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1971 Automotive Engineering Congress and Exposition
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Mechanisms of Pollutant Formation and Control from Automotive Sources

Engineering and Manufacturing Staff, Ford Motor Co.-Wayne M. Brehob
Published 1971-02-01 by SAE International in United States
There exists a reasonable sound theoretical understanding of the formation mechanisms for gaseous automotive emission. It appears that a cleaned-up internal combustion engine, possible with extensive modifications such as heterogeneous combustion, will be the overall best automotive powerplant for at least the next decade. The paper discusses the sources of automotive pollution, causes of exhaust emission, and methods of emission control.
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Off-Highway Haulage Vehicle Diesel Electric Drive Performance

General Electric Co.-J. P. Nadzam
Pima Mining Co.-A. G. Beebower
Published 1971-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The paper discusses the General Electric motorized wheel transmission system as applied to 85-120 ton capacity, 2-axle, rear dump ore haulage trucks extensively used in open-pit mine operations. Information and representative data on performance, equipment life, maintenance, availability, and operating costs as experienced by the Pima Mining Co., Tucson, Arizona, are presented, as well as a general description of the system and the application.
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The Effect of Elevated Temperature Exposure on Residual Stresses

Sundstrand Aviation-R. W. Diesner
Published 1971-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Shot peening is commonly used to create residual compressive stresses in part surfaces, thereby reducing the effects of tensile service loads and improving fatigue life.The research reported here was initiated to determine whether or not the residual compressive peening stresses are rapidly annealed out by elevated temperature exposures. AISI H-11 and 52100 steels were selected for the tests, peened, and subjected to temperatures up to 800° F for times to 4000 hours. Residual stress measurements were made by X-ray diffraction methods.It was shown that residual stresses are not significantly relieved in 52100 within 10 hours at 400° F, or 4000 hours at 300°F. For H-11, no change was produced within 10 hours at 800° F or 4000 hours at 600° F. It was found possible to relate the reduction in initial residual compressive stress level caused by thermal stress-relief by a parameter of the form P = T (c + log t).
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Cummins V504 and V555 Engines

Cummins Engine Co., Inc.-J. L. Butler, R. W. Dugan, E. H. Kemp
Published 1971-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The Cummins V504 and V555 engines were developed for construction, industrial, agricultural, marine and medium duty automotive market requirements of lightweight, compact diesel engines in the 185-240 hp range. The engine design and development objectives were to obtain high reliability and durability combined with good overall efficiency in a compact package size. These objectives were achieved by careful attention to design details, combustion system development and extensive laboratory and field evaluation.
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HYBRID COMPUTER SIMULATION OF THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF A VEHICLE WITH FOUR-WHEEL ADAPTIVE BRAKES

The Bendix Corporation Brake and Steering Division-G.B. HICKNER
The Bendix Corporation Research Laboratories-J.G. ELLIOTT, G.A. CORNELL
Published 1971-02-01 by SAE International in United States
An improved version of the seventeen-degree-of-freedom hybrid computer simulation described in Reference 1 is being modified to include a four-wheel adaptive braking system (ABS). The derivation and verification of the ABS model, the form of the integrated vehiclel/ABS model, and future plans for validation and utilization of the integrated hybrid simulation are presented.
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Impact Fatigue Resistance of Commonly Used Gear Steels

The International Nickel Co., Inc.-R. A. DePaul
Published 1971-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Gears fail or are damaged on occasion by impact fatigue loading. This study involves an evaluation of the resistance of commonly used gear steels to impact fatigue failure. A specially designed impact fatigue specimen and testing device were used to evaluate nine carburizing steels (SAE 4118, 4620, 4626, 4718, 4817, 8620, 8822, EX-1, and the European 16MnCr5) and three nitriding steels (Nitralloy G, Nitralloy N, and 5Ni-2Al). The relative impact fatigue resistances of the steels are discussed as well as the influences of such heat treatment variables as high carbon potential, high temperature carburizing, and refrigeration. In general, impact fatigue resistance was independent of core strength but improved with increasing nickel content in the nitrided steels as well as the carburized steels. Lowering retained austenite by refrigeration was found to be detrimental to impact fatigue resistance.
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Fabricating and Finishing of Fiberboards

Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc.-P. E. Hoyal
Published 1971-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The paper describes many of the methods of fabricating and finishing fiberboard parts for the automotive industry. Fabricating methods include die-cutting, crease bending, forming, fastening, and adhesive bonding. Finishing methods discussed are paint roll coating, spray painting, printing, and embossing. The equipment and tooling required are also described.
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Where Are All Those Gadgets Going?

Product Planning and Development Staff Chrysler Corp.-C. M. Heinen
Published 1971-02-01 by SAE International in United States
With the passage of the federal Clean Air Act, the automotive industry has a clear assignment to reduce automobile emissions drastically by 1975. The control devices presently available have already reduced hydrocarbons 83%, carbon monoxide 70%, and nitrogen oxides 33%. By 1975, these figures must be 98%, 97%, and 90%, respectively.This paper discusses the devices that have been developed to accomplish the reductions to date, and concludes that in the future the crankcase controls will require little change, that the evaporative controls will require some additional improvement but will not change substantially, and that engine modifications do not have much chance of meeting the 1975 standards without a great deal of supplementation.The author feels two methods are available which may be able to reach the 1975 standards: use of manifold reactors and use of catalysts. However, both present problems of materials and thermodynamics, due to high exhaust temperatures. This is the engineering challenge in the next five years.
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Measurement of Vehicle Response in Severe Braking and Steering Maneuvers

Highway Safety Research Institute, The University of Michigan-Howard Dugoff, Leonard Segel, R. D. Ervin
Published 1971-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A set of safety-relevant performance qualities for the passenger car has been defined as a first step in the development of objective measures of precrash safety performance. Measures were sought that stress the performance produced by a passenger vehicle when it is operated under emergency crash-avoidance conditions. This goal has led to the identification of six limit maneuvers and associated limit responses to serve as a first-order means of assessing the safety quality of a motor vehicle. The viability and the discriminatory power of the proposed test procedures have been demonstrated by applying these procedures to four separate vehicles.
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From Air Quality Criteria to Control Regulations

Ford Motor Co.-Don Jensen
Published 1971-02-01 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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