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Automation of Sorting and Kitting from Cutting Tables

Broetje-Automation GmbH-Erik Berg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1899
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Within the current part production of carbon fiber parts a lot of manual work is included for sorting and kitting of automatic cut plies. This is required due to the high raw material costs and enables a good utilization of the materials. Automation of this non-value adding process will be a big benefit for the part production. The high variety of shapes and the different materials to be processed are complex boundary conditions, which are to be overcome. Broetje is in development of handling systems and automation solutions, which are used for a high variety of materials as well as for a high variety of shapes. These systems are meant to be an add-on for existing cutting tables as well as for fully integrated production systems with downstream automation equipment like draping hoods. Mayor challenges to overcome are safe gripping capabilities, detection of #non-cut fibers, high variety of shapes, complex logistic management. These challenges are addressed with Broetje’s ASK Solution. This paper will focus on the innovative automated sorting and kitting solution invented by Broetje-Automation.

Energy Recovery Rate from an Electric Air-cycle System under the Cruising Altitude and Speed.

Akita University-Takahiro Adachi, Mikio Muraoka
IHI Corporation-Naoki Seki, Hitoshi Oyori
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1905
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we focus on an electric air-cycle system in an electric aircraft, where the system has an electric compressor instead of a hydraulically-operated oil-based compressor. The electric compressor consumes the power to compress the rarefied air outside and take it in the system. The air goes through the air-cycle as a working fluid to exchange the heat and work. The main purpose of the air-cycle is to adjust the temperature and pressure in a cabin. Therefore, the working fluid of the air repeats compression and expansion. The working fluid passing through the cabin absorbs heat from the passengers and avionics. After that, the air is discharged outside with higher heat level and pressure levels. This means that the discharged air has a potential energy to recover the power consumption in the electric compressor. So, we have analytically estimated an energy recovery rate which is defined as a ratio of the potential energy of the discharged air to the energy consumption in the compressor, and shown the recovery rate under the condition of cruising…

Hypersonic Flow Simulation Towards Space Propulsion Geometries

Universidade Da Beira Interior-Odelma Teixeira, Jose Pascoa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1873
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
This work aims to expand the applicability of an open-source numerical tool to solve hypersonic gas dynamic flows for space propulsion geometries. This is done by validating the code using two well-known hypersonic test cases, the double cone and the hollow cylinder flare, used by the NATO Research and Technology Organization for the validation of hypersonic flight for laminar viscous-inviscid interactions (D. Knight, "RTO WG 10 - Test cases for CFD validation of hypersonic flight," in 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, 2002). The Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation is conducted using the two-temperature solver hy2Foam that is capable to study external aerodynamics in re-entry flows. In the present work the assessment of hy2Foam to solve hypersonic complex flow features with strong interactions including non-equilibrium effects was demonstrated. Freestream conditions with stagnation enthalpy of 5.44 MJ/kg and Mach number of 12.2, for the double cone case, and stagnation enthalpy of 5.07 MJ/kg and Mach number of 11.3 for the hollow cylinder case were considered. Comparison with newer existing numerical data and experimental data from…

Step & Repeat: Reduce Derivative Aircraft Development Risk with Design Reuse

Mentor-Muhammad Askar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1871
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Designing derivative aircraft is a complex process with potentially large amounts of program risk. In this paper we present new technologies such as digital interface control documents, and generative design that can transform this process. Employing these types of technologies makes the process more verifiable and repeatable. The paper explains how the technologies can be adopted from the early definition of components & LRUs, to their aggregation into reusable subsystems, as well as the automation and validation processes that can be built around them to reduce the associated complexity and program risk.

Gradationally Controlled Voltage Inverter for More Electric Aircrafts

IHI Corporation-Hitoshi Oyori
Mitsubishi Electric Corp.-Tetsuya Kojima, Masahiro Sugahara, Yusuke Shirouchi, Hisatoshi Fukumoto, Akihiko Iwata
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1913
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Over recent decades, there has been a lot of progress toward a more electric aircraft (MEA) to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. In MEAs, many subsystems that previously used hydraulic or pneumatic power have been replaced by electrical systems with inverters and electrical machines. Therefore, MEAs reduce the weight, i.e. fuel consumption, and maintenance cost. To achieve advanced electrical systems, the weight of inverters has significant importance. In this work, a gradationally controlled voltage (GCV) inverter is proposed to reduce the weight and enhance reliability. A GCV inverter can supply gradational quasi-sinusoidal voltages combining two different voltages from a 3-phase 3-level (main) inverter and three single-phase H-bridge (sub) inverters. A dc power supply is required only for the main inverter. A main inverter with Si-IGBTs supplies the fundamental voltage by only one switching in the fundamental period. Consequently, the switching loss is minimized and hence the weight of cooling systems can be reduced. Sub inverters, which have the half of dc-link voltage of the main inverter, employ SiC-MOSFETs with higher switching frequency and compensate for…

