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CO2 Reduction for Transportation Systems Conference
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Technical Paper (29)



Automotive (15) Aerospace (2)


Carbon dioxide (17) Fuel consumption (12) Simulation and modeling (8) Combustion and combustion processes (7) Drag (6) Computational fluid dynamics (5) Thermal management (5) Diesel / compression ignition engines (4) Fuel economy (4) Optimization (4) Wind tunnel tests (4) Aerodynamics (3) Energy conservation (3) Heat transfer (3) Nitrogen oxides (3) Scale models (3) Simulators (3) Alternators (2) Architecture (2) Batteries (2) Compressors (2) Coolants (2) Energy consumption (2) Environmental regulations and standards (2) Exhaust emissions (2) Fuel injection (2) Hybrid electric vehicles (2) Mathematical models (2) Pressure (2) Product development (2) Spark ignition engines (2) Technical review (2) Test procedures (2) Valves (2) Air conditioning (1) Autonomous vehicles (1) Calibration (1) Catalysts (1) Clutches (1) Collaboration and partnering (1) Communication systems (1) Conductivity (1) Diesel exhaust emissions control (1) Downsizing (1) Electric hybrid power (1) Electric vehicles (1) Emissions (1) Emissions certification (1) Emissions control (1) Emissions measurement (1)


Chowdhury, Sourav (2) Delogu, Massimo (2) Leitzel, Lindsey (2) Lorefice, Laura (2) Millo, Federico (2) Paola lng, Nicola (2) Zanchi, Laura (2) Acquaviva, Francesco (1) Alajbegovic, Ales (1) Albers, Albert (1) Algieri, Angelo (1) Andersen, Stephen (1) Avolio, Giovanni (1) Baker, James (1) Beatrice, Carlo (1) Bein, Thilo (1) Belanger, Alain (1) Belgiorno, Giacomo (1) Benincasa, Marco (1) Betti, Luca (1) Bettoja, Federica (1) Bianchi, Lorenzo (1) Biglia, Matteo (1) Boardman, Peter (1) Borasso, Massimiliano (1) Bova, Sergio (1) Bozza, Fabio (1) Castiglione, Teresa (1) Catapano, Francesco (1) Cerrelli, Giuseppe (1) Cipollone PhD, Roberto (1) Clough, Brian (1) Craig, Timothy (1) Cuelenaere, Rob (1) Dattilo, Caterina Antonia (1) De Bellis, Vincenzo (1) Del Pero, Francesco (1) Di Battista, Davide (1) Di Blasio, Gabriele (1) Di Iorio, Silvana (1) Di Nunno, Davide (1) Dimaratos, Athanasios (1) Donateo, Teresa (1) Doulgeris, Stylianos (1) Duma, Flavia (1) Dumont, Olivier (1) Duncan, Bradley (1) Eilts, Peter (1) El-Sharkawy, Alaa (1) Fernandez, Violeta (1)


SAE (29)


Politecnico di Torino (4) FCA US LLC (2) Istituto Motori CNR (2) Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (1) Bax Innovation Consulting (1) Centro Ricerche Fiat SCpA (1) Chalmers University (1) Continental Automotive GmbH (1) Continental Corp (1) Coventry University (1) CRF (1) Daimler AG (1) DENSO Corporation (1) Exa Corporation (1) FCA (1) FCA Italy (1) FCA ITALY S.p.A. (1) Ferrari SpA (1) FKA mbH (1) FKFS (1) Fraunhofer LBF (1) General Motors Global Propulsion Systems (1) General Motors Propulsion Systems (1) GM - Global Propulsion Systems (1) GM Global Propulsion Systems (1) IAV GmbH (1) Institute for Governance & Sust Dev (1) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (1) Leibnitz Universität Hannover (1) Magneti Marelli SpA (1) Mahle Behr Troy Inc (1) Mahle Behr Troy Inc. (1) Meccanotecnica Umbra S.p.A. (1) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (1) Powertech Engineering S.r.l. (1) RWTH Aachen University (1) TATA Motors Ltd (1) Technische Universität Braunschweig (1) TNO Automotive (1) Univ. of Naples Fed II-Ist. Motori CNR (1) Univ. of Naples Federico II (1) Universita degli Studi dell Aquila (1) Università degli Studi di Firenze (1) Università del Salento (1) Università della Calabria (1) Università di Bologna-Magneti Marelli S (1) Università di Firenze (1)


