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SAE Brasil 96 V International Mobility Technology Conference and Exhibit
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Metrological Study on the Setting of the Top Dead Center in Internal Combustion Engines

Universidade de Brasilia-Alessandro B. de S. Oliveira, João Nildo de Souza Vianna, Fernando J. Rodrigues Neves, Marcelo Trindade de Sousa
Published 1996-10-01 by SAE International in United States
An experimental study was carried out on two engines of different displacement, in order to analyze in detail the two most common methods for the determination of the top dead center. The direct method, in which the top dead center is obtained from direct measurement of the piston position was compared with the thermodynamic method, based on the pressure curve in the combustion chamber. The experimental results show that the thermodynamic method, is accurate.
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Fuel Injection Technology for Low Emissions HSDI Diesel Engines

AVL List GmbH-Denis W. Gill, Peter L. Herzog
Published 1996-10-01 by SAE International in United States
The worldwide trend to increasingly stringent exhaust emissions standards, together with consumer requirements, are forcing both vehicle and engine manufacturers, as well as manufacturers of ancilliary equipment, to introduce new and often novel technology in order to produce clean, quiet and socially acceptable transport at affordable prices. The combustion process lies at the heart of the engine and the quality of the combustion determines the acceptability of the product to a very large extent. The fuel injection system plays a large role in the combustion process and in consequence, the fuel system type and capabilities strongly influence the performance of the combustion system.There has never been such a range of fuel injection systems available at one time as there is today. High pressure hydraulically actuated systems /1/ compete with cam driven fuel injection systems /2/ to deliver the injection requirements demanded by the vehicles both of today and in the future. The demands placed on the fuel injection system are addressed together with the types of fuel injection systems emerging. All of these systems have…
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Advanced Simulation Techniques for Optimization of Powertrain NVH and Fatigue Behaviour

K+P GmbH-Erich Payer
Published 1996-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Linear static and dynamic analysis are state-of-the-art to determine the NVH behaviour of engines and the fatigue behaviour of crankshafts by use of the finite element method (FEM). Using direct methods for solving the equations even supercomputing does not help to prevent nonlinear transient analysis from being very time consuming and inefficient for the essentially large number of degrees of freedom.Presenting nonlinear transient analysis results of different engines, the K+P software products XFEP/CT and XFEP/NVH are shown to be both highly sophisticated and efficient for determining the NVH and the fatigue behaviour of complete power units.
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Operating, Maintenance, and Productivity Data from a Full Production Laser Blank Welding System

Armco Inc.-Gary L. Neiheisel
Published 1996-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Armco Research designed and built a patented full production laser welding system that was used to produce the first laser welded blanks for automobile components in the western hemisphere. The first application in North America of a true tailored blank for a passenger car was for the 1992 Cadillac Seville center pillar inner. This paper will provide a description of the full production laser blank welding system and some operating, maintenance, and productivity data.
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Energy Efficient PWM Controllers

Delco Electronics Corporation-James W. “Bill” Thomas, Gerald J. Witt, Matt A. Tate
Published 1996-10-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the development of two integrated circuits (ICs) designed to provide pulse width modulation (PWM) control of direct current permanent magnet (DCPM) motors such as those used in automotive vehicles. One of the ICs is for low side driving of the load. The other IC is for high side driving of the load. The development of these ICs was undertaken because of the growing problem of providing adequate electrical power for the ever-increasing electrical loads in today's and tomorrow's automobiles.. Calculations, lab tests and vehicle applications indicate increases of vehicle electrical power efficiencies were achieved. This paper contains the rationale for development of the ICs, a brief definition of PWM application and the control methods, a description of the control systems and a discussion of the IC architecture. Each IC contains most of the functions required for the PWM control tasks including the system oscillator, voltage regulation, driver output circuit, and load current monitoring. For the high side driver IC a charge pump control circuit is also included. With the IC, and a…
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Manufacturing Vehicle Components for an SAE Formula Race Car, A Case Study for an Integrated CAD/CAM Approach

