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CO2 Reduction for Transportation Systems Conference
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Technical Paper (29)



Automotive (27) Aerospace (2)


Fuel consumption (10) Carbon dioxide (9) Simulation and modeling (7) Combustion and combustion processes (6) Drag (5) Fuel economy (5) Diesel / compression ignition engines (4) Energy conservation (4) Heat transfer (4) Thermal management (4) Aerodynamics (3) Computational fluid dynamics (3) Coolants (3) Scale models (3) Technical review (3) Wind tunnel tests (3) Air conditioning (2) Alternators (2) Architecture (2) Batteries (2) Compressors (2) Electric vehicles (2) Environmental regulations and standards (2) Fuel injection (2) Lightweighting (2) Pressure (2) Product development (2) Road tests (2) Simulators (2) Spark ignition engines (2) Test procedures (2) Valves (2) Autonomous vehicles (1) Calibration (1) Catalysts (1) Clutches (1) Communication systems (1) Conductivity (1) Congestion (1) Downsizing (1) Education and training (1) Emissions (1) Emissions certification (1) Energy consumption (1) Engine cylinders (1) Engine efficiency (1) Environmental protection (1) Environmental testing (1) Exhaust emissions (1) Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) (1)


Chowdhury, Sourav (2) Delogu, Massimo (2) Leitzel, Lindsey (2) Lorefice, Laura (2) Millo, Federico (2) Paola lng, Nicola (2) Zanchi, Laura (2) Acquaviva, Francesco (1) Alajbegovic, Ales (1) Albers, Albert (1) Algieri, Angelo (1) Andersen, Stephen (1) Avolio, Giovanni (1) Baker, James (1) Beatrice, Carlo (1) Bein, Thilo (1) Belanger, Alain (1) Belgiorno, Giacomo (1) Benincasa, Marco (1) Betti, Luca (1) Bettoja, Federica (1) Bianchi, Lorenzo (1) Biglia, Matteo (1) Boardman, Peter (1) Borasso, Massimiliano (1) Bova, Sergio (1) Bozza, Fabio (1) Castiglione, Teresa (1) Catapano, Francesco (1) Cerrelli, Giuseppe (1) Cipollone PhD, Roberto (1) Clough, Brian (1) Craig, Timothy (1) Cuelenaere, Rob (1) Dattilo, Caterina Antonia (1) De Bellis, Vincenzo (1) Del Pero, Francesco (1) Di Battista, Davide (1) Di Blasio, Gabriele (1) Di Iorio, Silvana (1) Di Nunno, Davide (1) Dimaratos, Athanasios (1) Donateo, Teresa (1) Doulgeris, Stylianos (1) Duma, Flavia (1) Dumont, Olivier (1) Duncan, Bradley (1) Eilts, Peter (1) El-Sharkawy, Alaa (1) Fernandez, Violeta (1)


SAE (29)


Politecnico di Torino (4) FCA US LLC (2) Istituto Motori CNR (2) Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (1) Bax Innovation Consulting (1) Centro Ricerche Fiat SCpA (1) Chalmers University (1) Continental Automotive GmbH (1) Continental Corp (1) Coventry University (1) CRF (1) Daimler AG (1) DENSO Corporation (1) Exa Corporation (1) FCA (1) FCA Italy (1) FCA ITALY S.p.A. (1) Ferrari SpA (1) FKA mbH (1) FKFS (1) Fraunhofer LBF (1) General Motors Global Propulsion Systems (1) General Motors Propulsion Systems (1) GM - Global Propulsion Systems (1) GM Global Propulsion Systems (1) IAV GmbH (1) Institute for Governance & Sust Dev (1) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (1) Leibnitz Universität Hannover (1) Magneti Marelli SpA (1) Mahle Behr Troy Inc (1) Mahle Behr Troy Inc. (1) Meccanotecnica Umbra S.p.A. (1) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (1) Powertech Engineering S.r.l. (1) RWTH Aachen University (1) TATA Motors Ltd (1) Technische Universität Braunschweig (1) TNO Automotive (1) Univ. of Naples Fed II-Ist. Motori CNR (1) Univ. of Naples Federico II (1) Universita degli Studi dell Aquila (1) Università degli Studi di Firenze (1) Università del Salento (1) Università della Calabria (1) Università di Bologna-Magneti Marelli S (1) Università di Firenze (1)


CO2 Reduction for Transportation Systems Conference (29)

Economic and Climate Advantages: Secondary-Loop Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners (MACs)

  • James Baker
  • Institute for Governance & Sust Dev-Stephen Andersen, Kristen Taddonio, Melinda Soffer, Nancy Sherman
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Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper and presentation compare the thermal, economic and climate performance of existing direct expansion motor vehicle air conditioners (DX-MACs) using hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-134a (global warming potential (GWP) =1300) with secondary-loop MACs (SL-MACs) using hydrofluoroolefin (HFO)-1234yf (GWP < 1) and HFC-152a (GWP = 138), both of which satisfy the European Union (EU) and Japan F-gas regulations and are listed as acceptable by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In addition to a technical review of the SL-MAC system, the paper includes a part-by-part system manufacturing cost comparison and itemized ownership cost comparison taking into account fuel savings and reduced maintenance. The paper is timely because the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer now requires both developed and developing countries to phase down the production and consumption of HFCs and at the same time encourages increases in energy efficiency. The developed country transition to HFO-1234yf is well underway, with the EU already requiring refrigerants with GWP less than 150, Japan requiring GWP < 150 after 2023, and the US EPA offering credits toward fuel efficiency…

