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A NVH CAE approach performed on a vehicle closures pumping issue

Ford Motor Company-Luis Guilherme Mariano Viana Martins, Dorivaldo Cerqueira Lima Junior
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
The use of finite element modeling (FEM) tools is part of the most of the current product development projects of the automotive industry companies, replacing an important part of the physical tests with lower costs, higher speed and with increasing accuracy by each day. In addition to this, computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools can be either used after the product is released, at any moment of the product life, in many different situation as a new feature release, to validate a more cost-efficient design proposal or to help on solving some manufacturing problem or even a vehicular field issue. Different from the phase where the product is still under development, when standard virtual test procedures are performed in order to validate the vehicle project, in this case, where engineers expertise plays a very important role, before to proceed with any standard test it is fundamental to understand the physics of the phenomena that is causing the unexpected behavior. This understanding will make possible to find the problem root cause, allowing to virtually testing a wide number…
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Modeling of the volume occupied by the engine in sprint condition

FCA – Fiat Chrysler Automobiles-Dimas Medeiros Junior, Pedro Henrique de Castro e Aquino, Gustavo Araujo da Costa, Marco Túlio B. dos Anjos
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
The installation of the powertrain in the engine compartment must consider, among other assumptions, the dynamic behavior that the assembly demonstrates in function of its operation and that determines the volume occupied by the system due to its movement. During acceleration, braking, cornering, passing on uneven roads etc., the power train moves within a package that must be well understood to optimize the space occupied by other systems near the perimeter of the engine and which require safe distance from each other under risk of breakage by contact, inadequate transfer of heat and noise. The design of the engine anchorage with the chassis is responsible for the definition of this volume that the engine needs for its operation and its correct definition is required to achieve greater reductions in vehicle volume.This work shows a computational model to simulate the volume occupied by the engine when the vehicle performs an acceleration test at 0 km/h to 100km/h defined as a condition in which the engine performs the greatest longitudinal displacement within the engine compartment. The construction…
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Analysis of patent deposits and PROCONVE MAR – I in the development sector of agricultural machinery engines

Federal Institute of São Paulo-Marcela Avelina Bataghin Costa
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul-Franco da Silveira, Fernando Gonçalves Amaral
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
Agriculture is directly associated with climate change issues and is a major source of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Part of the emissions are the result of burning fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and oil in internal combustion engines of agricultural machinery. In addition, because of negative impacts on air quality, human health and climate change, new strategies are being developed to reduce the impacts of GHG emissions. However, it is noted that there is a lack of information that instigates emissions of non-road equipment, such as emissions from agricultural machinery. Thus, in order to achieve climate policy objectives, new trends in agriculture are being adopted. They set emission standards for GHG reductions by agricultural engine engines. In Brazil, the Program for the Control of Air Pollution by Automotive Vehicles (PROCONVE) is responsible for establishing the legal regulations for admissible emissions for the different categories of motor vehicles. In order to control the emission limits of agricultural and road machinery, PROCONVE granted the MAR - I phase (Agricultural and Road Machinery), which came into…
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Analysis of the power loss reduction in automotive turbo-charger systems with independent lubrication

Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo - IFES-A. L. D’Alcantara, L. H. P. Deoclecio, F. A. F. Monhol
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
A typical turbocharger has in its interior an shaft that supported by two bearings, which are normally hydrodynamically lubricated, that is, the friction reduction between the metal parts takes place through the formation of a lubricating oil film. This lubricating oil film may reduce friction about to a thousand times; however, since it is a liquid, there is a resistance to the shaft movement proportional to the oil viscosity. In the case of a turbocharger coupled to an internal combustion engine, it has the purpose of increasing the power produced by the engine itself; therefore, this resistive force must be as small as possible, so that the system efficiency may increase, as well as the power output. A turbocharger-engine system uses the same lubrication system, where the lubricating oil must have characteristics that meet the engine requirement, where the operating conditions are more stringent. However, the lubricating oil of the turbocharger should only be resistant to the same working temperature of the engine environment, allowing the use of a less viscous lubricant. The present work…
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Study of Exhaust Re-Breathing Application on a DI SI Engine at Partial Load Operation

Brunei University London-Hua Zhao
Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - UFSM-Vitor V. Cogo, Thompson D. M. Lanzanova, Macklini Dalla Nora, Mario E. S. Martins
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
Using Exhaust Gas Recycling (EGR) on internal combustion engines enables the reduction of emissions with a low or even no cost to the engine efficiency at part-load operation. The charge dilution with EGR can even increase the engine efficiency due to de-throttling and reduction of part load pumping losses. This experimental study proposed the use of late exhaust valve closure (LEVC) to achieve internal EGR (increased residual gas trapping). A naturally aspirated single cylinder direct injection spark ignition engine equipped with four electro-hydraulic actuated valves that enabled full valve timing and lift variation. Eight levels of positive valve overlap (PVO) with LEVC were used at the constant load of 6.0 bar IMEP and the speed of 1500 rpm. The results have shown that later exhaust valve closure (EVC) required greater intake pressures to maintain the engine load due to the higher burned gases content. Hence, lower pumping losses and thus higher indicated efficiency were obtained. The higher charge dilution lowered the combustion temperatures and hence the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Unburned hydrocarbon emissions…
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Determination of the amplitude of the friction forces variation inherent to a coastdown test (typical noise amplitude), comparing it with the aerodynamic drag force and raise the sensitive of the coastdown test to the variation of the vehicle coefficient of drag (Cd)

