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New-Generation PC/ABS Blends Help Meet Performance & Styling Requirements for Instrument Panel & Other Interior Components

GE Advanced Materials-Adam Trappe, André Volkers, Graciela Trillanes, Jim DeRudder
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
New targets for auto-interior components seek to improve thermal aging, low-temperature impact strength, recyclability, emissions/odor, processing productivity, and costs in order to meet new requirements for a 10-year car and new standards for consumer comfort. The pace of these demands is creating opportunities for blending technologies in a range of applications, including instrument panels, glove-box doors, top covers, retainers, and trim.A new generation of high-performance polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC/ABS) resins based on proprietary formulation technology has been specifically developed to meet these demands in IP and other interior applications. This paper will focus specifically on a high-impact grade for IPs (in both standard- and low-emission formulations). This new technology was benchmarked against several earlier generation products from the same family, a new high-flow version using the same technology, and several competitive offsets. The results show a new class of PC/ABS blends offering best-in-class thermal aging, hydrolytic stability, low-temperature impact strength, and - for select applications - excellent odor and emissions. This has been accomplished without sacrificing processing performance. In fact, the new grades offer a broader processing…
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Method of Predicting Hill Climbing Performance in Batteryless Motorized-Four-Wheel-Drive System

Automotive Systems, Hitachi, Ltd.-Hisaya Shimizu, Norikazu Matsuzaki, Daisuke Yamamoto, Yoshinori Ikeda
Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd.-Shinya Imura, Takehiko Kowatari
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
We have predicted the hill climbing performance of a batteryless motorized-four-wheel-drive (M4WD) system. With this type of M4WD system, the engine drives the front wheels, and an electric motor drives the rear wheels. The electrical power to the motor is supplied directly by the M4WD generator (water-cooled alternator for M4WD use only) driven by the engine. The system is small and simple due to this batteryless powertrain. However, predicting hill climbing performance is complex due to the power tradeoff between the front and rear wheels. We clarify nonlinear mechanical and electrical power flow models, and discuss how our M4WD vehicle simulator using these power flow models is able to predict hill climbing performance. The performance we predicted agreed well with the actual performance of a prototype vehicle.
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Investigation of Mixture Quality Effect on CAI Combustion

IFP Powertrain Engineering-B. Thirouard, J. Cherel, V. Knop
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the fundamental aspects of the CAI combustion process in order to assess the possibilities of controlling CAI combustion through mixture quality. The experimental work was conducted on a single-cylinder gasoline engine equipped with optical access and was completed with 3D simulation of the gas exchange and compression strokes. Two engine configurations (negative valve overlap and burned gas re-breathing) were tested.In CAI combustion, controlling the heat release rate implies limiting the volume of the reaction zone by charge stratification, or decreasing the reaction rate by increasing the dilution. Consequently, a significant part of the work was focused on the investigation of the correlation between the mixture quality and the CAI combustion process. It was found that a low level of fuel stratification obtained with asymmetric port fuel injection does not significantly affect the combustion phasing even though it directly influences the location of the auto-ignition zones. Indeed, single cycle observations of the fuel distribution and the combustion process showed that the location of the…
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An Environment for Model-Based Development of Ground Vehicles

Emmeskay, Inc.-Ravi Dixit, Michael J. Sasena, Shiva Sivashankar
General Dynamics Land Systems-Rao Boggavarapu
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Model-based simulation and analysis tools have been used in the design of both commercial and military hybrid ground vehicles. The goal of the US Army's Future Combat Systems (FCS) is to develop a number of vehicles, called variants, fulfilling different missions on the battlefield. Design goals include reduced weight for air transport and increased agility, while maintaining a common chassis, power generator and energy storage system.In this paper we describe a unique tool that facilitates the development of such a series of vehicles. The modeling and analysis environment is flexible, modular and reconfigurable. It has been developed on commercially available MathWorks tool suite consisting of MATLAB®1, Simulink® and Stateflow®. A library of loads representing different energy usage events is first created. With the common generator and energy storage system, a different variant model is easily generated by selecting the appropriate mission loads. A series of simulations for each of the variants can then be performed to determine the generator and energy storage system required to meet all the variants and their missions.The tool has the…
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2006 Corvette Z06 Carbon Fiber Structural Composite Panels- Design, Manufacturing and Material Development Considerations

General Motors Body Structure & Closures Engineering-John Remy, David Hamilton, Edward D. Moss, Boyd Pukalo, Gary Zu
Molded Fiber Glass Research Company-Roger Johnson
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
The General Motors Corvette Product Engineering Team is in a continual search for mass-reduction technologies which provide performance improvements that are affordable and add value for their customers. The structural composite panels of the C6 Z06 provided a unique opportunity to extend the use of carbon fiber reinforced materials to reduce mass and enhance performance. The entire vehicle set of composite panels was reviewed as candidates for material substitution, with the selection criteria based on the cost per kg of mass saved, tooling cost required, and the location of the mass to be saved. Priority was extended to mass savings at the front of the vehicle. After a carefully balanced selection process, two components, both requiring redesign because of the Z06’s wider stance, met the criteria: the Front Wheelhouse Outer Panel and Floor Panels. The current Floor Panels, first used on the C5, are large and are a balsawood-cored glass fiber reinforced composite design. The Floor Panels lack of complex shape and considerable area provided an opportunity for significant mass reduction within the selection guidelines.Several…
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Intelligent Power IC for Automotive Electronics, Using Trench-Dielectric-Isolation Technology

