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4th International Pacific Conference on Automotive Engineering
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Future Automotive Technical Trends

Toyota Motor Corp.-Shiro Sasaki
  • Technical Paper
  • 871155
Published 1988-03-01 by SAE Australasia in Australia
This paper provides an overview of the automotive technology and its future trends mainly focussing on Japan.The future automotive technology will basically be on the projection of current technology, although it is expected more progress to be made in advanced and precision control systems. The application of electronics and development of new materials will play a very important role in this area.

Effects of Material Properties and Initial Stresses on the Durability of Cast Iron Cylinder Heads

Isuzu Motors Limited-Takashi Kanazawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 871204
Published 1987-11-08 by SAE Australasia in Australia
Thermal fatigue tests were conducted to find how material properties, operating temperature and initial mechanical stress caused by press fitting of valve seat inserts etc. influence on thermal fatigue cracks of cast iron cylinder heads by means of a simulation test at mainly 100°C. = 350°C cycles.These tests revealed that the reduction in initial stresses and improvement of tensile strength of material at room temperature are very effective to improve thermal fatigue resistance.And a new cast iron cylinder head material with high thermal fatigue resistance for heavy duty diesel engines has been successfully developed, utilizing the results of casting experiments by means of experiment design, L16(2[ILLEGIBLE]).High reliability of new cast iron cylinder heads has been confirmed by accelerated durability bench tests.

AC's Australian Catalytic Converters

AC Spark Plug Overseas Corporation-Linsey G. Siede
Published 1987-11-08 by SAE International in United States
The concept: of using catalyst technology to reduce the emissions from automobile exhausts has been around for many years, but it wasn't until 1974 that catalytic converters were first used on production vehicles. Since that first introduction, converters have become a common component on motor vehicles in the United States, Japan and Canada.On October 27, 1983 engineers representing the five Australian vehicle manufacturers met in Melbourne with AC representatives to review the various catalytic converter designs being considered by manufacturers for use in Australia.The consensus that day was that all could benefit from a converter with common tooling. Each manufacturer would have unique catalyst coatings tailored to meet individual vehicle requirements but all would use the basic catalytic converter. On that day, October 27, 1983, the design criterion for the basic 1.4 litre Australian Catalytic Converter was determined by Australian and AC Engineers and is currently being used by all five Australian Manufacturers.Since commencing production just 2 years ago in November 1985, over 450,000 converters have been supplied in two sizes, 1.4 litre and 1.7…
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Application of Emulsified Fuel Without Additives to DI Diesel Combustion

Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma-Seiichi Shiga, Youichi Ohgaki, Takao Karasawa, Toshio Kurabayashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 871150
Published 1987-11-08 by SAE Australasia in Australia
The purpose of this study is to reveal the effect of use of W/O emulsified fuel without additives on DI diesel combustion. The combustion pattern, which means the ratio of fuel mass burned in the premixed (or the diffusion) combustion period to the overall supplied fuel mass, is varied by changing the injection timing and the intake manifold pressure. The exhaust emissions, such as particulates, NOx and CO, are measured. By analyzing the indicator diagrams, ignition lags are also measured. Contrary to the results of the other studies, NOx is hardly reduced by using the emulsified fuel, although it does not increase. While the particulate emission is considerably affected, remarkable changes in S.F.C. and the exhaust gas temperature are not recognized. With decreasing the fuel mass fraction burned in the prernixed combustion (spontaneous ignition) or the intake manifold pressure, the effect of the emulsification on particulate emission turns from the promotion to the suppression. The possible mechanism of these effects of the emulsification is presented considering several results obtained in the previous basic studies.

Probabilistic Analysis of the Behaviour of Transport Vehicles

Dept. Mech. Eng. University of Queensland-Mr. M.K. Vint, Prof. K.J. Bullock
  • Technical Paper
  • 871157
Published 1987-11-08 by SAE Australasia in Australia
Many facets of the design and development of transport vehicles would benefit from a better working knowledge of vehicle and engine behaviour under true stochastic loads with statistics comparable to those obtained in actual service. This is particularly important for transmission design, engine selection and regenerative braking, storage and propulsion system designs.This paper will explore the use of probabilistic statistical analysis to extract information from data collected on the operation of three vehicles, viz; a 4.1 ℓ automatic sedan, a 3.3 ℓ manual sedan and an 11 ℓ diesel powered transit bus. The data obtained over four driving routes will include the vehicle characteristics of velocity, acceleration and driveshaft torque, as well as data pertaining to engine operation such as manifold pressure, engine speed and fuel flow.