Reproducing Real World Emission Tests with a Traffic Simulator

  • Università del Salento-Teresa Donateo, Mattia Giovinazzi, Antonio Tamborrino
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
This investigation analyzes the feasibility of using a traffic simulator, and in particular the open source software SUMO (Simulation of Urban Mobility) to reproduce speed profiles acquired under Real Driving Emission (RDE) tests. The first step of the investigation describes the experimental tests performed in Lecce to obtain RDE cycles with a Class3b vehicle. Several tests are executed with the same vehicle over the same route with the same driver. The plots of Relative Positive Acceleration versus vehicle obtained in these tests are used to tune and validate SUMO together with the qualitative speed time histories and emissions of carbon dioxide. The experimental tests also revealed the possibility to correlate CO2 emissions with either the specification of the cycle (speed and acceleration of the vehicle) or the engine working points (load and speed). This means that the proposed traffic simulator tool has the potentiality to be used for the estimation and minimization of CO2 emissions over RDE driving conditions in conventional and advanced power systems. However, the preliminary results shown in this paper reveal that…

Fundamental Investigations about Heated Fuel Injection on SI Engines

  • IAV GmbH-Marc Sens, Michael Rieß
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
Mixture formation in gasoline direct-injection engines is largely determined by the quality of injection. Injection systems with a wide range of layouts are used today in enhancing spray quality. As parameters, the pressure and temperature of injected fuel play a crucial part in defining quality.The effect increasing pressure has on the quality of spray is basically known. So are ways of applying this process to gasoline fuel. The effect of massively increasing the temperature of injected fuel - to the point of reaching supercritical conditions - in contrast, is not known in any detail.For this reason, the following paper focuses attention on examining the fundamental influence of increasing fuel temperature from 25 °C to 450 °C on the spray behavior of a high-pressure injector with a GDI nozzle. Combining relevant levels of pressure and temperature, discussion also turns to supercritical fuel conditions and their effects on spray behavior.In the course of evaluating the optical analyses conducted on the pressure chamber using the Schlieren method as well as laser diffraction spectrometry, attention centers on aspects relating to the…

The Key Role of Advanced, Flexible Fuel Injection Systems to Match the Future CO2 Targets in an Ultra-Light Mid-Size Diesel Engine

  • Continental Corp-Giovanni Avolio
  • GM Global Propulsion Systems-Alberto Vassallo, Francesco Concetto Pesce
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Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
The paper describes the results achieved in developing a new diesel combustion system for passenger car application that, while capable of high power density, delivers excellent fuel economy through a combination of mechanical and thermodynamic efficiencies improvement.The project stemmed from the idea that, by leveraging the high fuel injection pressure of last generation common rail systems, it is possible to reduce the engine peak firing pressure (pfp) with great benefits on reciprocating and rotating components light-weighting and friction for high-speed light-duty engines, while keeping the power density at competitive levels. To this aim, an advanced injection system concept capable of injection pressure greater than 2500 bar was coupled to a prototype engine featuring newly developed combustion system. Then, the matching among these features have been thoroughly experimentally examined.The results confirmed the benefits of the employment of high fuel injection pressures as a way to reduce the pfp, combining competitive performance and excellent fuel efficiency with emissions and Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH) requirements of last generation diesel engines for passenger car applications. In particular, the paper…

Experimental Investigation and Modelling of a 1.5 kW Axial Turbine for Waste Heat Recovery of a Gasoline Passenger Car through a Rankine Cycle

  • Olivier Dumont
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
The Rankine cycle power system is a promising technology to convert the wasted thermal energy from engines into useful energy. In a way to decrease the CO2 emissions of passenger cars, it is possible to recover the waste heat from the exhaust gas that presents a high exergy compared to other sources of waste heat (engine cooling, exhaust gas recovery cooling, etc.). A Rankine cycle test-rig is designed and built to assess the performance of such a cycle in real operating conditions. The most critical component is the expander. This component needs to be compact, light, efficient, reliable and cheap among other criteria. In this context, a 1.5 kW axial turbine composed of two wheels is tested on a Rankine cycle test-rig coupled with a 150 kW engine. A detailed analysis of the performance is proposed. The maximum turbine mechanical isentropic efficiency reached is 41.5%. A semi-empirical approach is proposed to predict the performance of the axial turbine in a wide range of conditions. Finally, the performance on a driving cycle is compared with another…

