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CO2 Reduction for Transportation Systems Conference
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Technical Paper (29)



Automotive (27) Aerospace (2)


Fuel consumption (10) Carbon dioxide (8) Combustion and combustion processes (6) Simulation and modeling (6) Drag (5) Fuel economy (5) Diesel / compression ignition engines (4) Energy conservation (4) Heat transfer (4) Thermal management (4) Aerodynamics (3) Computational fluid dynamics (3) Coolants (3) Scale models (3) Technical review (3) Wind tunnel tests (3) Air conditioning (2) Alternators (2) Architecture (2) Batteries (2) Compressors (2) Electric vehicles (2) Environmental regulations and standards (2) Fuel injection (2) Lightweighting (2) Pressure (2) Product development (2) Road tests (2) Simulators (2) Spark ignition engines (2) Test procedures (2) Valves (2) Autonomous vehicles (1) Calibration (1) Catalysts (1) Clutches (1) Communication systems (1) Conductivity (1) Congestion (1) Downsizing (1) Education and training (1) Emissions (1) Emissions certification (1) Energy consumption (1) Engine cylinders (1) Engine efficiency (1) Environmental protection (1) Environmental testing (1) Exhaust emissions (1) Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) (1)


Chowdhury, Sourav (2) Delogu, Massimo (2) Leitzel, Lindsey (2) Lorefice, Laura (2) Millo, Federico (2) Paola lng, Nicola (2) Zanchi, Laura (2) Acquaviva, Francesco (1) Alajbegovic, Ales (1) Albers, Albert (1) Algieri, Angelo (1) Andersen, Stephen (1) Avolio, Giovanni (1) Baker, James (1) Beatrice, Carlo (1) Bein, Thilo (1) Belanger, Alain (1) Belgiorno, Giacomo (1) Benincasa, Marco (1) Betti, Luca (1) Bettoja, Federica (1) Bianchi, Lorenzo (1) Biglia, Matteo (1) Boardman, Peter (1) Borasso, Massimiliano (1) Bova, Sergio (1) Bozza, Fabio (1) Castiglione, Teresa (1) Catapano, Francesco (1) Cerrelli, Giuseppe (1) Cipollone PhD, Roberto (1) Clough, Brian (1) Craig, Timothy (1) Cuelenaere, Rob (1) Dattilo, Caterina Antonia (1) De Bellis, Vincenzo (1) Del Pero, Francesco (1) Di Battista, Davide (1) Di Blasio, Gabriele (1) Di Iorio, Silvana (1) Di Nunno, Davide (1) Dimaratos, Athanasios (1) Donateo, Teresa (1) Doulgeris, Stylianos (1) Duma, Flavia (1) Dumont, Olivier (1) Duncan, Bradley (1) Eilts, Peter (1) El-Sharkawy, Alaa (1) Fernandez, Violeta (1)


SAE (29)


Politecnico di Torino (4) FCA US LLC (2) Istituto Motori CNR (2) Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (1) Bax Innovation Consulting (1) Centro Ricerche Fiat SCpA (1) Chalmers University (1) Continental Automotive GmbH (1) Continental Corp (1) Coventry University (1) CRF (1) Daimler AG (1) DENSO Corporation (1) Exa Corporation (1) FCA (1) FCA Italy (1) FCA ITALY S.p.A. (1) Ferrari SpA (1) FKA mbH (1) FKFS (1) Fraunhofer LBF (1) General Motors Global Propulsion Systems (1) General Motors Propulsion Systems (1) GM - Global Propulsion Systems (1) GM Global Propulsion Systems (1) IAV GmbH (1) Institute for Governance & Sust Dev (1) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (1) Leibnitz Universität Hannover (1) Magneti Marelli SpA (1) Mahle Behr Troy Inc (1) Mahle Behr Troy Inc. (1) Meccanotecnica Umbra S.p.A. (1) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (1) Powertech Engineering S.r.l. (1) RWTH Aachen University (1) TATA Motors Ltd (1) Technische Universität Braunschweig (1) TNO Automotive (1) Univ. of Naples Fed II-Ist. Motori CNR (1) Univ. of Naples Federico II (1) Universita degli Studi dell Aquila (1) Università degli Studi di Firenze (1) Università del Salento (1) Università della Calabria (1) Università di Bologna-Magneti Marelli S (1) Università di Firenze (1)