GMSA-Alexandre Faraco Holl
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
This paper has the objective to present the study of typical friction forces variation (noise) on a vehicle coastdown test @ 110 km/h, correlate with the drag force raised in wind tunnel and finally compared them to determine the sensitivity of Cd variation which can be detected on an “A to B” coastdown test procedure. As “A to B”, comparison test means testing the vehicle with a known aero Cd compare to another one, creating real technical parameters. For this study, we used real data from certification coastdowns tests for a same vehicle configuration in the most controlled possible conditions (all tests performed in CAPG track facilities) and real vehicle aerodynamic data raised from the wind tunnel.
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Electric double layer capacitors prepared with polyvinyl alcohol and multi-walled carbon nanotubes

Carbon Sci-Tech Labs, School of Electrical and Computer Engi-Carla Giselle Martins Real, Rafael Vicentini, Willian Gonçalves Nunes, Otávio Vilas Boas, Lenon Henrique Costa, Davi Marcelo Soares, Hudson Zanin
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
Portable electronics, wearables, electric vehicles and solar cells are sectors in increasingly development which include innovation and miniaturization of the devices. In this scenario, the development of smaller and lightweight energy storage devices, which store more energy, is required. Besides, it is desirable for these devices to be environmentally friendly to minimize pollution. In an attempt to meet these requirements, this work purposes the development and the characterization of nanofibers-based electrode composed of Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for electric double layer capacitors (ELCDs) devices with aqueous electrolyte. This composite has been prepared by electrospinning technique and consolidate an electrical conductive and high-surface material electrode. After that, the PVA/MWCNT electrode was assembled in coin cell device with Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) electrolyte for electrochemical characterization. The characterization results showed that EDLCs devices present specific capacitance of ∼4.8 Fg-1, energy density of ∼0.1 Wh kg-1, power density of ∼600W kg-, fast charge transfer at electrode/electrolyte interface and high lifetime All these results encourage further development on PVA/MWCNT materials as electrode for EDLCs and Li-Air…
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CFD drag analysis of autonomous vehicles in different arrays

Julio Cesar Lelis Alves
GM North America-Leonardo José Della Volpe
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicles, which are defined as capable of sensing environment and navigating without any human input, are the top trend of the automobilist industry in terms of technology. The computers responsible for the control are able to set the vehicle to optimum operation point. With the advent of Computational Fluid Dynamics -CFD software, it is possible to study drag reduction proposals when the vehicles drive at the velocity, which contributes to increase fuel economy. In this context, based on a sedan virtual drag model, several simulations cases were developed considering different vehicle arrays and changing the distance between each one. The study aims to demonstrate, using virtual simulations, the potential drag coefficient reduction when vehicles are moving in a constant speed and which configuration leads to better performance increment. Taking the isolated vehicle as the baseline value, all the vehicles in the different arrays were analyzed. Results show that the vehicles staying behind the first vehicle in the arrays have better drag coefficient performance. Considering the presented results, it is possible to apply this methodology…
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Influence of the Wheatstone bridge configuration and the magnitude of the calibration weight in the uncertainty of the load measurement using a low-cost instrumentation

1 Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of T-Pedro Henrique B. P. de Lima, Gabriel César da Silva, Igor Rafael Guizelini, João Luiz do Vale
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
The strain gauge (SG) is widely used for measurement of strains, or even of loads, in mechanical or structural components, mostly due to their low-cost, easy application and good accuracy. However, the literature is lacking in relation to studies concerning the determination of measurement uncertainty. This work presents a discussion of the influence of the SGs configuration in the Wheatstone bridge and the magnitude of the calibration weight applied to the measurement of load in a bending load (whose design is similar that used in load cells). Were compared ¼, ½ and full bridge configurations to linear SGs with 350Ω resistance. Low-cost instrumentation was used with the HX711 converter module and the Arduino microcontroller board. The measuring system was calibrated with two different weights: one of approximately 10% of the maximum value of the system operating range and another one of approximately 85%. Some conclusions can be highlighted, such as the influence of the amount of the SGs on the Wheatstone bridge and the magnitude of the calibration weight on the uncertainty of load measurement.…
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Polymer injection molding parameters optimization into computational analysis using design of experiments methodologies

Ford Motor Company, Camaçari, BA - Brasil.-Douglas França,
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
In the current scenario of the global automotive industry, it is chased an increasingly better fit and finish between the parts which leads to a good quality perception from the customer point of view, thus, once the warpage is one of the most common dimensional failures usually seen in injection molded parts, it becomes needful to take a closer look on this failure mode still during early vehicle design phases seeking for a feasible assembly, with desirable visual quality and meeting their structural roles. However, the set of injection process variables is still used to be taken as an empirical study and it is commonly adjusted after many injection runs (trial and error) creating needless trials and reworks costs. At this theme, this subjected work gets use of tools from Design of Experiments (DOE) methodologies in order to reach enhancement on polymers injection molding parameters in the interface of numerical computing simulations seeking to mitigate warpage failures. Rheological data are gathered from the computational analysis, then, it is performed statistical inferences aiming to estimate the…
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