Western Washington University-Harinder Singh Oberoi, Kelsey Heikoop
Published 1996-10-01 by SAE International in United States
At Western Washington University s Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) students are currently working on producing a Formula Race Car for the annual SAE competition For the last two years students in the VRI in collaboration with the Manufacturing Engineering Technology (MET) program have been using an integrated CAD/CAM approach in designing and manufacturing parts for the carSome of the parts manufactured with this approach include Bulkheads as main chassis members a-arms for suspension brake callipers hubs drive sprockets spindles drive axles shifter components suspension uprights and wheel reinforcements All the parts are machined on a four axis CNC Vertical Machining Centre and a three axis Turning Centre This integrated CAD/CAM approach allows a team of ten students to design and produce a complete race car in a period of eight months with excellent successes in the competition having achieved fourth place overall in a field of eighty-five competitors Having won the best performing car at the event the integrated CAD/CAM approach is considered the driving force behind the success
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Simulation as a Tool to Raise Productivity

Plascar S.A. Indústria e Comércio-Oliver Krockenberger
Published 1996-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Historically simulation models were used exclusively in the design phase of a project. With the increasing flexibility of agile systems there is a need for simulation and simulation tools to assist personnel in the day-to-day decision making process.More and more simulation is used to reduce development time for products, production processes and complete systems especially in the automotive industry and gets his fixed places in the areas of simultaneous engineering or rapid prototyping.The benefits can be seen in shorter development cycles, determination of the production process already in the planning phase without the necessity to invest already in construction, balancing of the process, optimization of intermediate storage and with this capital invested, better material flow and more.
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Quenching: Automatic Control of the Quenchant to Ensure the Process Quality

Castrol do Brasil S.A. - Campinas, SP-Jony B. Groessler
Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos -USP-Lauralice de Campos Franceschini Canale, Antonio Carlos Canale, Ovídio Richard Crnkovic
Published 1996-10-01 by SAE International in United States
The heat treatment used in manufacturing process of automotive parts are very important, and among them, particularly the quenching of steels.In this heat treatment the quenchant capacity of heat extration is a very critic parameter, and once specified, its cooling features must be preserved to ensure the maintenance of the mechanical properties of components, which will determine the project functionality and durability.The best way to control the quenchant during quenching is through the continued control of the quenchant cooling curve of the and its respective cooling rate.In this work was utilised a computer controlled data acquisition system, which allow in actual time, to get values of temperature and time during the cooling phenomena. This data are processed to give immediately values of the cooling rate.This system is applied to different quenchants, such as: water, polymeric solutions and oils. Therefore, it gives the measurement repeatability and the different cooling features of each of these quenchants. These features may be exploited by the process engineers, to ensure the process repeatability and quality.
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Applications of Photospectrometry in Instrument Cluster Analysis and Design

Ford Ind. e Com - FIC UNICAMP-Edgard Landwehrkamp
Published 1996-10-01 by SAE International in United States
We develop the applications of photospectrometry for automotive instrumentation. We analyze a few examples of illumination specifications of the automotive industry, these specifications let open sampling methods for getting confidence intervals.
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Selection and Performance of Automotive Exhaust System Materials: A North American Perspective

Palmate Technologies-Alan Gibson
Published 1996-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Automotive exhaust systems operate under service conditions that place severe demands on their materials of construction. Fortunately, there are several material choices available to the system design engineer. Among these materials are aluminum coated carbon steel, various grades of stainless steel and aluminum coated stainless steel. Each of these materials has its own unique set of properties, and they of course sell at different prices. The challenge to the design engineer is to develop a combination of material selections and system design that will meet his company's durability goals at the lowest possible total raw material and manufacturing cost. The North American market has widely adopted 12% chromium stainless steels for exhaust system applications. The forward or hot sections of the exhaust system are usually made from uncoated material, while a significant portion of the cold section material is coated with aluminum. There is also significant use of 18% chromium stainless steel, and minor use of austenitic stainless steel and aluminum coated carbon steel. The effects of design features on cold end durability are just…
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