States
The battery is a central part of the vehicle’s electrical system and has to undergo cycling in a wide variety of conditions while providing an acceptable service life. Within a typical distribution chain, automotive lead-acid batteries can sit in storage for months before delivery to the consumer. During storage, batteries are subjected to a wide variety of temperature profiles depending on facility-specific characteristics. Additionally, batteries typically do not receive any type of maintenance charge before delivery. Effects of storage time, temperature, and maintenance charging are explored. Flooded lead-acid batteries were examined immediately after storage and after installation in vehicles subjected to normal drive patterns. While phase composition is a major consideration, additional differences in positive active material (PAM) were observed with respect to storage parameters. Batteries stored in a hot environment and kept at constant float voltage for a significant duration exhibited favorable PAM characteristics relative to other storage environments. In all cases, batteries kept on float charge throughout storage exhibited favorable PAM characteristics relative to batteries stored under equivalent conditions on open-circuit charge.
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BOLT, MACHINE - DOUBLE HEX EXTENDED WASHER HEAD, DRILLED, CLOSE TOL SHANK, AMS5643 (UNS S17400), 140 KSI, .4375-20 UNJF-3A

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS3178B
  • Current
Published 2019-09-20 by SAE International in United States

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Nut, Plain, Hexagon, Check - UNS S66286, 130 ksi Min, Silver Plated

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS9362B
  • Current
Published 2019-09-20 by SAE International in United States

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Innovative Dedicated Hybrid Transmission Concepts in the Next Generation of Hybrid Powertrains

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Technische Universität Carolo-Wilhelmina zu Braunschweig, Germany-Haijun Chen, Lin Li, Andreas Lange, Ferit Küçükay
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-01-0005
Published 2019-09-20 by SAE International in United States
Due to the advantages of hybrid vehicles in comparison with pure electric vehicles, Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)/Plug-in HEV (PHEV) no undoubtedly becomes the reasonable and practical solution in the development of vehicle electrification at the moment. Meanwhile, Dedicated Hybrid Transmission (DHT), as the especially designed hybrid transmission for HEV/PHEV, represents the development direction of hybrid vehicles. But in the market, the well-known DHT concepts are all protected by patents by large Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). How to break the patents and more importantly develop the innovative DHT concepts in the next generation is of vital importance in the development of HEV/PHEV. In this article, firstly, the features and comparisons of different well-known DHT concepts are discussed and analyzed. The mechanical and electrical complexity are introduced to essentially analyze the advantage and disadvantage of different kinds of DHT concepts. Based on the analysis, the possibilities of different DHT concepts in the next generation are further analyzed and demonstrated. The innovative DHT are derived from the analysis. In comparison with DHT in the market, the innovative DHT…
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Heat Treatment of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Parts Minimum Tensile Strength Below 220 ksi (1517 MPa)

AMS E Carbon and Low Alloy Steels Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS2759/1H
  • Current
Published 2019-09-19 by SAE International in United States

This specification, in conjunction with the general requirements for steel heat treatment covered in AMS2759, establishes the requirements for heat treatment of carbon and low-alloy steel parts to minimum ultimate tensile strengths below 220 ksi (1517 MPa). Parts are defined in AMS2759. Due to limited hardenability in these materials, there are size limits in this specification.

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Fundamental Concepts of Turbocharging Modern Engines Current Practices and Trends Web Seminar RePlay

  • Webinar Recordings
  • PD331858
Published 2019-09-19
Turbocharging is an integral part of many internal combustion engine systems. While it has long been a key to diesel engine performance, turbocharging is increasingly seen as an enabler in meeting many of the efficiency and performance requirements of modern automotive gasoline engines. This replay discusses the basic concepts of turbocharging and air flow management of four-stroke engines. It explores the fundamentals of turbocharging, system design features, performance measures, and matching and selection criteria. Topics include spark ignition and diesel engine systems, the impact of different applications. The course also covers the interaction between turbocharging and engine systems and the impact on performance, fuel economy, and emissions. Developments in turbocharging technology are also covered.By participating in this course, you will be able to: Identify the basics of how a turbocharger works, how to measure the appropriateness of a turbocharger, and how to select and match a turbocharger to the needs of your powertrainEstimate the impact of turbocharging on performance and emissionsRecognize potential issues such as packaging, noise, driveability, reliability, and durabilityList the latest developments in…
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Aluminum Alloy, Hand Forgings 7.5Zn - 1.6Cu - 1.5Mg - 0.12Zr (7085-T7452) Solution Heat Treated, Compression Stress-Relieved, and Overaged

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4414
  • Current
Published 2019-09-19 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of hand forgings 12 inches (305 mm) and under in nominal thickness and of forging stock.
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Aircraft Electrical Installations

AE-8A Elec Wiring and Fiber Optic Interconnect Sys Install
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP4404C
  • Current
Published 2019-09-19 by SAE International in United States
It is the purpose of this document to present design recommendations that will provide a basis for satisfactory and safe electrical installations in transport aircraft. This document is not intended to be a complete electrical installation design handbook. However, the requirements for safety extend so thoroughly throughout the electric systems that few areas of the installation are untouched by the document. It is recognized that individual circumstances may alter the details of any design. It is, therefore, important that this document not be considered mandatory but be used as a guide to good electrical application and installation design. Transport aircraft electric systems have rapidly increased in importance over a number of years until they are now used for many functions necessary to the successful operation of the aircraft. An ever increasing number of these functions are critical to the safety of the aircraft and its occupants. The greatly increased power available in electric systems is another factor in aircraft safety. These considerations make it essential that aircraft electrical design practices be carefully considered from the…
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