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Analysis of Advantages and of Problems of Electromechanical Valve Actuators

Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica - Università di Napoli Federico II-A. di Gaeta
Istituto Motori of National Research Council of Italy-V. Giglio, B. Iorio, G. Police
Published 2002-03-04 by SAE International in United States
The electromechanical devices proposed in technical literature are very flexible. However, their working principle (fixed lift, fixed lifting time and variable valve events) imposes the use of different strategies, such as cylinder or port deactivation to enable work at partial loads. This happens in particular at low loads.The present paper aims to evaluate the effect of the design and of the strategies adopted to vary the load (cylinder or port deactivation etc) on performance and on pollutant formation of a stoichiometric DISI engine. The calculations were performed by a commercial one-dimensional code (Wave produced by Ricardo). This tool was also used to give inputs to the design of the electromechanical actuator.The electromechanical design of the actuator was carried out with the aid of the code Flux2D produced by Cedrat. This code allows the complete simulation of transients and of the electrical losses of the actuator.The system requirements of performing the first lift at engine start up and catching in normal operation were analyzed. In this way a fairly realistic picture of the main advantages and…
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Automotive Plastics Recycling: Successful Projects

Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc. / Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corp.-Margot Clauss, Heinz Herbst, James Botkin
Published 2002-03-04 by SAE International in United States
The success of automotive plastics recycling will be dependent on the development of economically viable high value target applications for recyclates.After their first lifetime in automotive applications plastic recyclates show evidence of depleted stabilizer content, impurities, as well as thermo- and photo-oxidative byproducts. These alterations lead to a reduction in mechanical properties and to diminished processing, weathering, and heat aging performance. As a consequence, plastic recyclates are not currently suitable for use in high-value applications.Results from selected successful automotive plastics recycling projects demonstrate the features and benefits of tailor-made additive systems to improve recyclate performance. Recent inquiries into the post-consumer recycling of battery cases, TPO bumpers, and fuel tanks have yielded data on the processing and weathering stability of recyclates, and on the influence of paint residues. Ciba's new additive systems enable the use of recyclates in demanding highvalue applications.
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Late-Cycle Turbulence Generation in Swirl-Supported, Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

Sandia National Laboratories-Paul C. Miles, Marcus Megerle, Joseph Hammer
University of Michigan-Volker Sick
Published 2002-03-04 by SAE International in United States
Cycle-resolved analysis of velocity data obtained in the re-entrant bowl of a fired high-;speed, direct-injection diesel engine, demonstrates an unambiguous, approximately 100% increase in late-cycle turbulence levels over the levels measured during motored operation. Model predictions of the flow field, obtained employing RNG k-ε turbulence modeling in KIVA-3V, do not capture this increased turbulence. A combined experimental and computational approach is taken to identify the source of this turbulence. The results indicate that the dominant source of the increased turbulence is associated with the formation of an unstable distribution of mean angular momentum, characterized by a negative radial gradient. The importance of this source of flow turbulence has not previously been recognized for engine flows. The enhanced late-cycle turbulence is found to be very sensitive to the flow swirl level. Furthermore, experiments conducted in a N2 atmosphere, in which the injected fuel does not burn, indicate that buoyant turbulence production likely plays a role between approximately 10 and 20 CAD, but is not primarily responsible for the late-cycle increase. Finally, combustion induced gas expansion is…
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CAE Methodologies for Virtual Prototyping of Cast Aluminum Suspension Components

FIAT Research Center, Italy-K. Bel Knani, P. Bologna, E. Duni, G. Villari
TEKSID, Aluminum Business Unit, Italy-G. Armando, M. Tortone, M. Leghissa
Published 2002-03-04 by SAE International in United States
This work describes numerical methodologies used for both fatigue life prediction and impact load analysis of automotive suspension components made of a cast aluminium alloy. Some issues related with finite element (FE) discretization are discussed, and the main guidelines for fatigue analysis and critical load determination are presented. FE stress results have been validated through comparison with experimental strain gauges measurements, and a good agreement is shown between the predicted fatigue and impact behaviour of the component, and experimental data obtained from bench tests. Such an agreement concerns, in particular, the failure locations, the fatigue lifetime, the critical load and the post-buckling behaviour.
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Improvement of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst

Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc-Naoki Takahashi, Akihiko Suda, Masahiro Sugiura
Toyota Motor Corp.-Ichiro Hachisuka, Takeru Yoshida, Hideaki Ueno
Published 2002-03-04 by SAE International in United States
In order to further improve the performance of NOx storage-reduction catalysts (NSR catalysts), focus was placed on their high temperature performance deterioration via sulfur poisoning and heat deterioration. The reactions between the basicity or acidity of supports and the storage element, potassium, were analyzed. It was determined that the high temperature performance of NSR catalysts is enhanced by the interaction between potassium and zirconia, which is a basic metal oxide. Also, a new zirconia-titania complex metal oxides was developed to improve high temperature performance and to promote the desorption of sulfur from the supports after aging.
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Fuel Rail with Integrated Damping Effect

