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1972 Automotive Engineering Congress and Exposition
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New Nondestructive Tests for the Automotive Industry

The Ohio State University-Robert C. McMaster
Published 1972-02-01 by SAE International in United States
New methods of nondestructive testing applicable to automotive industries include xeroradiography, a high-speed, low-cost method of x-ray inspection without use of films or darkroom processing, for tires, plastic parts, welds, and castings; optical holographic nondestructive tests for detection of anomalies and lack of bond in tires; magnetic field tests which measure hardness (or case depth) in engine parts, steering knuckles, and door hinges or latches; x-ray television systems which permit direct, in-motion viewing of plastic, metallic, and tire assemblies; and advanced eddy current test systems with a variety of sorting, dimensional control, and defect-detection capabilities. These supplement presently available methods such as film radiography, magnetic particle, liquid-penetrant, ultrasonic, and visual inspection, and sampling destructive tests, in quality control for reliability in the automotive manufacturing industries.Further needs for nondestructive tests in the automotive industry include development and application of high-speed, low-cost, automated evaluation test systems which can be incorporated into production lines and operate unattended over long periods. There is need for nondestructive test systems adequate to ensure the manufacturer against liability arising from defective components,…
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Unique 2 in3 Displacement Engine for OEM

O & R Engines, Inc.-Cecil T. Cookson
Published 1972-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A market existed in the 2-cycle engine field for an internal combustion engine in the 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 in3 displacement range for the original equipment manufacturer. The engine had to be lightweight, compact, low in manufacturing costs, and yet offer high power output and continuous operation.For this market, O & R Engines, Inc. designed the 2-CID Model 20 engine. The design filled a further requirement of the OEM by providing the flexibility of component design and arrangement. This paper discusses these design aspects.
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A New Method of Predicting the Formability of Materials

Chrysler Corp.-A. S. Kasper, P. J. VanderVeen
Published 1972-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The paper presents a new method, based on standard laboratory cup tests, for predicting the formability of materials; in the example provided, the forming potentials of four new materials are shown.The properties of stretchability and drawability, which are the principal factors defining a material's forming limits, may be assessed using the Olsen spherical cup test and the Swift flat-bottomed cup test. In the shape analysis procedure described, the minimum amount of deformation needed to fix a desired shape is determined. Then necessary adjustments to tooling for optimum sheet metal usage are made based on calculations from a new type of chart showing stretch forming ratio and draw forming ratio, providing a comparison of the formabilities of a number of materials. It is shown that, in the absence of reliable cup testing data, values can be obtained using laboratory tensile testing results; this is possible because computer-determined correlations of certain tensile parameters to standard cup test results have been made.
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A Procedure for Measuring Instrument Panel Visibility

Chrysler Corp.-Robert B. Kerchaert, James L. Sauter
Published 1972-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A procedure has been developed for measuring the relative visibility of automotive instrument panel graphics and components. Through use of a Luckiesh-Moss Visibility Meter, discreet values of visibility can be assigned to visual targets and related to driver reaction time. Also, eyes off the road lapsed time boundaries may be established which will define visibility requirements necessary to serve the total driver population. These requirements can be translated into meaningful guidelines or standards for visibility attributes such as size, shape, color, contrast, and position of graphics, controls, and indicators.How visibility measurements are made and interpreted and the visibility measuring facility are discussed in this paper.
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Functional Testing of Brake Combination Valves

Delco Moraine Div., General Motors Corp.-John R. Williams, Marshall W. Struble
Published 1972-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The high level of reliability required of safety-related automotive parts, such as brake control system components, demands thorough functional testing of the component. A highly automated test system now in use at a component manufacturing plant helps to provide this reliability by performing 12 separate tests on each brake combination valve produced. The air test and the 11 hydraulic tests are described, features of test system design and operation are discussed, and the test equipment used is listed.
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Description of a Universal Pulling Machine

Volkswagenwerk AG (Germany)-Ulrich W. Seiffert
Published 1972-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Considerations for improved vehicle safety and government regulations required, among other things, tests on seat belts and seat belt anchorage points. Starting with a single pulling cylinder for the introduction of the forces, a pulling machine with nine separate pulling cylinders was developed. These nine tensioning cylinders are operated hydraulically from a central unit. Each cylinder can be operated singly or in parallel with another. The operation of the cylinders is controlled by an electronic unit that compares the voltage signals representing the required and the actual values. The regulating characteristics are travel or position control, speed control, and, force control.The principle of the test machine and objectives during different tests - for example, checking the strength of seat belts, seat belt anchorage points, door and roof rigidity, and simulation of a frontal crash with quasi-static deformation of the vehicle front-end - are described in this paper.
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A Summary of Engine-Propeller Interactions

Dept. of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering, University of Michigan-John B. Woodward
Published 1972-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The interactions of a marine propeller and its propulsion engine are surveyed, with particular concern for the interaction as seen from the engine end. It is pointed out that linking characteristics of engine and propeller should be considered together when marine engineers design a propulsion plant. Propeller characteristics and engine characteristics are reviewed, with a suggestion that, as a compromise between efficiency and vibration excitation, the designer choose from a number of blades, the area of the blades being a compromise between efficiency and having sufficient thrust area to avoid cavitation. Matching of engine and propeller in several situations is then discussed. Problems of off-design and margin allowance are included.
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Fatigue Crack Propagation in Steel Weldments

Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois-F. V. Lawrence, W. H. Munse
Published 1972-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Fatigue tests have been conducted on low carbon steel butt welds containing lack of penetration defects. The growth of fatigue cracks from the lack of penetration defects was monitored by radiography. These measurements allowed the total fatigue life to be separated into periods of crack initiation and crack propagation.It was found that the rate of crack growth conformed to the expression: The initiation period was found to occupy approximately one-half of the total fatigue life and to consist of the cycle necessary to shake down the residual stresses in the weld and to form the lack of penetration defect into an active fatigue crack.
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DRIVER'S VISUAL RANGE DETECTION

Electronic Control Systems Engineering Staff, General Motors Corporation-J. A. TENNANT
GM Delco Electronics Division, Santa Barbara Operations, General Motors Corporation-R. S. FRENK, D. E. SKAAR
Published 1972-02-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the results of a study to determine the factors required to monitor visual range. Equations are presented that indicate that it is possible to monitor visual range by using measurements of scene luminance, atmospheric backscatter, and ambient light levels. The concept of a device that could monitor a driver's visual range using these measurements is also described.
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Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Tracer Technique for Modal Mass Exhaust Emission Measurement

Engineering Staff, General Motors Corp.-Ward W. Wiers, Charles E. Scheffler
Published 1972-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The CO2 tracer technique is a method of measuring automotive exhaust mass emissions during arbitrary modes of operation of a car on the 1972 federal emission test driving schedule. This technique allows modal mass measurements of low-emission cars based on undiluted exhaust gas concentrations. The CO2 concentration at the tailpipe is compared with the CO2 in the diluted stream to obtain exhaust flow. This flow, multiplied by tailpipe concentrations of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide, and integrated over the driving mode, gives modal mass emissions. Problems associated with the lag between the time at which a transient maneuver takes place in the engine and the time at which measurements are recorded are also discussed.
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