Potential Applications of the Stiller-Smith Mechanism in internal Combustion Engine Designs

West Virginia University-James E. Smith, Nigel Clark, Alfred Stiller, Randolph Churchill, A.D. McKisic
  • Technical Paper
  • 871225
Published 1987-11-08 by SAE Australasia in Australia
With few exceptions most internal combustion engines use a slider-crank mechanism to convert reciprocating piston motion into a usable rotational output. One such exception is the Stiller-Smith Mechanism which utilizes a kinematic inversion of a Scotch yoke called an elliptic trammel. The device uses rigid connecting rods and a floating/eccentric gear train for motion conversion and force transmission.The mechanism exhibits advantages over the slider-crank for application in internal combustion engines in areas such as balancing, size, thermal efficiency, and low heat rejection. An overview of potential advantages of an engine utilizing the Stiller-Smith Mechanism is presented.

An Analysis on Vehicle Behaviors during Braking

Nissan Diesel Motor Co. Japan-Horishi Kambara, Nobuhiko Nakano
  • Technical Paper
  • 871232
Published 1987-11-08 by SAE Australasia in Australia
When braking up a truck with a rigid axle type front suspension of parallel leaf springs, some steer angle deviations occur caused by relative movements between steering linkage pivot and the front axle. In case of heavy braking under nearly locking up conditions, it is expected that the vehicle may show some yawing motion during deceleration.In this paper, vehicle behavior during braking were analyzed using a simplified simulation model. On the other hand, experiments were conducted to confirm the effects of these factors.Comparing those results, it was proved that the analytical results show relatively good correspondence to these obtained from experiments and that vehicle behaviors during braking were greatly affected by the steer angle deviations and position of wheels which were locked.

Heat Resisting Plasma Spray Coating on a Cylinder Head of Aluminum Alloy

Suzuki Motor Co., Ltd.-Makoto Kawai, Yasuyuki Sato
  • Technical Paper
  • 871207
Published 1987-11-08 by SAE Australasia in Australia
A new method was developed to help determine the conditions that would create adhesion strength of heat-resisting coatings formed in plasma spraying. This method is a combination of an experiment design that uses a Latin square and multiple regression analysis. Since it allows the direct analysis of experimental data, conditions can be determined in one third of the number of tests required by conventional experimental methods. The multiple regression equation gained through this study is also effective in comparing the heat resistance of the heat-resisting coating.

Study of the Performance of MTBE Blended Unleaded Gasoline

Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, PRC-X. Wang, Y. Yang, S. Sheng, X. Feng
Published 1987-11-08 by SAE International in United States
Methyl tertiary-butyl ether ( MTBE) as an octane enhancer has many advantages, such as its high “blending octane number, good chemical stability and good materials compatibility. The effects of ‘blending MTBE with various gasoline components, including its effect on fuel properties and its toxic cological effect were; studied. The power output, fuel consumption and emission properties of MTBE “blended unleaded gasoline versus leaded gasoline were compared during the engine dynamometer tests and vehicle tests.
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Synthetic Automotive Lubricants - Performance and Protection

Mobil Oil Australia, Ltd.-C.L. Martin, P.R. Wilson
Mobil Research & Development Corp.-K.C. Kresge, T.W. Rogers
Published 1987-11-08 by SAE International in United States
Automotive builders are designing future equipment for improved efficiency and greater durability. These designs will demand more performance and greater protection than ever before from the lubricants used. This paper reviews the performance available from a range of fully synthetic automotive lubricants, including engine oil, gear oil, automatic transmission fluid and grease. The development of optimized synthetic formulations to provide outstanding high temperature deposit and wear protection while maintaining excellent low temperature fluidity and pumpability, even after extended duration operation, will be discussed. The superior performance of synthetic lubricants compared to premium mineral oil lubricants will be demonstrated in a variety of laboratory equipment tests. Additionally, results will be presented from field testing under severe conditions and extended service periods in a variety of applications, including Formula 1 and Indianapolis race cars.
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