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1983 SAE International Off-Highway and Powerplant Congress and Exposition
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Determination of the Sound Transmission Rate of Diesel Engines by Means of Cyclic Fluctations

Forschungsgesellschaft für Energietechnik und Verbrennungsmotoren Aachen-Karl Schmillen
Klöckner-Humboldt-Deutz AG Koln-Albert Flotho
Published 1983-09-12 by SAE International in United States
The pressure time history in the combustion chamber of an IC-engine is seen as a sound phenomenon which - attenuated by the engine structure - is radiated as combustion noise. A distinction has been made between the direct and indirect combustion noise. The subject “transmission rate/direct combustion noise” has been investigated by the example of an air-cooled single cylinder diesel engine. To this end short-range noise intensity measurements as well as cylinder pressure measurements at several points in the combustion chamber have been carried out simultaneously. The evaluation method chosen considers the considerable cyclic fluctuations from working cycle to working cycle of the cylinder pressure level to check the applicability of a transmission rate. Within a frequency range of 0.5 to 9.5 kHz the correlation coefficients of sound intensities and cylinder pressure excitation have been determined in 500 Hz band-width for 50 successive working cycles. The results of the investigation can be used for evaluation of the acoustic properties of the combustion process.
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Effects of Relative Combustion Chamber Diameter on Performance and Cylinder Head Thermal Loading of Open Type Combustion Chamber Diesel Engines

Moscow Technical University of Automobile Maintenance and Highway Construction-A. S. Khatchian
Published 1983-09-12 by SAE International in United States
Multi-channel relations between relative combustion chamber diameter (dc.ch/D) and open type combustion chamber diesel engine parameters are analysed. Special attention is paid to optimising diesel engine design in case of wide combustion chamber to get highest efficiency. It is shown that choice of fuel injection equipment may play important part to solve the problem. Results of experimental investigations of cylinder head thermal loading in case of different dc.ch/D values are presented. Attept is made to establish reasons for thermal loading decrease with greater dc.ch/D on the basis of charge velocity components measurements. As it turned out impossible to relate specific heat flux and temperature fields to charge motion alone, assumptions are outlined with regards to corresponding governing factor.In conclusion some of advantages of shallow type combustion chambers as applied to highly boosted diesel engines are stressed along with problems to be solved.
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Development of a Combustion System for a Light Duty D.I. Diesel Engine

Hino Motors, Ltd.-Masashi Shigemori, Shingo Tsuruoka, Masatoshi Shimoda
Published 1983-09-12 by SAE International in United States
A new combustion system for a light duty D.I. diesel engine was developed, and a 3.5 ton payload truck (6.5 ton G.V.W.) equipped with this D.I. diesel engine and this combustion system realized good fuel economy and lower exhaust gas emission. Generally, light duty vehicles have to operate over a wide engine speed range. Therefore application of a D.I. diesel engine to light duty vehicles is difficult because of combustion tuning requirements over a wide engine speed range. Up to now, most of the diesel engines for light vehicles have been of the I.D.I. type. But the D.I. diesel engine has an evident advantage of lower fuel consumption.In these circumstances the authors developed a new combustion chamber shape for a small D.I. diesel engine with turbulence induced intake port and optimum fuel injection equipment. Various combustion chamber geometries were tested and evaluated. Flow visualization technique using the oil film method and high speed schlieren photography of the combustion process were used. A combustion chamber having a special cavity shape which promotes a better mixing with…
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Bearings for Large Capacity Crane Applications

Rotek Inc. Aurora, OH-Stephen F. Aaronson
Rothe Erde-Schmiedag AG West Germany-Heinrich Siemensmeyer
Published 1983-09-12 by SAE International in United States
The evolution of the modern large diameter rolling contact bearing is traced from early engineering concepts to today's modern bearings which are able to perform in multiple load situations. The benefits of the slewing bearing design concept are explored and applied to large lifting capacity applications. Several alternative slewing bearing options are discussed and compared.
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In-Situ Measurement of Fretting-Wear: A Design Approach

