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The Development of a Temperature Alarm Device for Failure Prevention of the Automobile Hydraulic Brake System

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan-Ze University, 135 FarEast Road, NeiLi TaoYuan, Taiwan-Shuo-Jen Lee, Ke-Feng Lin
Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Council of Labor Affairs, Executive Yuan, 3rd Floor, 132, Section 3, Min-Sheng E. Road, Taipei, Taiwan-Chi-Fu Tai, Shih-Hsiung Wu, Chung-Yun Gau
Published 1999-03-01 by SAE International in United States
The pursuit of safer and more reliable car is the trend of modern automobile engineering. The major protection against an automobile accident is the brake system. However, to date, there is no safety device, which is designed to prevent failure from high temperature of the hydraulic brake system. In general, the brake force is generated from the friction between brake shoes and brake drums or disks. As the vehicle slows down, the moment of inertia of the vehicle is transformed into heat to raise the temperature of the brake system. The rapid rising of temperature may result in serious safety concerns of the brake system and its failure could be expected. The main purpose of this research is to develop a device, which can detect high temperature in the hydraulic brake system and provide a safety alarm before it fails. The device utilizes temperature sensors to monitor temperatures of the brake shoe lining and hydraulic fluid of the brake wheel cylinders. Both of the current temperatures are checked with alarm control parameters. When either one…
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Cylinder To Cylinder AFR Control With An Asymmetrical Exhaust Manifold in a GDI System

SAGEM SA, Engine Management and ECU R&D Unit-Claudio Carnevale, Mourad Hadji
Published 1998-02-23 by SAE International in United States
In this work we have developed an algorithm to estimate and control the air fuel ratio of each cylinder from the measurement of an UEGO sensor placed at the confluence point in the exhaust manifold.In our case of study the exhaust manifold was very asymmetric.We have developed a simple model of this exhaust manifold capable of satisfying the control objectives.The lambda value for each cylinder is predicted from the actual lambda value measured at the confluence point by 4 different static Kalman filters depending on the cylinder that has finished its exhaust phase.The lambda feedback uses the output of the Kalman filters to control the AFR for each cylinder.The algorithm has been implemented on a production SAGEM ECU and the experimental tests have been made on a PSA 1.8 liter 4 cylinder engineThe experimental results show that the algorithm is able to correct the cylinder to cylinder AFR with an accuracy around 3% for a fueling variation of 30%.This strategy is therefore useful mainly in the case of direct injection for very lean and stratified…
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Methane Jet Penetration in a Direct-Injection Natural Gas Engine

Caterpillar, Inc.-K. A. DelVecchio
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign-P. J. Rubas, M. A. Paul, G. C. Martin, R. E. Coverdill, R. P. Lucht, J. E. Peters
Published 1998-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A direct-injection natural gas (DING) engine was modified for optical access to allow the use of laser diagnostic techniques to measure species concentrations and temperatures within the cylinder. The injection and mixing processes were examined using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of acetone-seeded natural gas to obtain qualitative maps of the fuel/air ratio. Initial acetone PLIF images were acquired in a quiescent combustion chamber with the piston locked in a position corresponding to 90° BTDC. A series of single shot images acquired in 0.1 ms intervals was used to measure the progression of one of the fuel jets across the cylinder. Cylinder pressures as high as 2 MPa were used to match the in-cylinder density during injection in a firing engine. Subsequent images were acquired in a motoring engine at 600 rpm with injections starting at 30, 20, and 15° BTDC in 0.5 crank angle degree increments. A pair of scaling parameters based on the pseudo-diameter of an underexpanded jet effectively collapsed the fuel jet penetration measurements under both motoring and stationary piston conditions and a…
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Development of a Low Emission Retrofit Kit for Urban Bus Engines

Detroit Diesel Corp.-Mark Johnston
Engine Control Systems, Ltd.-Donald F. Wilford
Published 1998-02-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the development of an emissions upgrade kit for the DDC 6V-92TA MUI bus engine manufactured by the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC). It incorporates three components: a base engine upgrade kit, a diesel oxidation catalyst and an electric demand turbocharger. A particulate matter level of 0.09 g/hp-hour has been demonstrated and certification is currently being sought at the 0.1 g/hp-hour level under the US EPA's Urban Bus Rebuild/Retrofit Program.
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A Review of the Wind Conditions Experienced by a Moving Vehicle

Mechanical Engineering, Monash Univ.-Jeff Saunders
Mechanical Engineering, RMIT-Simon Watkins
Published 1998-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle aerodynamic development is normally undertaken in smooth flow wind tunnels. In contrast, the on-road environment is turbulent, with variations in the relative velocity experienced by the moving vehicle caused mainly by the effects of atmospheric turbulence. In this review the turbulence inherent in the atmosphere is considered, following the approach of wind engineers. The variations of atmospheric wind velocity with time, height, terrain and thermal stratification are summarised and discussed. Statistical parameters presented include mean velocity, turbulence intensities, spectra and probability density functions. The resulting fluctuating approach flow (relative velocity) of the moving vehicle is then considered. The effect of the fluctuating velocity field on parameters of interest to vehicle aerodynamicists (such as aerodynamic noise) are made.
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PLIF Imaging of NO Formation in a DI Diesel Engine1