48 V Hybrid System Technologies to Develop the Most Efficient and Cleanest Diesel

  • Continental Automotive GmbH-Laetitia Passilly, Magdalena Vieracker
  • General Motors Propulsion Systems-Roberto Romanato, Francesco Acquaviva, Flavia Duma, Rocco Fuso, Andrea Tripodi
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
The tighter exhaust emissions standards introduced by governments for light duty vehicles are challenging car manufactures to meet at the same time legal emission limits and fuel efficiency improvements, still providing excellent fun to drive characteristics. The Hybrid and Diesel propulsion systems are two important players on that competition. In this scenario, the 48 V hybridization has the potential to become a cost-effective solution compared to High Voltage systems, outlining a new way to approach the well-known trade-off between CO2 and NOx in Diesels.Aim of this study has been to investigate the benefits offered by a P0 48 V Hybrid system when coupled with a 1.6 L Diesel engine in a 7-seat multi-purpose vehicle. Extensive simulations and testing activities have been conducted using a prototype propulsion system to assess the efficiency improvements, the emission reduction and the overall performance benefits in a holistic approach, given the strong influence of the interaction between sub-systems in the optimization results.

Supercar Hybridization: A Synergic Path to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Improve Performance

  • Ferrari SpA-Francesco Pulvirenti, Massimo Medda
  • Politecnico di Torino-Luciano Rolando, Federico Millo
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
The trend towards powertrain electrification is expected to grow significantly in the next future also for super-cars. The aim of this paper is therefore to assess, through numerical simulation, the impact on both fuel economy and performance of different 48 Volt mild hybrid architectures for a high-performance sport car featuring a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition (TDISI) engine. In particular the hybrid functionalities of both a P0 (Belt Alternator Starter - BAS) and a P2 (Flywheel Alternator Starter - FAS) architecture were investigated and optimized for this kind of application through a global optimization algorithm. The analysis pointed out CO2 emission reductions potential of about 6% and 25% on NEDC, 7% and 28% on WLTC for P0 and P2 respectively. From the performance perspective, a 10% reduction in the time-to-torque was highlighted for both architectures in a load step maneuver at 2000 RPM constant speed.

Robust Optimization for Real World CO2 Reduction

  • Exa Corporation-Joaquin Gargoloff, Bradley Duncan, Edward Tate, Ales Alajbegovic, Alain Belanger, Barnali Paul
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
Ground transportation industry contributes to about 14% of the global CO2 emissions. Therefore, any effort in reducing global CO2 needs to include the design of cleaner and more energy efficient vehicles. Their design needs to be optimized for the real-world conditions. Using wind tunnels that can only reproduce idealized conditions quite often does not translate into real-world on-road CO2 reduction and improved energy efficiency. Several recent studies found that very rarely can the real-world environment be represented by turbulence-free conditions simulated in wind tunnels. The real-world conditions consist of both transversal flow velocity component (causing an oncoming yaw flow) as well as large-scale turbulent fluctuations, with length scales of up to many times the size of a vehicle. The study presented in this paper shows how the realistic wind affects the aerodynamics of the vehicle. The real-world aerodynamic drag of the vehicle is used in a system model tool to predict the changes in energy consumption and CO2 emissions under various driving cycles. The goal is to compare the on-road fuel economy considering realistic wind,…

FCA Full Scale Wind Tunnel: WLTP and Coast Down Test Performed With Wind Tunnel Method

  • FCA ITALY S.p.A.-Marco Stellato, Luca Betti
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
The effect of pollutants emission on health and environment is a problem that has become even more important with time: WLTP represents the harmonization of test procedures that aims to characterize all vehicles predicting their emissions, depending on coast down road test results and new different driving cycles. UN GTR technical regulation allows the use of wind tunnel to perform a bench coast down with the use of dynamometer or flat belt to calculate the whole vehicle drag (aerodynamic, mechanic and rolling resistance). During 2013, FCA Italy made an upgrade to wind tunnel facility installing a new balance with 5 moving belts: one central belt and four wheels flat belts, each one connected to a specific balance. This upgrade is very important because wheel spinning unit balances allow the calculation of rolling resistance as required by UN GTR. Moreover UN GTR prescribes several criteria that must be respected from facility to allow wind tunnel to be used instead of road test. Nowadays, FCA is working on self-certification of its facility but the aim is to…

Virtual Simulation for Clutch Thermal Behavior Prediction

  • FCA Italy-Matteo Gautero, Laura Lorefice, Nicola Paola lng
  • Politecnico di Torino-Fabio Tosi
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
The clutch is that mechanical part located in an internal combustion engine vehicle which allows the torque transmission from the shaft to the wheels, permitting at the same time gear shifting and supporting engine revolutions while the car is idling. This component exploits friction as working principle, therefore heat generation is in its own nature. The comprehension of all the critical issues related to thermal emission, and also of the principal physical parameters driving the phenomena are a must in design phases.The subject of this paper is the elaboration of an accurate, but also easy to use and easily replicable, methodology to simulate thermal behavior of a clutch operating inside its usual environment.The present methodology allows to prevent corrective actions in the last phase of the projects (real testing), such as changes in gear ratios, that likely worsen CO2 emissions, permitting to achieve the wished thermal performance of the clutch avoiding late changes.Using computational fluid dynamics, coupled with thermal-FEM software, working limits can be foreseen, and strengths or design flaws can be highlighted.The approach for…