CO2 Reduction for Transportation Systems Conference (29)

Economic and Climate Advantages: Secondary Loop Mobile Air Conditioners (SL-MACs)

  • Institute for Governance & Sust Dev - Stephen Andersen, Kristen Taddonio, Melinda Soffer, Nancy Sherman
  • TATA Motors Ltd - Sangeet Kapoor, Prasanna V Nagarhalli, Jagvendra Meena
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  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-37-0030
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States

Keywords: Regulation overview and future trends, powertrain efficiency enhancement, vehicle energy demand reduction technologies, efficient A/C systems using refrigerants with low global warming potential (GWP) Abstract: This paper compares the economic and climate performance of existing direct expansion motor vehicle air conditioners (DX-MACs) using hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-134a (global warming potential -- GWP=1300), with secondary-loop MACs (SL-MACs) using hydrofluoroolefin (HFO)-1234yf (GWP<1) and HFC-152a (GWP=138), which both satisfy the EU and Japan f-gas regulations requiring GWP<150 and are listed as acceptable by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The paper includes a part-by-part system manufacturing cost comparison and itemized ownership cost comparison taking into account fuel savings and reduced maintenance. The paper is timely because the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer now requires both developed and developing countries to phase-down the production and consumption of HFCs and at the same time increases in energy efficiency. The developed country transition to HFO-1234yf) is well underway with the EU already requiring refrigerants with global warming potential (GWP) less than 150, Japan requiring GWP<150 after 2023, and the US Environmental Protection Agency offering credits toward fuel efficiency standards for low GWP refrigerants. SL-MAC technology uses a refrigerant contained in the engine compartment to chill coolant that is circulated in the passenger compartment. The design uses a smaller refrigerant charge with fewer connections, which reduces refrigerant leak rates and lowers the frequency and cost of service. The thermal coolant ballast saves energy by turning off the compressor during acceleration and engaging the compressor during deceleration, with inertia converted to cold without carbon emissions. The thermal ballast prolongs the comfort during idle stop.

Using a Traffic Simulator to Evaluate and Minimize Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Conventional and Hybrid Electric Vehicles over Real World Emissions Tests

  • Università del Salento - Teresa Donateo, Mattia Giovinazzi, Antonio Tamborrino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-37-0001
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States

This investigation analyzes the feasibility of using a traffic simulator, and in particular the open source software SUMO, to obtain speed profiles under Real Driving Emission (RDE) tests to be used for the modeling and the optimization of conventional and hybrid electric powertrains. The first step of the investigation is the setup and amendment of the SUMO software to reproduce real driving emissions tests performed in Lecce with a start&stop Class 3b diesel vehicle equipped with a Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) in spring-summer 2017. Due to the high cost of using a PEMS instrumentation and being the measurement of pollutant emissions optional in the present investigation, the experimental campaign is extended here with the help of a OBD-II scanner whose usefulness to obtain the real world levels of fuel consumption and CO2 with reduced costs and times is proved in literature. All the experimental tests of this second step are performed on an optimized route that was identified in Lecce for the execution of Real Driving Emissions tests required by the new European Commission Regulations for vehicle certification in a previous investigation of the authors. In the third part of this study, the data acquired in the experimental campaign are used to validate the use of traffic model with respect to different vehicles and traffic conditions. Finally, the traffic simulator is integrated with an open source tool for the modeling and the optimization of conventional and hybrid electric power systems to show its potentiality for the estimation and minimization of CO2 emissions over RDE driving conditions.

