Your Selections

International Spring Fuels & Lubricants Meeting
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Effect of Injection Timing on Piston Surface Fuel Impingement and Vaporization in Direct Injection, Spark Ignition Engines

The University of Texas at El Paso-Robert Hennessey, Arturo Fuentes, Ryan Wicker
Published 2001-05-07 by SAE International in United States
Fuel spray imaging and PIV were used to investigate the effect of piston temperature and location on fuel spray structure and piston surface fuel impingement for three injection timings. Experiments were performed within a non-motored quartz research cylinder with in-cylinder densities and piston displacements that match those of a motored engine at the time of injection. Crank angles of 35°, 55°, and 75° before top dead center (BTDC) were considered, corresponding to in-cylinder pressures for the non-motored case of ∼5 atm, ∼3 atm, and ∼2 atm, respectively. A simulated piston was constructed of aluminum with controlled surface temperatures up to 210°C. The fuel spray was illuminated using single laser pulses formed into a sheet and passed through the cylinder with the images captured using a digital camera connected to an image acquisition board and computer. Instantaneous fuel spray imaging indicated that the heated piston had no significant impact on fuel spray structure when compared to the non-heated case for the single piston surface temperature investigated. Fuel spray imaging also revealed fuel impingement at both ambient…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Oil Quality with Oil Age in an IDI Diesel Passenger Car Using an On Line Lubricating Oil Recycler Under Real World Driving

Department of Fuel and Energy The University of Leeds-Gordon E. Andrews, Jie Xu
Swansea Tribology Services Ltd.-M. H. Jones
Published 2001-05-07 by SAE International in United States
A method of cleaning lubricating oil on line was investigated using a fine 1 micron bypass particulate filter, followed by an infra-red heater to remove water and light diesel fractions in the oil. A Ford 1.8 litre IDI diesel passenger car was investigated under real world driving conditions. Comparison was made with the oil quality without the recycler. All the tests were carried out on the same vehicle over 7000 miles with and without the recycler. The results showed that the on line oil recycler cleaning system reduced the rate of reduction of TBN and the rate of increase of TAN by 54% and 50% respectively. The reduction in the rate of carbon accumulation in the oil was 42%. There was also a reduction in fuel dilution. All the wear metals in the oil were greatly reduced by the recycler, the iron was reduced by 76%, the lead was reduced by 85% and the aluminum was totally removed. Compared with previous results from the same type of engine test using an oil recycler with 6…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

The Influence of an On Line Oil Recycler on Oil Quality from a Bus in Service Using Synthetic Oil

Department of Fuel and Energy, The University of Leeds-Gordon E. Andrews, Jie Xu
Swansea Tribology Services Ltd-M. H. Jones
Published 2001-05-07 by SAE International in United States
A method of cleaning lubricating oil on line was investigated using a one micron bypass particulate filter followed by an infra-red heater, to remove water, dissolved gases and light diesel fractions in the oil. The impact of this oil recycler on oil quality was studied using synthetic oil in an on-road bus test. The bus was of Euro-1 emissions standard and equipped with a Cummins 6 cylinder 8.3 litre turbo-charged inter-cooled DI engine. Comparisons tests were undertaken with and without the oil recycler for about 28,000 miles. Oil samples were analysed about every 2000 miles. The results showed that the on line oil recycler achieved significant improvements in the oil quality. With the recycler, the TBN depletion rate was reduced by 52%, the TAN increase rate was reduced by 27% and the carbon accumulation rate in the oil was reduced by 42%. The fuel dilution was reduced by the recycler. There was also a significant reduction in all the wear metals in oil apart from copper, which was influenced by copper components in the recycler.…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Simulating Analysis of Methanol Combustion Process and Variations of Cycle to Cycle in Diesel Engine

Dalian University of Technology-Yiquan Huang, Qingyun Su, Zheng Huang, Junjie Zhou, Minghua Yang
Published 2001-05-07 by SAE International in United States
A zero-dimension combustion model suitable to multi-fuel combustion process has been developed and successfully used in the analysis of methanol combustion process The V2b function is calculated with the Powell Optimized Algorithm. The concerned characteristics include in the variables of zero-dimension model, mean indication pressure, maximum combustion pressure, ignition delay and the correlation coefficient between heat release rate and ignition delay. The heat release rate curves on different conditions are fitted and the statistic analyses of the cyclic variations are conducted.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

The Structure of Cavitation and its Effect on the Spray Pattern in a Single-Hole Diesel Nozzle

