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Advances in Partial Oxidation of Palm Oil Based Biodiesel Reforming to Hydrogen Production for Diesel Engine Applications

KMUTNB-Kampanart Theinnoi, Boonlue Sawatmongkhon, Warirat Temwutthikun, Thawatchai Wongchang
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
The aims of this research is investigate the hydrogen production via biodiesel fuel partial oxidation reforming. Hydrogen production can enhance combustion in cylinder and improved aftertreatment activities. A reforming reaction is when a chemical reacts with oxygen available in exhaust gas and diesel fuel injection. The 2%Pt-1%Rh-CeO2-ZrO2/γ-Al2O3 was selected as the active catalyst in this research. This study investigates the effect of gas space velocity (SV) (e.g., 10k h-1 and 16k h-1) and fuel addition flow rate (10-30 ml/h) on hydrogen production efficiency. As can be seen that the hydrogen from reforming reaction was promoted under the real engine operating conditions. Hydrogen is produced via partial oxidation of hydrocarbons reforming. The effects of space velocity SV (h−1) and hydrocarbon addition, which enhanced energy input for the reforming process, are the main effect on hydrogen production over the reforming catalyst. The maximum hydrogen yield are achieved 11%. In the future, hydrogen production via partial oxidation fuel reforming could be developed for production of hydrogen on-board the vehicle.
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A Study of the Half Order Modulation Control for Diesel Combustion Noise by Using Model Based Controller Design

Hyundai Motor Company-Ki Hwa Lee, Choonggeun Nam, O Jun Kwon, Jung-Hwan Moon
Siemens Industry Software SAS-Pascal Giansetti
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
This model based investigation is carried out in order to control the half order modulation for diesel engines using by virtual calibration approach and proposes a feedback control strategy to mitigate cylinder to cylinder imbalance from asymmetric cylinders torque production. Combustion heat release analysis is performed on test data to understand the root cause of observed cylinder to cylinder pressure variations. The injected fuel variations are shown to cause the observed pressure variations between cylinders. A feedback control strategy based on measured crank shaft position is devised to control the half order modulation to balance the combustion pressure profile between cylinders. This control strategy is implemented in Simulink and is tested in closed-loop with the diesel engine model in AMESim. The closed-loop performance indicates that the half order modulation is considerably improved while having minimal impact on the fuel consumption.
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Target Setting for the Stiffness of Local Mounting Area in the Vehicle Body for NVH and R&H

Hyundai Motor Company-Yongdae Kim, Ju Young Lee
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
Performance criterion of local stiffness in BIW(Body in White) for NVH(Noise, Vibration, and Harshness) and R&H (Ride and Handling) are presented in this study. A process to develop the local stiffness of the vehicle body has been established for the performances. For handling performance, not only suspension bush stiffness but local stiffness in BIW structure is important. However, there is no good standard to describe handling performance using BIW local stiffness. In this paper, a new evaluation standard for local stiffness in BIW is developed and verified considering actual vehicle driving condition for handling performance. Also, new evaluation process regarding local stiffness in BIW for vibration transmissibility is presented. The new process is developed considering optimal relation between connecting bush stiffness and BIW local stiffness. It is shown that the interior noise of the vehicle is reduced by applying the evaluation process, which is verified through several cases.
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Structural Optimization of an Vehicle Seat Cushion Bolster Wrinkle Improvement

Hyundai Dymos Seat R&D Center-Tehchiang Wang
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, a problem about car seat covering wrinkles rate are gradually increasing. So think that first have to understand the principle of how the wrinkles are occurred at vehicle seat. In this research, the focus is seat cushion bolster wrinkles. For understand about cushion bolster wrinkles, so set the three goals as below. (1) Understand the wrinkle’s occurred mechanism. (2) Suggest a design solution for cushion bolster wrinkle by using DFSS1 analysis. (3) Optimize the solution to robust the wrinkle performance.
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Release Bearing Characteristic of Diaphragm Spring under Dynamical Condition

Bursa Teknik Universitesi-Huseyin Lekesiz
Bursa Uludag University-Ali Yildiz
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
Diaphragm spring design has a critical importance on engagement and disengagement mechanism for a clutch system. The release bearing load characteristic of diaphragm springs determines the quality of disengagement. Release bearing load may change significantly especially under dynamic conditions compared to static conditions. For instance, a significant drop in release bearing load may be experienced under high engine velocities. This is an undesirable situation in terms of clutch performance. Drop in release bearing load may cause not to be transmitting reliably torque from engine to gearbox since minimum release bearing load is not ensured. Drop in release bearing load increases incrementally in proportion to the engine speed increase. This problem has not been addressed in technical literature. Therefore, new design of diaphragm spring becomes necessary to avoid weakening of clutch performance as the engine speed increases which leads to highly dynamic conditions. In this study, the effect of some design parameters for diaphragm springs such as outer radius and embossing are investigated using nonlinear finite element modeling. Three different outer radius with and without embossing…
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Development of Compensation Logic for EPS in Limit Cornering Condition

