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Optimal Design for Maximum Fundamental Frequency and Minimum Intermediate Support Stiffness for Uniform and Stepped Beams Composed of Different Materials

Helwan University-Elsawaf Ahmed, Elsayed Tamer, Farghaly Said
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5014
Published 2020-02-06 by SAE International in United States
The minimum support stiffness that achieves the maximum modal frequencies or critical speed is very important in the design of mechanical systems. The optimal values of the intermediate support stiffness and geometrical parameters of uniform and stepped Timoshenko beams composed of single or two materials are studied in order to maximize the modal frequency and minimize the intermediate support stiffness. Dynamic stiffness matrix (DSM) method and multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm are used together to evaluate new optimal parameters. For single material, the results show that for uniform thick beams, the optimal maximum fundamental frequency and minimum intermediate support stiffness are lower than those of Bernoulli-Euler beams. In addition, the optimal design for stepped beams made of two metallic materials is investigated. For three different metallic combinations, gain factors of 1.561 to 2.745 are obtained for a beam without intermediate support. Comparison with experimental results is carried out. The current study and its results can be applied to improve the dynamic performance of many of industrial applications, such as guyed masts derricks, vertical tube…
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Application of Factor Analysis in the Determination of Carburetor Icing Tendency in Aviation Gasoline, RON 97, RON 98, RON 100, and the Blends in Lycoming O-320 Engine

Royal Malaysia Police-Kumar Thanikasalam
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)-Mohsin Rahmat, Abdul Majid Zulkifli, Abdul Ghafir Mohammad Fahmi, Manickam Wash Ananth
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-6000
Published 2020-02-04 by SAE International in United States
Carburetor icing (CI) was the most commonly cited factors in general aviation accident category with 1,019 (34%) accidents. The objective of the study is to measure the CI tendency of selected fuels by the application of factor analysis (FA). All the test fuels were characterized based on chemical and physical properties of the fuels. Gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of the tested fuels were categorized based on hydrocarbon types and basic fuel properties. The study considered sixteen variables for CI assessment, using the selected and calculated fuel properties. Twenty-three aviation fuels from literatures were collected and, using FA, model equations explaining the CI tendency of the aviation fuels were derived, and their respective factor scores were calculated. The model was applied to the 14 fuels in this study, and their respective factor scores were calculated. All the fuels were ranked using the factor score from the best to worst. Brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the fuels was derived experimentally. FA results showed that FA explain 94.246% of the variance for CI. Best CI tendency was shown…
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An Efficiency-Based Hybrid Mode Selection Model for A P134 Plug-In Hybrid Powertrain Architecture

Borgward Automotive (China), LTD-Fangping Tan
Borgward Institute of Engineering-Erdong Yan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5001
Published 2020-01-22 by SAE International in United States
With ever-stringent fuel economy requirements, hybrid powertrain technology has been widely adopted by automotive OEMs. There are many forms of hybrid powertrain architectures including new concept or developed to adapt to pre-existing engine or transmission systems. This study examined, in particular, the P134 hybrid architecture: topology, functional capabilities, and use cases in vehicle drive, defined hybrid powertrain operating modes, and developed an offline decision model based on given system characteristics: engine, e-motor, and vehicle systems specifications. A control strategy has been developed and implemented for this decision model and torque distribution control algorithm to achieve fuel economy optimization targets. A simulation model was setup for an exemplary target vehicle and WLTC cycle was run to validate the strategy. The simulation yield a near 37% improvement compared with similar 4WD vehicles equipped with conventional powertrain-2.0L TGDI and 6-speed AT.
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Experimental Investigation on the Impact of Engine Oil on RTV Silicone

Saginaw Valley State University-John Herman, Kirk Donaldson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5002
Published 2020-01-17 by SAE International in United States
Silicone-based RTV sealants see widespread use in the automotive industry. In the uncured state, RTV silicone has the consistency of thick toothpaste and can be easily applied to form an effective seal. However, a significant amount of anecdotal evidence suggests issues exist with RTV’s ability to maintain a satisfactory seal in some long-term engine sealing applications. ASTM D7216 is used to evaluate the effects of different oil blends on a set of standard molded reference samples after submersion in an elevated temperature oil bath. The evaluated material properties are hardness, percent volume change, tensile strength, and ultimate elongation. A library of such results is readily available through Savant Laboratories of Midland, Michigan. Given RTV’s widespread use, surprisingly no such library of information exists concerning an engine oil’s effects on different RTVs. Due to difficulties in obtaining the reference oil, a commercially available engine oil was selected as a reference and RTV specimens were evaluated against the ASTM D7216 reference silicone (VMQ) for comparison. Both the hardness of the RTV and VMQ decreased by ~30%, though…
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Enhancement of Design for Manufacturing and Assembly Guidelines for Effective Application in Aerospace Part and Process Design

GITAM School of Technology-Mani Rathinam Rajamani, Eshwaraiah Punna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-6001
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
An aircraft’s detail part and assembly product design and development phase contribute to about three-fourths of the total cost spent in its entire product life cycle and determine the fate of the aircraft’s life as a whole. Each aerospace design organization presently has developed their own set of design rules, focusing on improving product design capability by enhancing the determined “Design for X” factor, with the focus on continual optimization and improvements. However there is huge variation among these design principles due to the nonstandardization of these design guidelines. To meet this gap, the use of Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA®) principles applicable for aerospace has to be developed. DFMA®) principles have been proven effective as guidelines to designers and manufacturing engineers in various discrete manufacturing and process industries. The use of DFMA® principles have resulted in proactively simplifying designs with reduced product costs and improved efficiencies in product design. Aerospace Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) industries are highly oligopolistic in nature, and their designs are widely reliant on the specific intellectual knowledge gained by…
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Energy Release Characteristics inside a Spark-Ignition Engine with a Bowl-in-Piston Geometry

