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The Sasol Oil Racing Fuels and Lubricants Research Facility

Sasol Oil-J. J. Botha
Sasol Oil Research and Development-G. E. Jones, I. S. Myburgh
Published 1994-12-01 by SAE International in United States
Motor racing in general and Formula 1 in particular, represents the leading edge in automotive technology. Participation in Formula 1 presents a challenge and an opportunity to the petroleum industry, where significant research benefits can be gained in terms of product development.As a direct result of the regulations governing the composition of the fuels that may be used in motor racing, especially in Formula 1, they have much in common with their commercial counterparts. Racing fuels and lubricants are however optimised for the specific demands of motor racing. The technology gained through this research has had a significant bearing on the procedures and equipment employed in commercial fuel and lubricants development.Because of the very high specific output of a modern racing engine, the fuel evaluation procedure is vastly different from that used on commercial engines. The ability to have an engine test system which can provide repeatable and accurate performance and combustion results within the framework of a system which cannot be allowed to stabilise fully, due to the very high thermal stress levels at…
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A Physiological Profile of High Performance Race Car Drivers

CART/lndyCar Safety Team-Stephen E. Olvey
General Motors Motorsports Technology Group-John Pierce
Published 1994-12-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper updates our continuing research program examining the physiological performance of professional race car drivers. Data is presented from a comparative study examining the heart rate of different drivers in the lndy Lights race series. Each driver was monitored during practice, qualifying and race sessions on a short oval track (one mile) and a road course track. The effect of track type on physiological performance are addressed. Physiological data recorded during the Indianapolis 500 race and from practice and qualifying sessions for this event are shown. Technical difficulties involved in accurately measuring heart rate (HR) in the race car environment are addressed.
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Oversteer/Understeer Characteristics of a Locked Differential

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign-Patrick Hopkins, L. Daniel Metz
Published 1994-12-01 by SAE International in United States
The type of differential used in a vehicle has an important and often-neglected effect on handling performance. This is particularly important in racing applications, such as in IndyCar racing, in which the type of differential chosen depends on the course being raced (superspeedway ovals, short ovals, temporary street courses and permanent road courses). In the present work, we examine the effect of a locked rear differential on oversteer/understeer behavior. Using a linear tire model, it is shown that employing a locked differential adds a constant understeer offset to the steering wheel angle (SWA) -v- lateral acceleration vehicle signature. A computer simulation of steady-state cornering behavior showed that the actual effect is much more complicated, and is strongly influenced by static weight distribution, front/rear roll couple distribution, available traction and the radius of the turn being negotiated.Testing performed on a Formula SAE racing car was used to verify the simulation results, and to examine limit-performance differences between theory and experiment.
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Biomechanical Evaluation and Driver Experience with the Head and Neck Support

Downing/Atlanta, Inc-James R. Downing
Michigan State Univ-Robert P. Hubbard
Published 1994-12-01 by SAE International in United States
Auto and boat racers suffer fatigue and injury from loading of their necks. While racing, a driver's neck often becomes fatigued because it must support the weight of the head and helmet. In crashes, extreme motions of a driver's unrestrained head relative to the restrained torso cause excessive loads in the driver's neck. These neck loads between the head and torso can cause severe or fatal injuries such as spinal dislocations and basilar skull fractures.A new type of head and neck support has been developed that restrains the driver's head relative to their torso to reduce undesirable head motions and neck loads that cause fatigue and injury.This paper describes recent work, using computer crash simulations, crash dummy tests, and driver experiences, to better understand head and neck injury in racing and to evaluate the performance of a new head and neck support.
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Racing Car Restraint System Frontal Crash Performance Testing

General Motors Corp.-John W. Melvin, William C. Little, Edward A. Jedrzejczak, John Pierce
Published 1994-12-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the results of a series of over 30 impact sled simulations of racing car frontal crashes conducted as part of the GM Motorsports Safety Technology Research Program. A Hyge™ impact sled fitted with a simulated racing car seat and restraint system was used to simulate realistic crash loading with a mid-size male Hybrid III dummy. The results of tests, in the form of measured loads, displacements, and accelerations, are presented and comparisons made with respect to the levels of these parameters seen in typical passenger car crash testing and to current injury threshold values.
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Development of a Low Emissions, High Output Engine Conversion

