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A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas - Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Indian Oil Corp., Ltd.-M. Muralidharan, M Subramanian
University of Petroleum and Energy Studies-Ajay Srivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2390
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower particulate matter (PM) and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds. Under lower engine operating temperatures, at low-intermediate loads, the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions reduce however hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are significantly increased. This paper reviews the fuel properties of CNG comparison with diesel, methods available to use CNG…
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Location and Call Frequency Based Emergency Dial Enabler

Priyanka Marudhavanan, Sai Nadimpalli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2457
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Emergency calls made by in-vehicle systems in the event of a crash , serious incident or manually by a vehicle occupant assist in significantly reducing road deaths and injuries. But still there are more road accidents happen due to abnormality of driver and fatality rate tend to increase because of this. Drivers have a poor health issues, especially when they travel for long, they may get drowsiness and this leads to lack of concentration while driving and because of this concentration issue any serious issue can happen to the driver. This serious conditions can be totally unavoided. This invention provides the solution for contacting the people, who is known to victim very well. during emergency conditions. This may assist victim to get a immediate medical help.
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Engine Fuel Economy Optimization for Different Hybrid Architectures Using 1-D Simulation Technique

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Ajay Nain, Devendra Nene
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2496
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hybridization of off road vehicles is in its early phase but it is likely to increase in coming years. In order to improve fuel economy and overall emission of the 3.3 litre tractor model, various kinds of engine hybridization is studied. This paper presents a methodology to predict vehicle fuel consumption and emission using 1-D software by coupling Ricardo Wave and Ricardo Ignite. Initially, An acceptable agreement within 5% deviation between simulation and experimental is established for engine steady state points, both for engine performance and NOx emission parameters. Engine fuel consumption and emission maps are predicted using Ricardo WAVE model. These maps are used as an input to IGNITE model for predicting cumulative fuel consumption. Same calibrated model is used further for studying idle start stop and fully hybrid P0 type hybrid architecture. The hybrid P0 type involves idle start stop, e-boost and regeneration. Model predicts overall significant reduction in cumulative fuel consumption and NOx, HC and CO emission.
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Ride-Comfort Analysis for Commercial Truck Using MATLAB Simulink

ARAI Academy-Sarnab Debnath
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2428
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Ride Comfort forms a core design aspect for suspension and is to be considered as primary requirement for vehicle performance in terms of drivability and uptime of passenger. Maintaining a balance between ride comfort and handling poses a major challenge to finalize the suspension specifications. The objective of this project it to perform ride- comfort analysis for a commercial truck using MATLAB Simulink. First, benchmarking was carried out on a 4x2 commercial truck and the physical parameters were obtained. Further, a mathematical model is developed using MATLAB Simulink R2015a and acceleration- time data is collected. An experimentation was carried out on the truck at speeds of 20 kmph, 30 kmph, 40 kmph and 50 kmph over a single hump to obtain actual acceleration time domain data. The model is then correlated with actual test over a single hump. This is followed by running the vehicle on Class A, B & C road profiles to account for random vibrations. Similarly, a simulation is done on MATLAB Simulink and a correlation is established between simulated and actual…
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New CEC Gasoline Direct Injection Fuels Test - Comparison of Deposits and Spray Performance from New and Used Injectors

Afton Chemical, Ltd.-Jonathan James Pilbeam, Alex Robert Thomson
Birmingham University-Hongming Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2392
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The use of deposit control additives in European market gasoline is well documented for maintaining high levels of engine cleanliness and subsequent sustained fuel and emissions performance. Co-ordinating European Council (CEC) industry fuels tests have played a crucial role in helping to drive market relevant, effective and low-cost deposit control additives into European market fuels. Until now, there hasn’t been a Gasoline Direct Injection engine test available to fuel marketers in any market globally. However, a new CEC engine test is currently being developed to address that gap. Based on an in-house VW injector coking test, it shows promise for becoming a useful tool with which to develop and measure the performance of deposit control additives. A key requirement of industry tests should be to replicate issues seen in consumer vehicles, thereby providing a platform for relevant solutions. For this paper, injectors from the new VW injector coking test in a clean and coked state were compared to injectors from vehicles in the market in respect of deposit geometry, elemental composition and injector spray performance.
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Next Generation Power Distribution Unit in Wiring Harness