West Virginia University-Jinlong Liu, Cosmin Emil Dumitrescu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5003
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
The conversion of compression ignition (CI) internal combustion engines to spark-ignition (SI) operation by adding a spark plug to ignite the mixture and fumigating the fuel inside the intake manifold can increase the use of alternative gaseous fuels (e.g., natural gas) in heavy-duty applications. This study proposed a novel, less-complex methodology based on the inflection points in the apparent rate of heat release (ROHR) that can identify and separate the fast-burning stage inside the piston bowl from the slower combustion stage inside the squish region (a characteristic of premixed combustion inside a diesel geometry). A single-cylinder 2L CI research engine converted to natural gas SI operation provided the experimental data needed to evaluate the methodology, at several spark timings, equivalence ratios, and engine speeds. The results indicated that the end of the bulk combustion traditionally defined as the location of 90% energy release was not greatly affected by the change in operating conditions. Moreover, the actual duration of the rapid-burning stage was 60-80% shorter than the crank angle interval between 10% and 90% energy release.…
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Nonlinear IMM-SUKF Algorithm for Maneuvering Target Tracking with Bearings-Only Measurement

Universite 8 Mai 1945 Guelma-Abdennour Sebbagh, Sihem Kechida
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-6005
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, we present an efficient filtering algorithm to perform accurate estimation in jump Markov nonlinear systems, which we aim to contribute in solving the problem of model-based body motion estimation using bearings-only measurement, the Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) algorithm is specially designed to track accurately maneuvering targets whose state and/or measurement (assumed to be linear) models change during motion transition. However, when these models are nonlinear, the IMM algorithm must be modified in order to guarantee an accurate track. In this paper we propose to avoid the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) because of its limitations and substitute it with the Scaled Unscented Kalman Filter (SUKF) which seems to be more efficient especially according to the simulation results obtained with the Interacting Multiple Model Scaled Unscented Kalman Filter (IMM-SUKF).

Driving Dynamics and Rolling Resistance Tire Design Trade-Off

FCA-Mauro Martino
FCA EMEA-Elena Salino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5088
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
The main challenge facing the automotive passenger car industry for the next decade is CO2 emission reduction. The approach towards achieving conformity with stricter regulations is based on two main enablers: by means of powertrain improvement and energy demand reduction, adopting a low rolling resistance (RR) tire without decreasing driving dynamics.The trade-off between RR and driving dynamics can be managed by means of the trade-off between the tread shore hardness (TSH) and belt angle inclination (BAI) of the tire. Based on current tire production, four submission tires have been produced with different combinations of TSH and BAI, both RR and/or driving dynamics oriented. In total five submission tires have been tested and evaluated in terms of RR, subjective handling and ride, objective handling, and braking.In a multibody environment with the statistical Signal-to-Noise (S/N ratio) method, the correlation between vehicle performance, objective handling, and tire carpet, flat track measurements has been identified. The flat track method has been used to characterize tire carpet for the simulation model and to identify relevant tire-specific synthesis parameters as well.…

Aerodynamic Effect of Aspect Ratio of Spherical Depressions on the Bonnet of Hatchback Cars

Delhi Technological University-Vishesh Kashyap, B.B. Arora, Sourajit Bhattacharjee, Priyanshu Mittal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5096
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
Flow separation is one of the primary causes of increase in form drag in vehicles. This phenomenon is also visible in the case of lightweight vehicles moving at high speed, which greatly affects their aerodynamics. Spherical depressions maybe used to delay the flow separation and decrease drag in such vehicles. This study aims for optimization of aspect ratio (AR) of spherical depressions on hatchback cars. Spherical depressions were created on the bonnet of a generalized light vehicle Computer-Aided Design (CAD) model. The diameter of each spherical depression was set constant at 60 mm, and the center-to-center distance between consecutive spherical depressions is fixed at 90 mm. The AR of spherical depressions was taken as the parameter that was varied in each model. ARs 2, 4, 6, and 8 were considered for the current investigation. Three-dimensional (3D) CFD analyses were then performed on each of these models using a validated computational model. Vehicle travel velocities of 22, 24, 26, 28, and 30 m/s, which were nondimensionalized for scaling the results, were considered for analyses, in order…
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Vehicle Control History: Data from Driver Input and Pre-Collision System Activation Events on Toyota Vehicles

Toyota Motor North America-Lance Lewis
Toyota Motor North America, Inc.-Barry Hare, Harold Clyde, Robert Landis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5094
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
Separate from the event data recorder (EDR), which records and stores data from qualifying vehicle crash events, the Vehicle Control History (VCH) on Toyota vehicles records and stores certain vehicle data based on select driver inputs, such as hard acceleration or braking, or upon the activation of certain vehicle dynamic control systems such as antilock braking system (ABS), traction control (TRAC), vehicle stability control (VSC), and the pre-collision system (PCS). In the United States, VCH was first equipped on the 2013 Toyota RAV4 and has been subsequently introduced into other Toyota and Lexus models. Most recently, in addition to VCH data, additional PCS operational data (PCS-O) and image data (PCS-I) may be recorded and stored. The image storage capability may record under certain conditions such as if the system has automatically applied the vehicle brakes. PCS-O and PCS-I data became available with the launch of Toyota Safety Sense (TSS), a grouping of advanced active safety features equipped on many Toyota vehicles generally available in 2017. Multiple dynamic tests with a 2017 Toyota Corolla were performed…
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