General Motors Corporation-Mark S. McPhail
Published 1994-12-01 by SAE International in United States
A comprehensive engine conversion package was developed to meet the divergent goals of increased vehicle performance while complying with vehicle emission control regulations for 1982-87 Chevrolet Camaros. Development revolved around revising a GM 5.7L Small Block off-road, emissions-exempt engine assembly to improve engine idle quality and low speed torque while maintaining off-road power output. The power output of the 5.7L engine drove upgrades in the remaining vehicle components, including the fuel system, engine controller calibration, induction/exhaust systems, and transmission calibration.
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Gasoline for NASCAR Stock Car Racing: 1951-1994

Unocal Corp.-Tim Wusz
Published 1994-12-01 by SAE International in United States
The need for special gasolines for racing has grown over the past 40+ years as engine technology has evolved and engine efficiency have improved. What started out as supplying service station gasoline to early stock car racing competitors in the National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing, Inc. (NASCAR) has grown into supplying a specialized racing gasoline for the very sophisticated racing engines used in stock car racing as we know it today.In 1951 the Pure Oil Company, which merged with the Union Oil Company of California (now Unocal) in 1965, began supplying gasoline for stock car racing sanctioned by NASCAR in the southeastern United States. Today, Unocal continues to provide gasoline to NASCAR, but it is a significantly different product than in the 1950's.In the early years, compression ratios and horsepower output were relatively low (average of 7:1 and 101 for the 1951 model year) and octane demand was satisfied by service station gasoline. As horsepower and compression ratios increased, a demand for special blends of gasoline tailored for racing became apparent. That need…
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Modern Wind Tunnel Testing of Indycars

University of Southampton-D. W. Hurst
Published 1994-12-01 by SAE International in United States
The extensive use of wind tunnels in the aerodynamic development of race cars started during the 1970's. At this early stage, large gains in performance could be achieved using simple models and standard testing techniques. However, with continuing development the gains that could be achieved became progressively smaller as the overall aerodynamic performance improved. This has required the development of complex, fully representative models which include, for example, correct radiator simulation and working suspension. The need for detailed aerodynamic data has resulted in the employment of advanced testing techniques. In addition to accurate force and surface pressure measurements, the flowfield characteristics around the car are measured using a laser doppler anemometry system.This paper presents a description of current testing techniques employed in the development of the Penske Indy Car during tests in the University of Southampton 3.5m x 2.6m wind tunnel.
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Mathematical Simulation of Driver and Restraint Systems in Racing Saloon Car Impacts

MIRA-Matthew Grant, Mike Kenefeck
Published 1994-12-01 by SAE International in United States
MADYMO 3D software was used to model a racing driver with helmet, racing harness and competition seat, and to evaluate injury parameters in a racing saloon car under European Type Approval impact conditions. Parametric changes in the safety systems were evaluated.The systems protected the driver well, although high neck torques were predicted in frontal impact. Loads on the head restraint were substantially higher than the strength required in regulations.In side impact the head passed through the open window. A window net prevented this, but the predicted loads exceeded the strength of a net tested in the laboratory.
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Rotary Valve System for a Four-Cycle G-Kart Racing Engine

Western Michigan Univ.-Norman D. Storer, Todd Nelson
Published 1994-12-01 by SAE International in United States
The mechanical aspects of a Rotary Valve System (RVS) axe evaluated considering the operating conditions of a single cylinder four-cycle engine. Design of valve geometry, sealing mechanism, and drive mechanism are discussed as well as their impact on the performance of the baseline engine. In order to understand the full capabilities of the RVS, a study of the limitations of the baseline valve train system is performed. This information is then used to establish the minimum requirements of the RVS design. Once the shaft diameter, the port diameter, and the internal shaft passages are determined, the flow is analyzed using a computational fluid dynamics approach. The increased flow of the RVS is expected to increase volumetric efficiency and engine speeds. Even though the RVS is still a concept, when operational it will give four-cycle karters the opportunity to enjoy more powerful engines.
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