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Development of a LPG Fueled Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest-Radu Chiriac, Robert Radu, Dan Niculescu, Nicolae Apostolescu
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
A LPG fuelled, spark ignition engine for heavy duty vehicles has been developed from a Diesel DI engine which is currently in production.The development concept was based on the targets of obtaining output performances by LPG fuelling comparable with those of the original Diesel engine under full load conditions to be achieved with relatively simple technologies. A conventional mixer system with closed-loop control was consequently used for the LPG fuel supply system, operating at λ = 1.0.A systematic optimization was applied in the areas of the compression ratio, combustion chamber configuration, intake swirl ratio and plenum configuration, spark timing, in view of reaching high output performances and knock phenomena control.The results of optimization were higher torque and equal fuel conversion efficiency (at full load) in comparison with the original Diesel version of the engine.
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Breakup Process of an Initial Spray Injected by a D.I. Gasoline Injector-Simultaneous Measurement of Droplet Size and Velocity by Laser Sheet Image Processing and Particle Tracking Technique

University of Hiroshima-Jeekuen Lee, Keiya Nishida
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
The breakup and atomization processes of the pre-swirl spray, which is produced before the hollow-cone spray from a high-pressure swirl-type D.I. gasoline injector, were investigated under different ambient pressure conditions. The injector has a press-fitted swirl tip, in which six tangential slots giving the injecting fuel an angular momentum are perforated at an equal space interval. A microscopic imaging technique was applied to get the spatially high-resolution LIF tomograms of the pre-swirl spray. The sprays were illuminated by an Nd:YAG laser light sheet and imaged using a high resolution CCD camera, fixed with a micro lens and coupled with an optical low-pass filter. The droplet size and the individual droplet's velocity were obtained by applying the image processing and the particle tracking techniques, respectively. The mean droplet size, the non-circularity of the droplet and the droplet size-velocity correlations were investigated to clarify the breakup regimes of the pre-swirl spray. The breakup process of the pre-swirl spray shows an ambient pressure-dependence regime, and the breakup regime includes the following four stages in the order of changes:…
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Interaction Between Fuel Additive and Oil Contaminant: (I) Field Experiences

Cummins, Inc.-David M. Stehouwer, Howard L. Fang
Fleetguard, Inc.-Harold Martin
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
Fuel additives are used in diesel fuel for various reasons. For example, poor lubricity of some low sulfur and ultra low sulfur fuels necessitate the addition of lubricity additives to maintain acceptable protection of fuel system components. However, with today's high pressure fuel systems and lubricant oil recycling practices, some lubricant mixing with the fuel is unavoidable. As a result, an increase in fuel filter plugging was reported when lubricant components are present in the fuel. This paper shows filter plugging resulted from the interaction of basic lubricant additives with acidic fuel additives. Attempts to reduce the plugging by supplemental fuel additives were technically successful, but not economically feasible. The linkage between filter plugging and additive interactions is demonstrated in this paper. Part II of this series will explore the mechanisms of the additive interactions, and other causes for filter plugging.
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Knock Modeling: an Integrated Tool for Detailed Chemistry and Engine Cycle Simulation

Dept. of Combustion Physics, Lund University-S. S. Ahmedand, F. Mauss
Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund University-A. Gogan, B. Sundén
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
For the simultaneous evaluation of the influence on engine knock of both chemical conditions and global operating parameters, a combined tool was developed. Thus, a two-zone kinetic model for SI engine combustion calculation (Ignition) was implemented into an engine cycle simulation commercial code. The combined model predictions are compared with experimental data from a single-cylinder test engine. This shows that the model can accurately predict the knock onset and in-cylinder pressure and temperature for different lambda conditions, with and without EGR. The influence of nitric oxide amount from residual gas in relation with knock is further investigated. The created numerical tool represents a useful support for experimental measurements, reducing the number of tests required to assess the proper engine control strategies.
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Simultaneous OH- and Formaldehyde-LIF Measurements in an HCCI Engine

Division of Combustion Engines, Lund Institute of Technology-Leif Hildingsson, Bengt Johansson
Division of Combustion Physics, Lund Institute of Technology-Robert Collin, Jenny Nygren, Mattias Richter, Marcus Aldén
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
Simultaneous OH- and formaldehyde LIF measurements have been performed in an HCCI engine using two laser sources working on 283 and 355 nm, respectively. Two ICCD camera systems, equipped with long-pass filters, were used to collect the LIF signals. The simultaneous images of OH and formaldehyde were compared with heat-release calculated from the pressure-trace matching the cycle for the LIF measurements.The measurements were performed on a 0.5 l single-cylinder optical engine equipped with port-fuel injection system. A blend of iso-octane and n-heptane was used as fuel and the compression ratio was set to 12:1. The width of the laser sheet was 40 mm and hence covered approximately half of the cylinder bore.At some 20 CAD BTDC low temperature reactions is present and formaldehyde is formed. The formaldehyde signal is then rather constant until the main heat-release starts just before TDC, where the signal decreases rapidly to low values. From some 15 CAD to 5 CAD BTDC the formaldehyde is uniformly distributed in the imaged area. As formaldehyde decreases, OH increases and follows the main rate…
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Potentials of a Charged SI-Hydrogen Engine

