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The “Fix-it” Subsystem of Maintenance Information System for Body Motor Vehicles

University of Belgrade, faculty of Mechanical Engineering-G. Ivanovic
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
Information system has been developed and implemented for the purpose of managing motor vehicles maintenance system which includes maintenance of body of motor vehicles.The databases have been developed for the maintenance system regarding workers, locations, failures, vehicles, maintenance operations, spare parts and reports on maintenance, for the purpose of providing valid information required for managing the maintenance system.This paper describes the basic common solution and the individual bus-maintenance software solution for the “Fix-it” process used for “on the road” maintenance. For this process, the mode of operation and the results of its application are shown.
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Materials Selection for Automotive Closure Applications with Respect to Cost and Function

United States Steel Corporation-J.P. McGuire
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
In the past ten year period, due primarily to government mandates for fuel economy improvement, alternate materials have replaced steel on many closure applications at American OEMs (hoods, decklids, and liftgates). But due to recent cost reduction initiatives set by automakers and the advent of newly developed high strength steels, this trend has been challenged by lighter weight, less costly steel alternatives, with near equal or superior performance. This paper, through case studies undertaken at several North American OEM facilities, examines the cost differential, material property options, manufacturing differences, and performance characteristics between the application of aluminum and steel for common hood, lift gate, and deck lid assemblies for both current and future production parts.
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TAILORED BLANKS OF HIGH STRENGTH STEELS - COMPARISON OF WELDING PROCESSES -

Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd.-Masato Uchihara, Kiyoyuki Fukui
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
The strength of steel sheets used in tailored blanks for automotive bodies has been rising. In order to obtain guidelines for the choice of appropriate welding processes and materials, the formability of welded steel sheets were investigated. The purposes of this work are 1) to determine an upper steel strength limit that can be welded and 2) to obtain the requirements of materials from a viewpoint of formability. Laser, mash seam, and plasma arc welding were employed up to 980MPa high strength steels. The results suggested that laser welding was the best welding process because of its small heat input. It could be applied to 980MPa steels. 590MPa was the maximum steel strength grade to which mash seam and plasma arc welding could be applied, because the mash seam and the plasma arc welding thermal cycles softened the HAZ of high strength steel. The requirement of materials for the formability of laser welded steels is high elongation of base metals. On the other hand, the requirement for the formability of plasma arc welded steels is…
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Object Oriented Formulation of the 3D Large Deformation Beam Element for Crash Applications

Honda R&D Co., Ltd. Tochigi R&D Center-Kenji Takada
Impact Design,EUROPE-Wlodek Abramowicz
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a new Object Oriented Formulation of the FE algorithm that encompasses traditional FE, Super Element, experimental data and rigid body mechanics in a single calculation environment. The new formulation is implemented in a software for the dynamic crash simulation of an arbitrary 3D frame structure discretized into Super Elements and subjected to large dynamic crash loading. The paper presents basics of the general algorithm and element formulation. The theoretical portion of this paper is followed by a discussion of benchmark tests and results of the application to real world structures.
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Effect of Pre-Deformation and Baking on High-Speed Deformation Behavior of Steels

Steel Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel Corporation-Manabu Takahashi, Akihiro Uenishi, Hiroshi Yoshida, Yukihisa Kuriyama
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
There has been a big demand for increased vehicle safety and weight reduction. An extensive use of high strength steels is one of the ways to answer the requirement. Increase in strength of steels due to pre-deformation and baking is one of the effective methods to increase the dynamic flow stress, which corresponds to the energy absorption property of steels at high-speed deformations. The effect of pre-deformation and baking on the strain rate dependence of the flow stress was found to be governed mainly by the amount of bake hardenability of steels.
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TOPOGRAPHY ASSESSMENT OF COATED STEEL SHEET SURFACE IMPERFECTIONS IN RELATION TO APPEARANCE AFTER PAINTING

Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines-J.G. Speer, D.K. Matlock
POSCO Technical Laboratories-Y.-M. Choi, J.-H. Chung
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
This study examined the evolution of the surface topography of imperfections in response to painting. Critically-sized imperfections on industrially produced coated sheet steel surfaces were sampled, and carefully characterized. Changes in the surface topography were measured after painting simulations, and visibility after painting was assessed. Three-dimensional optical profilometry was demonstrated to be a powerful technique for assessing imperfection topographies and their evolution during painting; several imperfections that were completely invisible through human inspection after painting were still measurable by 3-D topography. Two primer surfacer systems were used, to compare a conventional liquid system with a high-build anti-chip powder system.While most imperfections remained visible after e-coating, the results showed that many surface imperfections are rendered invisible after final top coating, and the results provide a basis for industry to begin developing measurement-based inspection criteria for imperfection severity. The powder primer surfacer system was found to be much more effective in attenuating imperfections. A simple model was hypothesized to understand topography evolution, based on film shrinkage during paint curing, with some important implications related to painting system…
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Laser Welding Application of Car Body in Nissan

NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.-Kiyokazu Mori
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
YAG laser welding for body in white has been developed and applied to the joint of the roof and body side of new L-class car. By comparison with the resistance spot welding, which is conventional joining method, the laser welding has some advantages, such as one-side welding and continues welding. So the joint structure can be improved to lightweight with high strength and stiffness. And the appearance of joint also is improved.We use two 3KW YAG lasers and robots with fiber optics. The roof and body side panel are galvanized zinc coated steel, and lap welded. The most critical factor for mass production is the gap control technique, and we developed the gap control system with special pressure device. And in-process monitoring system is also developed which analyzed the intensity of plume and back reflection of YAG laser.
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SOUTRAC® - The Future for Welding AHSS Tailored Blanks

Soudronic AG Neftenbach-Daniel Wenk
Soudronic Automotive NAFTA-Marcel van Schaik
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
The use of tailored blanks in the automotive industry is well established. Each year the amount of applications is growing (see figure 1) and the technology has become mature. With the growing interest in Advanced High Strength Steel, new solutions in weld technology however have to be developed in order to produce high quality parts in high volume at the lowest cost. Soudronic has several solutions available to weld Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) successfully. The latest development being the use of controlled filler wire feed. This technology is integrated in the new weld system SOUTRAC®. This new developed laser welding machine is especially designed for welding non-linear Tailored Blanks and guarantees highest output of linear and curved blanks with excellent quality. Weld edge tracking, gap closing by adaptive gap-driven filler wire, single or double spot welding technique and the novel SOUVIS® 5000 seam quality control system are all integrated into the same unique Modular Weld head.The paper will discuss the problems with tailored blank welding AHSS as well as provide a detailed overview of…
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Advisable Grades of High-Strength Steel Sheets and Welding Conditions for Spot-Weld Strength in Automotive Body Application

Kimitsu R&D Lab., Nippon Steel Corporation-Yasuharu Sakuma, Shunji Hiwatashi
Welding & Joining Research Center, Nippon Steel Corporation-Hatsuhiko Oikawa
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
Experimental study on static strength of spot-welds for high-strength steel sheets is summarized, focusing on thicker and coated sheets. Tensile shear strength (TSS) increases with sheet strength and thickness. Cross tensile strength (CTS) also increases, but the variation with sheet strength is small. Welding with expulsion deteriorates CTS, especially for thicker or coated sheets with higher strength or carbon content. Blow-holes and shrinkage cavities are found frequently at thicker sheet welds, and their existence near nugget edge reduces CTS. Above-mentioned knowledge leads developments of galvannealed sheets with carbon content less than 0.1 % for tensile strength up to 980MPa.
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A New Approach for Numerical Fatigue Life Prediction of Parts or Systems with Seam Welds

LMS International, Luxemburger Str. 7, 67657 Kaiserslautern, Germany-Volker B. Koettgen, Frank Zingsheim, Michael Hack, Michael Speckert
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
Recently, LMS has developed a new approach for fatigue life prediction of seam welds, which automatically combines quite accurate solid element based techniques with fast shell element-based structural analysis. Pre-modeled welded joint details are delivered in a user-extensible library, which is combined with regular shell element meshes as used in the transportation industries. Detection of the seam welds in the structure is mostly automatic.This new approach is implemented in LMS Virtual.Lab, the integrated environment for functional performance engineering.
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