Chalmers University of Technology-Lionel Christopher Ganippa, Göran Bark, Sven Andersson, Jerzy Chomiak
Published 2001-05-07 by SAE International in United States
The structure and evolution of cavitation in a transparent scaled-up diesel nozzle having a hole perpendicular to the nozzle axis has been investigated using high-speed motion pictures, flash photography and stroboscopic visualization. Observations revealed that, at the inception stage, cavitation bubbles are dominantly seen in the vortices at the boundary layer shear flow and outside the separation zone. Cavitation bubbles grow intensively in the shear layer and develop into cloud-like coherent structures when viewed from the side of the nozzle. Shedding of the coherent cloud cavitation was observed. When the flow was increased further the cloud like cavitation bubbles developed into a large-scale coherent structure extending downstream of the hole. Under this condition the cavitation starts as a mainly glassy sheet at the entrance of the hole. Until this stage the spray appeared to be symmetric. When the flow was increased beyond this stage, a sheet of cavitation covered a significant part of the hole on one side, extending to the hole exit. A glossy sheet on the other side of the hole does not…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine: Basic Operating Characteristics and Cylinder-to-Cylinder Effects

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-Daniel Flowers, Salvador M. Aceves, Joel Martinez-Frias, J. Ray Smith
University of California Berkeley-Michael Au, James Girard, Robert Dibble
Published 2001-05-07 by SAE International in United States
A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbo-charged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater.The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

The Performance of a Gasoline Friction Modifier Fuel Additive

Texaco Additives International-Thomas E. Hayden, Charles A. Ropes, Michael G. Rawdon
Published 2001-05-07 by SAE International in United States
Economic and political factors continue to put pressure on the automotive industry to reduce fuel consumption in vehicles. To increase the fuel efficiency of an engine, engine oil formulations have trended towards lower viscosity and the use of friction modifiers. To improve fuel economy further, the fuel itself can be used to deliver friction modifiers to the piston ring-cylinder wall interface, a location where friction is high and the oil quantity is purposely kept low.This paper describes the use of the Sequence VI, VI-A, and VI-B lubricant fuel economy tests to demonstrate the fuel consumption improvement from a gasoline friction modifier fuel additive. To capitalize on the dynamometer results, vehicle tests were conducted using several test cycles, engine oils of different viscosity grades and containing a friction modifier, various gasoline friction modifier fuel additive treat rates, and to predict the effect of long term use.The benefit of the gasoline friction modifier fuel additive was generally found at the higher oil temperature conditions. The fuel economy change was immediately measurable and further gains were seen as…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Detergent and Friction Modifier Effects on Metal/Metal and Clutch Material/Metal Frictional Performance

The Lubrizol Corp.-Thomas S. Derevjanik
Published 2001-05-07 by SAE International in United States
The goal of this work was to find combinations of detergent and friction modifier additives that would produce high metal/metal friction with good clutch material performance. A baseline formulation was used with various combinations of five different detergents with five different friction modifiers. Two bench tests were used to assess performance. A CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) Element-on-Ring Test was used to study metal/metal performance, and a VSFT (Variable Speed Friction Tester) procedure with cellulose based friction material was used to evaluate the μ-v (friction coefficient-velocity) clutch performance. Interestingly, a 400 TBN magnesium sulfonate detergent combined with a phosphorus containing friction modifier showed a special synergy. The metal/metal, element-on-ring data showed one of the highest average friction coefficients, and the VSFT results showed that this combination also displayed a moderately high dynamic friction coefficient with a high, positive μ-v slope. The positive slope is indicative of good clutch material antishudder performance. Even after prestressing (fluid aging), this combination was one of the few formulations that maintained a moderately high positive slope with a moderate dynamic coefficient…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Study of the Effect of Flow Pulsations on the Flow Distribution within Ceramic Contoured Catalyst Substrates

Coventry Univ.-S. F. Benjamin, C. A. Roberts, J. Wollin
Published 2001-05-07 by SAE International in United States
This study examines the effect of pulsating flow on the flow distribution through contoured substrates. Three ceramic contoured substrates of equal volume were assessed. Two of the substrates were cone shaped with different cone angles and one had a dome shaped front face. The flow distribution was measured for a range of flow rates and pulsation frequencies. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were also performed. It is shown how a contoured substrate can provide improvements in flow uniformity and that they are less sensitive to changes in flow rate and pulsation frequency when compared to the case of a standard substrate. Improvements in the prediction of flow distribution are reported when substrate “entrance effects” are accounted for.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Optimization of High Pressure Common Rail Electro-injector Using Genetic Algorithms

Università di Lecce, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Innovazione - Italy-Teresa Donateo, Arturo de Risi, Domenico Laforgia
Published 2001-05-07 by SAE International in United States
The aim of the present investigation is the implementation of an innovative procedure to optimise the design of a high pressure common rail electro-injector. The optimization method is based on the use of genetic programming, a search procedure developed by John Holland at the University of Michigan. A genetic algorithm (GA) creates a random population which evolves combining the genetic code of the most capable individual of the previous generation. For the present investigation an algorithm which includes the operators of crossover, mutation and elitist reproduction has been developed. This genetic algorithm allows the optimization of both single and multicriteria problems. For the determination of the multi-objective fitness function, the concept of Pareto optimality has been implemented. The performance of the multiobjective genetic algorithm was examined by using appropriate mathematical functions and was compared with the single objective one. The proposed genetic algorithm was used to define the geometrical and dynamic characteristics of high pressure injectors that optimize the injection profile and the time response of the system. As evaluation function for the GA a…
Annotation ability available