Electronics Device R & D Center, Denso Corporation-Takeshi Kuzuhara, Hiroaki Himi, Shigeki Takahashi, Noriyuki Iwamori, Seiji Fujino
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
We developed an intelligent power IC suitable for automotive applications, which integrated CMOS, Bipolar and LDMOS and which was fabricated on 0.65 μm design rule process. This IC employs trench-dielectric-isolation (TD) technology and power device technology that improves the ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) robustness. TD technology employing an SOI (Silicon On Insulator) wafer and deep trench isolation realizes very narrow isolation width with no parasitic device. It enables the easier mixing of various circuits on a single chip with high integration density. The power device technology of improves ESD robustness, enables reduction in the number of protection devices in automotive Electronic control units (ECUs), which connect with the power IC output terminals. Therefore, the intelligent power IC developed here can reduce ECU component numbers and hence ECU size, and is applicable to various kinds of ECUs and smart actuators with high reliability at lower cost.
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CT Inspection of Castings With Improved Calibration

BIR Inc.-Charles R. Smith, Kyung S. Han
Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles-Uwe Bischoff, Bernd Georgi, Ferdinand Hansen, Frank Jeltsch
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Maintaining the high quality level of today's cars requires inspection by a variety of non-destructive testing methods. Specialized techniques are needed for highly stressed parts such as cast aluminum cylinder heads. Computerized Tomography (CT) is one of the best testing methods for checking complex areas such as combustion chambers, inlet/exhaust runners, and coolant passages. CT inspection simultaneously detects in-homogeneities, pores, shrinkages, and cracks while acquiring complete 3D dimension information on all internal and external surfaces. This adaptation of well-proven medical technology is now maturing to applications in the industrial environment and achieving harmonization with other production tools such as coordinate measuring machines and CAD software packages.An important goal in today's fast paced design environment is rapid feedback to engineers from first article inspection and process control activities. CT provides accurate repeatable external and internal measurements or complete geometry capture without physical sectioning.However, the reliability of CT systems' results must be verifiable against acceptable well defined standards and practices. Many factors in the use of industrial CT systems affect measurement accuracy without being well understood. One…
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Vapor Phase Mass Measurements of In-Cylinder Diesel Fuel Sprays

Engine Research Center University of Wisconsin-Madison-M. S. Beckman, P. V. Farrell
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Images of transient, evaporating, diesel fuel sprays were taken inside of an optically accessible engine. The images were converted into vapor mass, equivalence ratio, and temperature contour maps of the spray. The conversion is accomplished using an exciplex fluorescence method. The experiment focused on the period of time between start of injection and the onset of autoignition. Engine operating conditions were varied using three operating parameters. These parameters were: intake temperature, ambient density, and engine speed.The effects of increasing intake temperature were to create richer, hotter mixtures with increased total vapor mass at autoignition. Increasing ambient density created cooler, leaner mixtures with decreased vapor mass at autoignition. Increasing engine speed showed increased Top Dead Center (TDC) temperature and decreased ignition delay. These effects competed with one another to control the total amount of vapor mass. The dominating effect, either temperature or ignition delay, was found to be a function of engine speed.
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Product Development Process: Views and Analysis

Ford Motor Company-Faysal Khalaf
Retired, Ford Motor Company-Mahesh Vora
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Dr. Edwards Deming spirited organizations “If you can't define what you do as a process, you don't know what your job is” (Weinstein, 1999). Significant effort has been conducted to engineer, deploy and control a process to product development. This coverage reflects impact of product development process on developing and producing consumer products effectively and successfully for the future. Reflecting on the past and observing mistakes and lessons learned would be key to help our companies to engineer future or modify existing product development processes. This paper examines views, types and needs of product development process from a six sigma perspective to enable deliver of competitive products with cost and time in mind. Learning from the past enlightens us to identify opportunities that would drive evolution and trend of product development process into the future. A recommended view is presented that changes the way product development process is designed and implemented.
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Validation Test Optimization Based on a Statistical Approach for Diesel Engine Cylinder Heads Reliability

LIGERON S.A., France-Christelle Jouzeau
RENAULT S.A.S, France-Olivier Prince, Guillaume Morin
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes a statistical method of test sizing optimization, used by RENAULT for diesel engine cylinder heads validation. Based on mission profiles, tests results and damage computations, the paper describes an application of the “Stress Strength” method combined with a sampling plan. Associated with degradation measurements (crack length), it allows to estimate the future field reliability and to optimize the validation test sizing: number of parts to be tested, test duration, confidence level, supplier risk and test acceptance criterion. It permits to obtain less expensive validation tests while demonstrating high level of reliability.
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