Usui Kokusai Sangyo Kaisha, Ltd.-Kazuteru Mizuno, Shoichiro Usui, Izumi Imura, Tetsuo Ogata, Hikari Tsuchiya, Yoshiyuki Serizawa
Published 2002-03-04 by SAE International in United States
Fuel rails (FRs) with integrated pulsation dampers prevent undesirable cabin noise. Such fuel rails were studied through a test vehicle evaluation on MPI returnless fuel supply systems. Among the alternative shapes of steel FRs, it was found that a flat or high aspect ratio rectangular cross section FR best absorbs the fuel pressure pulsations. In addition, the effect of the air-fuel ratio (A/F) was experimentally studied on pressure pulsation absorption in V and in-line engines.
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Optimization of a Modular Cockpit Cross Car Beam for Crashworthiness

Modular Cockpit Group, Delphi Automotive Systems-Mohamed Sahul Hamid
Published 2002-03-04 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a numerical optimization of a cross car beam of a modular cockpit is presented. The optimization study was performed using LS-OPT code and LS-DYNA solver code. The optimization was based on component load level resulting from FMVSS214 dynamic side impact. The component load conditions were derived from a full vehicle simulation. The beam was subjected to axial load alone and to both axial and bending loads simultaneously. The beam was i) minimized for lower mass for a selected diameter and a given peak force to occur within 5mm axial deformation ii) optimal thickness of the beam for minimal effective plastic strain peak for a given resultant deformation
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The Development of Testing Device for Compression Deformation of Automotive Door Weather-strip Seals

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University-De'an Wan
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University-Jiancai Zhao, Xunsheng Zhu
Published 2002-03-04 by SAE International in United States
Automotive door system weather-strip seals play a major role in determining door closing effort, isolating the passenger compartment from water and reducing the wind noise inside the vehicle. They are typically dual extrusion bulbs of sponge and dense rubber. The bulbs can be round, triangular or free form in shape with a height of approximately 15-30 mm. The special properties of dense and sponge rubber material are (1) High extensibility. (2) Low extensional and shear modulus. Dense rubbers are nearly incompressible. Sponge rubbers are, on the other hand, very compressible. (3) Nonlinear force vs. extension behavior. Because of the above-mentioned factors, the deformation of the automotive door weather-strip seal during the compression is very complicated.A testing set has been developed for obtaining compression deformation of the door weather-strip by using stereovision theory. Precision instruments of optical grating and force sensor are also integrated in this set. Force-displacement response characteristics of compression at varied speed can be controlled. This work will lay solid foundations for characteristic and structure as well as optimization design of the automotive…
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Exhaust Particulate Emissions of a Mustard Seed Oil Driven Tractor Engine

Oy Ekolaiho Ab-Väinö O. K. Laiho
Turku Polytechnic-Seppo A. Niemi, Timo T. Murtonen, Mika J. Laurén
Published 2002-03-04 by SAE International in United States
Exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) of a direct injection turbocharged, intercooled tractor diesel engine were determined, while fueling the engine with a vegetable oil pressed from mustard seeds.The un-esterized mustard seed oil (MSO) was cleaned by simply letting it stand and clear. Appropriate injector tips were first selected. Thereafter, performance and exhaust emissions were measured in the large load-speed envelope. The results were compared to those obtained while running the engine with diesel fuel oil (DFO).The results showed that the engine emits more fine and ultra-fine particles when running with MSO than with DFO, although the exhaust smoke and total hydrocarbon emissions were lower and the brake thermal efficiency was very similar. In the range of larger particles, PM emissions were lower with MSO at high loads and lower with DFO at low loads.Preheating of MSO reduced the PM emissions, but not to a level observed with DFO in the range of nanoparticles. A raised temperature of the primary diluter did not affect the PM result characteristics with MSO.Further optimization of the entire injection…
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Distributed Engineering of Automotive Manufacturing Machines under the Foresight Vehicle Programme

Loughborough University, UK-A. A. West, R. Harrison, R. H. Weston, R. P. Monfared, D. A. Vera, D. W. Thomas, C. S. McLeod, M. Wilkinson, S. M. Lee, S. F. Qin, M. H. Ong
Published 2002-03-04 by SAE International in United States
A method to enable the impact of a novel component based approach to the implementation of production machinery design and build processes from the perspectives of the manufacturing engineering partners within the automotive industry is reported in this paper. The assessment method is based upon the representation (using CIMOSA based constructs) and simulation (using the ithinktm software package) of the activity, actor and event relationships between distributed partners when involved in a global engine manufacture programme. Assessment is vital to ensure that the impact of any novel approach is appreciated in terms and metrics that are consistent with the current operational and interaction paradigms. Without this information is it extremely difficult for the engineering partners to appreciate the impact of changes on their roles, responsibilities and profits and hence determine a roadmap and timescale for the adoption of the changes associated with the novel technology.
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