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1969 International Automotive Engineering Congress and Exposition
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Controllers for Electric Cars

Hartman Electrical Manufacturing Co.-A. W. Hartman
Published 1969-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The author describes the speed controllers used in the Henney Kilowatt car and in the old and more recent Mars II electric cars.The latter now utilize series-paralleling of the batteries, plus intermediate steps of series-paralleling of two series fields, to obtain a wide range of running speed control.
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Truck Ride — A Mathematical and Empirical Study

Brown University-Phillip Fensel
Dayton Steel Foundry Co-Wm. D. Walther
Published 1969-02-01 by SAE International in United States
“Truck Ride” in this study refers to some vehicle ride parameters involved in tractor-trailer combinations. For the study, a mathematical model of a tractor-trailer vehicle as a vibrating system was developed. Principles of vibration theory were applied to the model while a digital computer was employed to investigate the complex system.To parallel the analytical investigation of the tractor-trailer vehicle, vehicle studies were conducted using a magnetic tape recorder and associated instrumentation installed in the tractor. Parameters studied included coupler position on the tractor, laden weight of trailer, spring rates of the different axles of the combination, damping capacity associated with each spring rate, vehicle speed, and “tar strip” spacing of the highway and cab mountings.The mathematical results were used as a basis for empirical study. A comparison of calculated and empirical data are reported. Correlation of computed results with published ride characteristics of tractor-trailer combinations was also made. Discussed are some characteristics for significant ride improvement as well as limitations of some parameters for improving ride.
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Axle Noise Control - The IVA Propeller Shaft

Chrysler Corp.-Walter M. Esser
Published 1969-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A dynamic absorber is now in production which will effectively reduce rear axle whine in automobiles. Simple construction and ease of assembly, combined with adaptability to existing drivelines, produce a low cost replacement for present axle noise control devices.This paper deals with the causes of axle noise, how to deal with offensive resonances, and the new Internal Vibration Absorber (IVA) designed to overcome these problems. In model year 1968, 500,000 IVA equipped automobiles were released and this number was increased to two million for 1969.
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DISCRETE ASSEMBLIES VS. THICK FILM IC’s

Semiconductor Div., The Bendix Corp-ELDON L. HOFFMAN
Published 1969-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Thick Film is an old technology that is finding new applications. Many of the future integrated circuits for the automotive industry will employ Thick Film Technology. It offers an easy transition from discrete component assemblies, while providing lower overall costs and improved reliability.
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Effect of Porosity on the Mechanical Properties of Sintered Nickel Steels

Development and Research Dept., The International Nickel Co., Inc.-Andrew F. Kravic
Published 1969-02-01 by SAE International in United States
All mechanical properties of powder metallurgy (P/M) materials, including sintered nickel steels, are direct functions of sintered density or its inverse, porosity. Mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, ductility, impact strength, and fatigue limit, are dependent on sintered density, alloy content, and heat treatment. Other properties, such as the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio, are solely functions of sintered density. Sintered nickel steel with less than 8% porosity can be case carburized. Case hardening improves the smooth and notched fatigue limit of high density sintered nickel steels.
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Review of Throttle Controls

McCabe-Powers Body Co.-Robert G. Bakula
Published 1969-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The utility truck field requires many types of throttle controls, both remote and automatic, for the vehicle engine and auxiliary power source. This article reviews these applications from the aerial bucket truck used on overhead high voltage line work, to the underground equipment unit burying or reclaiming cable.
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Rankine Cycle Working Fluid Selection and Specification Rationale

Mechanical Technology Inc-John Bjerklie, Stephen Luchter
Published 1969-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Few practical applications of the organic Rankine cycle powerplant have been realized despite much interest expressed in the literature. One reason is high development cost for as yet unsubstantiated advantages; another is the technical problem of an ideal working fluid, which is crucial in this powerplant concept. As a preliminary, these authors attempt to define an “ideal” fluid, which can be then constructed by the chemical industry. To this end, the thermodynamic and aerodynamic characteristics of such a fluid are analyzed. Examples of specifications are then introduced. The conclusion is that “ideal” fluids can be specified as a function of application
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Effects of Tetraethyl Lead on Catalyst Life and Efficiency in Customer Type Vehicle Operation

Powertrain Systems Research, Ford Motor Co-E. E. Weaver
Published 1969-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Effects of four levels of tetraethyl lead (TEL) on the efficiency and life of a commercially available hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide catalyst were investigated. The four fuels used in mileage accumulation were the base Indolene with no added lead and blends containing respectively 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 ml TEL/gal. The vehicles were eight Fords equipped with 289-CID non-emission-controlled 2-V engines unmodified, except for a lean carburetor and the catalytic exhaust system. The eight vehicles were paired off, and each pair was operated on one of the four fuel blends. In each pair, a radial flow converter, which required no supplemental air, was located under the front seat in one vehicle and near the rear axle in the other vehicle.Exhaust emissions were monitored at approximately 3000-mile intervals during accumulation of 18,000 miles in customer-type service. TEL in the fuel adversely affected the rate of warm-up, the ability of the catalyst to remove hydrocarbons from the exhaust, and accentuated the differences in the performance between front and rear converters as mileage was accumulated. On nonleaded fuel, the…
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A Method of Estimating Automobile Drag Coefficients

The Motor Industry Research Association-R. G. S. White
Published 1969-02-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a method of estimating the drag coefficient of a motor vehicle to an accuracy of about ±7%. In this method, the vehicle is divided into nine feature categories, and rating numbers are assigned to each category depending on the merits or demerits of the particular design. The method is not intended to be a substitute for wind tunnel testing, but to provide guide lines for stylists so that they can avoid undesirable body features in the early stages of design.
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Elliptical Wheel Concepts

GRUMMAN AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING CORPORATION-W. R. Herling, E. G. Markow
Published 1969-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The problem of designing wheels for vehicle operation on a variety of soil conditions has been approached in several ways. Each method generally tries to develop a large ground contact area to minimize soil bearing pressure and motion resistance. Tracks and large diameter wheels are commonly used to cope with off-road driving conditions. While they can effectively deal with the soil mechanics aspect of the problem, tracks and large wheels in certain design applications are unacceptable solutions because of their required size and weight. Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation has proposed as an off the road locomotion device a hybrid design that provides the required large soil bearing area and also approaches the stability and efficiency of a circular spoked wheel. Several models of this device have been built and tested, the latest of which is currently being developed under contract from the U. S. Army Tank-Automotive Command.
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