Reconfigurable Jig Tooling and In-Process Metrology for High Accuracy Prototype Compound Helicopter Wing Assembly

University of Nottingham-Richard J. Crossley, Svetan Ratchev
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1877
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper documents the potential use of reconfigurable reusable jig tooling based on the box-joint system for use in the assembly of a prototype compound helicopter wing. Due to the aircraft configuration the wing design is pinned at both ends and therefore requires a higher degree of accuracy (typically 0.2mm), over the 4m length, than conventional wings. In this paper the cost benefit of reusable tooling in a low volume prototype scenario is examined followed by the design of the jig and location features to enable accurate build and metrology documentation. A prototype 4m test jig comprising of commercially available components and bespoke machined ‘pick-ups’ is presented here. Hardware and measurement process cost modelling is documented along with results for the positional and hinge-line concentricity setting accuracy that was achieved using a laser tracking system. Subsequent measurements over a 24hr period are also discussed along with potential sources of the observed reduction in jig accuracy over time.

Design and Experimental Verification of a High Force Density Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Motor for Aerospace Application

Daido University-Yoshiaki Kano
KYB Corporation-Kousuke Satou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1911
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the design and construction of a high force density tubular permanent-magnet (PM) linear motor. A strut structure of a tubular PM linear motor developed to improve resistance to impurities and structural rigidity is described. In the design, computationally efficient two-dimensional finite-element analysis is used to estimate the motor force density. The motor’s design is optimized for the major pole number/slot number combinations of 8/24, 16/24, 20/24, 28/24, 32/24, and 40/24. The optimized motor design of a three-phase 16/24 combination with one-layer winding achieved the highest force-to-mass density. The force-to-mass density of the designed motor is higher than that of the first prototype motor by a factor of 5. The validity of the proposed design method and the expected drive characteristics are experimentally verified using the prototype.

Service-based Modelling Approach to Ease the Certification of Multi-core COTS Processors

ONERA-Frédéric Boniol, Youcef Bouchebaba, Julien Brunel, Kevin Delmas, Claire Pagetti, Thomas Polacsek, Nathanaël Sensfelder
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1851
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
PHYLOG is a four years DGAC (French Civil Aviation) project (2016-2020) that aims at offering a model-based and software-aided certification framework for aeronautics systems based on multi/many-core architectures. Among the objectives of the position paper MCP-CRI/CAST 32A, two types of analysis are required: interference analysis. and safety analysis. Because of the large size of the multi-core platforms and their complexity, those analyses can lead to combinatorial explosion and some misinterpretation. To simplify those analyses, we explore and classify multi-core platform properties in order to represent a platform as a set of services

Optimization of Automated Airframe Assembly Process on Example of A350 S19 Splice Joint

Airbus-Elodie Bonhomme, Pedro Montero-Sanjuan
Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University-Sergey Lupuleac, Julia Shinder, Maria Churilova, Nadezhda Zaitseva, Valeriia Khashba
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1882
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The paper presents the numerical approach to simulation and optimization of A350 S19 splice assembly process. The main goal is to reduce the number of installed temporary fasteners while preventing the gap between parts from opening during drilling stage. The numerical approach includes computation of residual gaps between parts, optimization of fastener pattern and validation of obtained solution on input data generated on the base of available measurements. The problem is solved with ASRP (Assembly Simulation of Riveting Process) software. The described methodology is applied to the optimization of the robotized assembly process for A350 S19 section.

Design Approach for Secure Networks to introduce Data Analytics within the Aircraft Cabin

Hamburg University of Technology-Hartmut Hintze, Fabian Giertzsch, Ralf God
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1853
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In the past, aircraft network design did not demand for information security considerations. The aircraft systems were simple, obscure, proprietary and, most importantly for security, the systems have been either physically isolated or they have been connected by directed communication links. The union of the aircraft systems thus formed a federated network. These properties are in sharp contrast with today’s system designs, which rest upon platform-based solutions with shared resources being interconnected by a massively meshed and shared communication network. The resulting connectivity and the high number of interfaces require an in-depth security analysis as the systems also provide functions that are required for the safe operation of the aircraft. This network design evolution, however, resulted in an iterative and continuous adaption of existing network solutions as these have not been developed from scratch. Now, with the upcoming trend of data analytics and artificial intelligence applications, which demand for an extensive availability of data, holistic aircraft cabin networks are necessary to satisfy the associated requirements. For the development of such networks this paper proposes a…