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Boobala Krishnan D, Himanshi Dua, T Vijayan, Apurbo Kirty
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2571
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance.The concept of next generation power distribution unit in automobiles is achieved using miniaturization of its sub-components which involves replacing the mini fuses and JCASE fuses with LP mini and LP JCASE fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost. Furthermore, to address stringent weight and space targets, LP mini fuses and LP JCASE fuses were further replaced with micro-2 fuse and M-case fuse respectively. Similarly, Micro relay and Mini relay were replaced with Ultra micro and high current micro relay respectively.We took MPV segment vehicle for our initial testing and validation and it has been observed to…
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Performance Gains of Load Sensing Brake Force Distribution in Motorcycles

Force Motors-Apurva Chakraborty
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2426
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Commercial motorcycles and scooters incorporate independent circuits for front and rear brake actuation, thus precluding load-dependent brake force distribution. In all cases of manual brake force modulation between the front and rear wheels, there is poor compensation for the changes in wheel loads on the account of longitudinal weight transfer, thus making it challenging to provide an adequate braking force to each wheel.The ratio in which the braking force should be distributed between the front and the rear wheels is dependent on the motorcycle’s geometry, weight distribution, mechanical sizing of braking system components, and is a variable based on the instantaneous deceleration. This connotes that a fixed bias of front and rear braking forces can be optimized only for a narrow range of motorcycle’s deceleration.Maximum braking performance occurs just prior to wheel lock-up, as a sliding tire provides less grip than a rolling tire. This is also the scenario when both the tires are doing the maximum work in decelerating the motorcycle. Therefore an optimal brake force distribution is one that locks both the wheels…
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Impact of Wheel-Housing on Aerodynamic Drag and Effect on Energy Consumption on an Electric Bus Body

ARAI Academy-Amitabh Das, Yash Jain
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2394
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Role of wheel and underbody aerodynamics of vehicle in the formation of drag forces is detrimental to the fuel (energy) consumption during the course of operation at high velocities. This paper deals with the CFD simulation of the flow around the wheels of a bus with different wheel housing arrangements. Based on benchmarking, a model of a bus is selected and analysis is performed. The aerodynamic drag coefficient is obtained and turbulence around wheels is observed using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation for different combinations of wheel-housing- at the front wheels, at the rear wheels and both in the front and rear wheels. The drag force is recorded and corresponding influence on energy consumption of a bus is evaluated mathematically. A comparison is drawn between energy consumption of bus body without wheel housing and bus body with wheel housing. The result shows a significant reduction in drag coefficient and fuel consumption.
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Aerodynamic Analysis of Electric Passenger Car Using Wind Turbine Concept at Front End

ARAI Academy-Snehil Mendiratta, Sugat Sharma
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2396
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Electric passenger car with floor battery usually have its front boot space empty and the space is used as additional luggage storage. This space can be utilized to capture the wind energy and generate electricity. Based on this, the objective of this work is to perform an aerodynamic analysis of an electric passenger car using wind turbine placed at the front. Initially the aerodynamic analysis of a basic electric car model is performed and further simulated using wind turbines and aerodynamic add-on-devices. The simulation is carried-out using ANSYS Fluent tool. Based on the simulation result, scaled down optimized model is fabricated and tested in wind tunnel for validation. The result shows reduction of drag coefficient by 5.9%.
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Load Distribution Optimization of Seatbelt Using Validated Finite Element Approach

Joyson Safety Systems-Anshul Satija, Priyanshu Mishra, Ravi Gaurav, Virender Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2575
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The seat belt system is one of most important component of the safety instrument family in a vehicle. The main purpose of seat belt is to minimize the injuries by preventing the occupant from impacting hard on interior parts of the vehicle and also the passenger from being thrown-out from the vehicle in case of rollover accidents. The standard three-point belt is mounted in the vehicle at three locations namely Anchor, D-ring and Buckle. The position of anchorages is very important to distribute the impact load evenly to the occupants. Very high load in any of these locations could cause breakage of the mountings and also concentrated loading on the occupant chest of pelvis. Current study mainly focuses on the seatbelt assembly performance improvement against UNECE-R16 sled test. The sled test was carried out first using 28g peak acceleration pulse and measurement of forces at shoulder and anchor position was measured using the load cell. FE (Finite Element) model of the complete seatbelt assembly was developed including Buckle, Retractor and Anchor plate. The simulation was…
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