Fundamental Investigations about Heated Fuel Injection on SI Engines

  • IAV GmbH - Marc Sens, Michael Rieß
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-37-0003
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
1. Mixture formation in gasoline direct-injection engines is largely determined by the quality of injection. Injection systems with a wide range of layouts are used today in enhancing spray quality. As parameters, the pressure and temperature of injected fuel play a crucial part in defining quality. The effect increasing pressure has on the quality of spray is basically known. So are ways of applying this process to gasoline fuel. The effect of massively increasing the temperature of injected fuel – to the point of reaching supercritical conditions – in contrast, is not known in any detail. For this reason, the following paper focuses attention on examining the fundamental influence of increasing fuel temperature from 25°C to 450°C on the spray behavior of a high-pressure injector with a GDI nozzle. Combining relevant levels of pressure and temperature, discussion also turns to supercritical fuel conditions and their effects on spray behavior. In the course of evaluating the optical analyses conducted on the pressure chamber using the Schlieren method as well as laser diffraction spectrometry, attention centers on…

The Key Role of Advanced, Flexible Fuel Injection Systems to Match the Future CO2 Targets in an Ultra-light Mid-size Diesel Engine

  • GM Global Propulsion Systems - Alberto Vassallo
  • Istituto Motori CNR - Carlo Beatrice, Gabriele Di Blasio, Giacomo Belgiorno
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  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-37-0005
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the road transport system is involved in a “never seen before” evolution, and the automotive diesel engines need to face such critical transition by demonstrating, once again, their potential in contributing to GHG emission reduction. Recent technology trends indicate their potential to reduce the TTW CO2 emission up to 2025 expected targets, which will permit to the mid-size diesel engines to keep playing a significant role during the transition to electrified powertrains. Within the aforementioned picture, the improvement of the base engine technology has still a key role for increasing the overall efficiency, through the reduction of both the friction – by lightening of the mechanics, and of the thermal losses - by a better combustion process management. In this context, the availability of advanced injection systems capable of high injection pressure (>2500 bar) and sophisticated injection pattern (up to ten injection per cycle) have demonstrated to be a fundamental leverage. The present paper describes the results of a cooperative project aimed to identify the best fuel injection system hardware and control strategies in…

Experimental investigation and modelling of a 1.5 kW axial turbine designed for waste heat recovery through a Rankine cycle

  • Olivier Dumont
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-37-0007
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
The Rankine cycle power system is a promising technology to convert the wasted thermal energy from engines into useful energy. In a way to decrease the CO¬¬2 emissions of passenger cars, it is possible to recover the waste heat from the exhaust gas that presents a high exergy compared to other sources of waste heat (cooling engine, exhaust gas recovery, etc.). A Rankine test-rig is designed and built to assess the performance of such a cycle in real operating conditions. The most critical component is the expander. This component needs to be compact, light, efficient, reliable and cheap among others. In this context, a 1.5 kW axial turbine composed of two wheels is tested on a Rankine cycle test-rig coupled with a 150 kW engine. A detailed analysis of the performance is proposed. The maximum mechanical isentropic efficiency reached is 41.5%. A semi-empirical approach is proposed to predict the performance of the axial turbine in a wide range of conditions. Finally, the performance on a driving cycle is compared with another technology of expander (scroll).

48V hybrid system technologies to develop the most efficient and cleanest Diesel

  • General Motors Propulsion Systems - Roberto Romanato, Francesco Acquaviva, Flavia Duma, Rocco Fuso, Andrea Tripodi
  • Continental Automotive GmbH - Laetitia Passilly, Magdalena Vieracker
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-37-0011
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
The new exhaust emission requirements introduced by governments about light duty vehicles are becoming very tightening. As well as reaching legal emission limits, the car manufacturers must improve the fuel efficiency lowering average fleet CO2 value and also continue to improve the fun to drive. The Hybrid and Diesel propulsion systems are two important players on that competition. 48V hybrid is a cost-effective solution despite HV system and it could outline a new way to approach the well-known trade-off between CO2 and NOx on Diesel engine. The aim of this study is to investigate and measure how 48V Hybrid System could improve the engine efficiency, reduce the exhaust emission on new WLTP cycle and strengthen the performance of 7- seat multi purpose vehicle equipped with 1.6L Diesel engine. As system interactions strongly affect the results, prototype propulsion systems has been developed and assembled to test and measure the overall benefits and to explore the further benefits coming from a holistic approach.