Hyundai & Kia Corporation-Hanseung Lee, Jae Kil Lee
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes steering compensation logic of Electric Power Steering (EPS) system in limit cornering condition. Steering wheel torque is decided by relationships between internal forces and external forces. The internal forces are steering frictions and assist force. The external forces are transferred from tire forces through kingpin axis and steering system. Kingpin moments are analyzed by using vector analysis and tire model. Relations of these forces are defined and used to explain steering disturbance by comparing simulation results and measurement data. Using these relationships, the proposed compensation logic is designed. This logic is verified by simulation models and validated in proto type vehicle.
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Prediction and Validation of Unknown GISSMO Properties Using by Regression Analysis of Experimental Damage Tests

Hyundai Dymos Seat R&D Center-Tae Hwan Jun
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
A seat, as one of the main automobile components is closely related to the passenger safety. It plays an important role on a protection of passengers from a sudden movement of a car and external front/rear/side crash. In order to achieve these purposes, strength, rigidity and durability of a seat have to be satisfied which are regulated by the law. Therefore, a prediction of the fracture time and the behavior of the seat structure by Finite Element analysis are very important. However, the fracture prediction method from axial tensile strength test has limits to present the behavior which is obtained in multiple loading cases. For this reason, a new analysis method for the fracture prediction considering multiple loading cases has to be established.In this research, the phenomenon of a seat fracture is implemented and the simulation is performed to predict the behavior using GISSMO Damage model in LS-DYNA. In order to find a fracture strain in a diverse stress mode, deformation tests of shear into a multiple direction, bi-axial tensile tests, notch impact test and…
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Aerodynamic Design Optimization in Rear End of a Hatchback Passenger Vehicle

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Devesh Bajpai, Felix Regin
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
Aerodynamic evaluation plays an important role in the new vehicle development process to meet the ever increasing demand of Fuel Economy (FE), superior aero acoustics and thermal performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is extensively used to evaluate the performance of the vehicle at early design stage to overcome cost of proto-parts, late design changes and for time line adherence.CFD is extensively used to optimize the vehicle’s shape, profiles and design features starting from the concept stage to improve the vehicle’s aerodynamic performance. Since the shape of the vehicle determines the flow behavior around it, the performance is different for hatchback, notchback and SUV type of vehicles. In a hatchback vehicle, the roof line is abruptly truncated at the end, which causes flow separation and increase in drag.In this paper, the effect of shape of a hatchback vehicle at the rear end is studied along with drag reduction features like roof end extension, edges on c-pillar, rear combination lamp and rear bumper. Response surface method (RSM) is used to explore the sensitivity of various design parameters.…
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Rider Stature Influence to Injury Risk in Motorcycle Rear Impact to Car

Tianjin University of Science and Technology-Wenle Lv
University of West Bohemia-Ludek Hyncik, Tomasz Bonkowski
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
Road traffic accidents cause one of the highest numbers of severe injuries. Approximately 1.25 million people die each year as a result of road traffic crashes and between 20 and 50 million more people suffer non-fatal injuries, with many incurring a disability. Nearly half of those dying on the roads are so-called vulnerable road users, namely pedestrians, cyclists and two-wheeler riders including motorcyclists. Those vulnerable road users usually undergo complex kinematics and complex loading caused by the other vehicle impact.Virtual human body biomechanical models play an important role to assess the injuries during the impact loading especially for scenarios, where complex dynamical loading is taken into account. An additional benefit of some virtual human models is their scalability, so that they can assess the injury risk for the particular subject taking into account a wide spectrum of the whole population.The presented work shows the motorcycle rider injury risk analysis during the rear motorcycle accident to the car using the virtual approach by the numerical simulation taking into account the variability of the human body. The…
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Study on Drowsy Driving Behavior from Driver Steering Pattern and Lane Offset Using Driving Simulator

Chualongkorn University-Pakpum Somboon
Chulalongkorn University-Nuksit Noomwongs
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
Drowsiness has been one of the major reasons of road fatality over a decade because the effect of drowsiness is trying to shut down both mind and body. That means drivers are unable to completely control the car while trapped in an unconscious state. It will lead to a several number of casualties on road. In this research, two sets of people, partial sleep-deprivation and non-sleep-deprivation, are tested on the driving simulator. Two methods were used in this study to identify driver drowsiness. First, driving behavior focusing on steering pattern. And secondly, vehicle offset from the lane center. The tests were carried out on the designed scenarios in the Driving Simulator. The scenarios are such as following straight lane with vehicle along the road, following curve lane without other cars, car following on a single lane and following straight lane without other cars. From the results, there are significant results that can roughly separate drowsy driver from regular driver. The graph of both root mean square error with threshold or RMT and steering handling pattern…
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