BMW AG, Advanced Powertrain Development, München, Germany-M. Berckmüller, H. Rottengruber, A. Eder, N. Brehm, G. Elsässer, G. Müller-Alander, C. Schwarz
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
The hydrogen internal combustion engine offers the opportunity to achieve similar performance and comfort characteristics as a conventional gasoline fuelled engine. In order to improve power density and vehicle range new ways in engine design and in charging hydrogen engines were investigated.The engine used for the discussed test series was a specially designed single-cylinder engine with external and internal mixture formation and a flexible charging system allowing to simulate different charging methods. Thermodynamic analysis as well as CFD-simulation were used to optimise engine design and operation strategy. Engine operation at high loads was investigated and operation strategies were developed for low fuel consumption and extremely low NOx emissions. At full load operation, engine loads over 18 bar indicated mean effective pressure were achieved.
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The Effect of Sulphur-Free Diesel Fuel on the Measurement of the Number and Size Distribution of Particles Emitted from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Equipped with a Catalysed Particulate Filter

AEA Technology-Colin Dickens
BP-Diane Hall
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
Following concern about the association between adverse health effects and ambient particulate concentrations, there are now an increasing number of heavy-duty Diesel engines fitted with catalysed particulate filters. These filters virtually eliminate carbon particle emissions but there is some evidence suggesting a potential to form a cloud of secondary nucleation particles post trap. This event occurs at high temperature operating conditions and is produced mainly from the increased sulphate production over the catalyst. This paper investigates the measurement of particle emissions from a heavy-duty engine operating over the European legislated cycle, both with and without a filter fitted and investigates how emissions are affected by the use of a sulphur-free Diesel fuel. The work also demonstrates a contribution to the measured nucleation particles from material desorbed not only from the trap, but also from the exhaust system.
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Rotary Engines – A Concept Review

West Virginia University-Gregory J. Thompson, Zenovy S. Wowczuk, James E. Smith
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
The basic design of a purely rotary motion engine has potentially many advantages over the conventional piston-crank internal combustion engine. Although only one rotary engine has been successfully placed into production, rotary mechanisms still show promise in the market place. A comprehensive review of rotary engine concepts is presented with an emphasis placed on the last 30 years. Suggestions are made as to where research concentrations should be placed to improve the progress of a rotary engine.
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Auto-ignition Quality of Gasoline-Like Fuels in HCCI Engines

Royal Institute of Technology, KTH-Per Risberg, Gautam Kalghatgi, Hans-Erik Ångstrom
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
The auto-ignition quality of a fuel of any chemistry at a given engine condition is described by an octane index defined as, OI = (1-K) RON + K MON, where RON and MON are the Research and Motor Octane numbers respectively and K depends only on the engine design and operating conditions. The higher the OI value, the greater is the resistance to auto-ignition. A single cylinder homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine has been run at thirty seven different operating conditions using fuels of different chemistries and different known RON and MON values. At each operating condition CA50, the crank angle for 50% of the total heat release, is established for different fuels and from this the value of K is determined. We take Tcomp15, the temperature when the pressure reaches 15 bar during the compression stroke, as a generic engine parameter. K is strongly dependent on and increases with Tcomp15 and is less strongly dependent on the mixture strength. Surprisingly, there was no significant effect of engine speed on K. A predictive equation…
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Diesel Spray Simulation and KH-RT Wave Model

Helsinki University of Technology-Martti Larmi, Jukka Tiainen
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
This study presents diesel spray breakup regimes and the wave model basic theory from literature. The RD wave model and the KH-RT wave model are explained. The implementation of the KH-RT wave model in a commercial CFD code is briefly presented. This study relies on experimental data from non-evaporating sprays that have earlier been measured at Helsinki University of Technology.The simulated fuel spray in a medium-speed diesel engine had a satisfactory match with the experimental data. The KH-RT wave model resulted in a much faster drop breakup than with the RD wave model. This resulted in a thin spray core with the KH-RT model. The fuel viscosity effect on drop sizes was well predicted by the KH-RT wave model.
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