Supercar Hybridization: A Synergic Path to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Improve Performance

  • Politecnico di Torino - Luciano Rolando, Federico Millo
  • Ferrari SpA - Francesco Pulvirenti, Massimo Medda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-37-0009
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
The trend towards powertrain electrification is expected to grow significantly in the next future also for super-cars. The aim of this paper is therefore to assess, through numerical simulation, the impact on both fuel economy and performance of different 48 Volts mild hybrid architectures for a supercar featuring a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition (T-DISI) engine. In particular the hybrid functionalities of both P1 (Belt Alternator Starter - BAS) and P2 (Flywheel Alternator Starter - FAS) architectures were investigated and optimized for this kind of application through a global optimization algorithm. The analysis pointed out CO2 emission reductions of about 7% on NEDC, 5% on WLTC and 4% in real world driving conditions. From the performance perspective a 6% reduction in the time-to-torque was highlighted for a load step maneuver at 2000 RPM constant speed.

Robust Optimization for Real World CO2 Reduction

  • Exa Corporation - Joaquin Gargoloff, Bradley Duncan, Edward Tate, Ales Alajbegovic, Alain Belanger, Barnali Paul
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-37-0015
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
Ground transportation industry contributes to about 14% of the global CO2 emissions. Therefore, any effort in reducing global CO2 needs to include the design of cleaner and more efficient vehicles. Their design needs to be optimized for the real-world conditions. Using wind tunnels that can only reproduce idealized conditions does not always translate in real-world CO2 reduction and increased energy efficiency. Several recent studies found that very rarely can the real-world environment be represented by turbulence-free conditions in wind tunnels. The real-world conditions consist of both a transversal flow velocity component (which creates an oncoming yaw flow) as well as large-scale turbulent fluctuations, with length scales of up to many times the size of the vehicle. The study presented in this paper shows how the realistic wind affects the aerodynamics of the vehicle. The real-world aerodynamic drag of the vehicle is used in a system model tool to predict the changes in energy consumption and CO2 emissions under various duty cycles. The goal is to compare the on-road fuel economy considering realistic wind, in contrast…

FCA Full Scale Wind Tunnel : WLTP and coast down test performed with wind tunnel method

  • FCA ITALY S.p.A. - Marco Stellato, Luca Betti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-37-0017
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
The effect of pollutants emission on health and environment is a problem that has become even more important with time: WLTP represents the harmonization of test procedures that aims to characterize all vehicles predicting their emissions, depending on coast down road test results and new different driving cycles. UN GTR technical regulation allows the use of wind tunnel to perform a bench coast down with the use of dynamometer or flat belt to calculate the whole vehicle drag (aerodynamic, mechanic and rolling resistance). During 2013, FCA made an upgrade to wind tunnel facility installing a new balance with 5 moving belts: one central belt e four wheels flat belts, each one connected to a specific balance. This upgrade is very important because wheel spinning unit balances allow the calculation of rolling resistance as required by UN GTR. Moreover UN GTR prescribes several criteria that must be respected from facility to allow wind tunnel to be used instead of road test: nowadays FCA is working on an auto-certification of facility but the aim is to reach…

Virtual simulation for clutch thermal behavior prediction

  • Politecnico di Torino - Fabio Tosi
  • FCA Italy - Matteo Gautero, Laura Lorefice, Nicola Paola lng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-37-0021
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
The clutch is that mechanical part located in an internal combustion engine vehicle which allows the torque transmission from the shaft to the wheels, permitting at the same time gear shifting and supporting engine revolutions while the car is idling. This component exploits friction as working principle, therefore heat generation is in its own nature. The comprehension of all the critical issues related to thermal emission, and also of the principal physical parameters driving the phenomena are a must in design phases. The subject of this paper is the elaboration of an accurate, but also easy to use and easily replicable, methodology to simulate thermal behavior of a clutch operating inside its usual environment. The present methodology allows to prevent corrective actions in the last phase of the projects, such as changes in gear ratios, that likely worsen CO2 emissions, permitting to achieve the wished thermal performance of the clutch avoiding late changes. Using computational fluid dynamics, coupled with thermal-FEM software, working limits can be foreseen, and strengths or design flaws can be highlighted. The…