University of New Hampshire-Harvey Lyons
Published 1983-09-12 by SAE International in United States
Fretting occurs in mechanical or structural joints that were not intended to move, relative to each other, but because of vibrational loads or cyclical deformation, experience minute cyclic relative motion. Fretting-wear develops as a form of wear that retains the majority of the wear debris within the contacting interface. Fretting-wear failure may be defined in functional terms of the normal approach accrued. The magnitude of normal approach due to fretting-wear can be measured in-situ as a function of cycles of operation. These data can be transcribed directly into design curves to enable prediction of impending functional failure in mechanical/structural joints subjected to fretting-wear. Supporting parametric data have evolved from these experimental investigations yielding further insight to the phenomenon of fretting-wear in steels such as SAE 1020, SAE 4340 and SAE 52100. Further research in this branch of tribology will prove of value to designers whose systems reside in a dynamic environment.
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Estimating Mixing and Sooting in Diffusion Flames

Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison Dept. of Mechanical Engrg.-Otto A. Uyehara
Published 1983-09-12 by SAE International in United States
Products from reacting propane and air have been constructed for reactions under many different conditions. It is proposed in this paper to use C2H2 as a temperature indicator for diffusion flame. Published experimental data containing species is analyzed using the various plots to estimate the degree of mixing and sooting.
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Dual Fueled Diesel Engine with Diesel Fuel and Reformed Methanol

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Kogakuin University Tokyo, Japan-Koji Korematsu, Takashi Saika, Masashi Gabe
Engine Technical Center KOMATSU LTD. Oyama, Japan-Kunihiko Komiyama, Koichiro Itow
Published 1983-09-12 by SAE International in United States
A dual fueled diesel engine system with diesel fuel and reformed methanol has been investigated. Methanol can be reformed to reformed methanol (hydrogen 67% + carbon monoxide 33%) over suitable catalyst. The reformed methanol contains 20% more energy than methanol. Fundamental data of an electric heated reformer, performance of the dual fueled diesel engine to which hydrogen and carbon monoxide fed from gas bombs as a preliminary experiment, and then performance of the diesel engine with an onboard reformer were tested. In consequence, the feed of the reformed methanol improves the diesel engine performance.
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Further Tests on Reducing Fuel Consumption with a Carburetted Two-Stroke Cycle Engine

Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering The Queen's University of Belfast Northern Ireland-B. W. Hill, G. P. Blair
Published 1983-09-12 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes a unique and uncomplicated method of stratified-charging a two-stroke cycle engine which assists in reducing the short-circuited loss of fuel during scavenging. Performance characteristics as presented were acquired from tests conducted on a 400 cm3 naturally aspirated, single cylinder, spark ignition two-stroke engine with carburettor control of gasoline fuel, the design and construction of the engine also being done at The Queen's University of Belfast. Using a tuned exhaust pipe, the engine produces a peak power of 16 kW at 5000 rev/min and has a minimum brake specific fuel consumption of 0.275 kg/kWh. Moreover, for the tests presented at full and quarter throttle openings, virtually all of the brake specific fuel consumption values are below 0.36 kg/kWh. Most of the performance characteristics shown at various engine speeds are as a function of air/fuel ratio. This paper is a continuation of that presented as SAE 830093.
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How to Select a Hardfacing Alloy

Stoody Co.-Howard N. Farmer
Published 1983-09-12 by SAE International in United States
Selecting the right hard-facing alloy for the job is not as difficult as it may seem if one just follows a few simple steps. First, determine the composition of the part and the type of weld deposit that is needed (must it be machinable, crack-free, etc.); secondly, determine the wear pattern the part is likely to undergo; and third, pick the most cost-effective alloy and deposition process for your needs.
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Advances in Hydraulics for Tractor Loader Backhoes

Sperry Vickers-Vinrod Nanda
Published 1983-09-12 by SAE International in United States
The conventional circuits for tractor loader backhoes generally consist of fixed displacement pump and valves that bypass excess flow resulting in poor efficiency. Poor machine controllability, high operator actuating forces, lack of pressure compensation and other problems have warranted development of better hydraulic circuits.These and many more handicaps are overcome in Vickers new design of sectional directional valves assisted by a load sensing variable displacement pump.An overview of possible alternate circuits is presented here with a description of the features of a new CMX sectional valve and its application in a tractor loader backhoe circuit.
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