Sandia National Laboratories-John E. Dec, Robert E. Canaan
Published 1998-02-01 by SAE International in United States
NO formation during direct-injection (DI) diesel combustion has been investigated using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging. Measurements were made at a typical medium-speed operating condition in a heavy-duty size-class engine modified for optical access. By combining a unique laser system with a particular spectroscopic scheme, single-shot NO images were obtained at realistic operating conditions with negligible O2 interference. Temporal sequences of NO PLIF images are presented along with corresponding images of combined elastic scattering and natural luminosity. These images show the location and timing of the NO formation relative to the other components of the reacting fuel jet. In addition, total NO formation was examined by integrating the NO PLIF signal over a large fraction of the combustion-chamber volume. These total NO measurements are corrected for the effects of pressure, temperature, and mixing so that a quantitative measure of the NO-formation time history is obtained.The NO PLIF data strongly support and extend the conceptual model of DI diesel combustion recently presented by one of the authors. The images show that NO is not produced by…
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Gear Noise Reduction Using Design of Experiments

New Venture Gear-Eugene F. Schildmeier
Published 1998-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Factorial experiments are difficult to apply to gear noise development due to the large number of variables and interactions that affect gear noise. A test procedure has been developed which takes into account that gear tooth lead is one of the most significant factors. This procedure establishes a lead target before running a factorial experiment by doing a lead study ahead of time. This has two advantages: 1.It will amplify the effect of the remaining factors in the experiment.2.It will provide better targets for manufacturing.
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Analysis of Synchronous Belt Vibration in Automotive Valve Train

Toyota Motor Corp.-Naohiko Mizuno, Hiroshi Inagaki, Tamio Nakakubo, Masahiko Nakada
Published 1998-01-29 by SAE International in United States
The synchronous belt employed in the valve train of automotive engines is operated under fluctuating load. Two types of the belt vibration are observed. One is the well-known lateral vibration. The other is the vibration in the belt running direction which may cause the resonant vibration of the camshaft rotation and may affect the belt life. The purpose of this paper is to describe an analysis of the latter vibration.This vibration was analyzed using the model composed of the inertia moment of the camshaft system and the nonlinear elasticity of the belt in the running direction. The predicted resonant frequency and amplitude were in good agreement with the measured ones.The influence of each factor of the model on the vibration was also investigated. The stiffness in the belt running direction that is determined by the tooth distortion When the belt engages with the pUlley should be increased to reduce the amplitudes of the resonant Vibration.
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The Design and Development of the New KIA T8D DOHC Engine

KIA Motors Co., Ltd.-Sung Hoon Lee, Chun Seok Jun, Tae Wook Roh, Seung Kim, Hee Soo Mok
Published 1997-02-24 by SAE International in United States
KIA has completed the development of the future DOHC 16 valve spark ignition engine designated the T-series. An all new design was devised for the T-series engine which is being produced on an entirely new plant. This engine has many positive features such as low emission level, good combustion stability, low noise and vibration.The basic construction of the T-series engine is characterized by 4 cylinder belt-driven DOHC engine, state-of-the-art combustion chambers with tumbling intake ports and a valve angle of 45, deep skirt cylinder block, laminated metal cylinder head gasket, aluminum structural oil pan, and a six ribbed serpentine belt driven accessory system.Thorough durability testing was carried out on all production parts for the first engine of the T-series; called the T8D engine, of 1.8 litre displacement. Mass production of the T8D engine, installed in the new KIA CREDOS, began in July 1995.
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Performance of Plasmaspray Coated Bore 4.6L-V8 Aluminum Block Engines in Dynamometer and Fleet Vehicle Durability Tests

Ford Motor Co.-V. D. N. Rao, D. M. Kabat, R. Rose, D. Yeager, R. Brandt, D.Y. Leong
Published 1997-02-24 by SAE International in United States
Application process, and performance in engine dynamometer and high mileage vehicle fleet durability tests of Plasmaspray coated bore aluminum block engines are discussed. Fuel economy, oil consumption, power and wear data for Ford 4.6L-V8 aluminum block engines utilizing very low cost iron/iron oxide base coatings, and stainless steel/BN solid film lubricant Plasmasprayed coatings are presented. Test results from Ford's 100 hour Piston & Gasket Engine Dynamometer Durability Tests, and Fleet Vehicle Durability Tests show ring/bore wear reductions of more than 40% relative to production cast iron bore systems with Oil Economy averaging more than 13,600 km/l (8000 mi/qt).
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