CO2 Reduction for Transportation Systems Conference (29)

Economic and Climate Advantages: Secondary-Loop Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners (MACs)

  • Institute for Governance & Sust Dev - Stephen Andersen, Kristen Taddonio, Melinda Soffer, Nancy Sherman
  • TATA Motors Ltd - Sangeet Kapoor, Prasanna V Nagarhalli, Jagvendra Meena
  • Show More
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States

This paper and presentation compare the thermal, economic and climate performance of existing direct expansion motor vehicle air conditioners (DX-MACs) using hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-134a (global warming potential (GWP) =1300) with secondary-loop MACs (SL-MACs) using hydrofluoroolefin (HFO)-1234yf (GWP < 1) and HFC-152a (GWP = 138), both of which satisfy the European Union (EU) and Japan F-gas regulations and are listed as acceptable by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In addition to a technical review of the SL-MAC system, the paper includes a part-by-part system manufacturing cost comparison and itemized ownership cost comparison taking into account fuel savings and reduced maintenance. The paper is timely because the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer now requires both developed and developing countries to phase down the production and consumption of HFCs and at the same time encourages increases in energy efficiency. The developed country transition to HFO-1234yf is well underway, with the EU already requiring refrigerants with GWP less than 150, Japan requiring GWP < 150 after 2023, and the US EPA offering credits toward fuel efficiency standards for low GWP refrigerants. SL-MAC technology uses a refrigerant contained in the engine compartment to chill coolant that is circulated in the passenger compartment. The design uses a smaller refrigerant charge with fewer connections, which reduces refrigerant leak rates and lowers the frequency and cost of service. The thermal coolant ballast saves energy by allowing the compressor to turn off during acceleration and to engage during deceleration, with inertia converted to cold without carbon emissions. The thermal ballast prolongs passenger comfort during idle stop. A timeline of MAC history is also included.

Reproducing Real World Emission Tests with a Traffic Simulator

  • Università del Salento - Teresa Donateo, Mattia Giovinazzi, Antonio Tamborrino
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States

This investigation analyzes the feasibility of using a traffic simulator, and in particular the open source software SUMO (Simulation of Urban Mobility) to reproduce speed profiles acquired under Real Driving Emission (RDE) tests. The first step of the investigation describes the experimental tests performed in Lecce to obtain RDE cycles with a Class3b vehicle. Several tests are executed with the same vehicle over the same route with the same driver. The plots of Relative Positive Acceleration versus vehicle obtained in these tests are used to tune and validate SUMO together with the qualitative speed time histories and emissions of carbon dioxide. The experimental tests also revealed the possibility to correlate CO2 emissions with either the specification of the cycle (speed and acceleration of the vehicle) or the engine working points (load and speed). This means that the proposed traffic simulator tool has the potentiality to be used for the estimation and minimization of CO2 emissions over RDE driving conditions in conventional and advanced power systems. However, the preliminary results shown in this paper reveal that SUMO needs a fine tuning and some improvements before being used for this scope.

Fundamental Investigations about Heated Fuel Injection on SI Engines

  • IAV GmbH - Marc Sens, Michael Rieß
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States

Mixture formation in gasoline direct-injection engines is largely determined by the quality of injection. Injection systems with a wide range of layouts are used today in enhancing spray quality. As parameters, the pressure and temperature of injected fuel play a crucial part in defining quality.

The Key Role of Advanced, Flexible Fuel Injection Systems to Match the Future CO2 Targets in an Ultra-Light Mid-Size Diesel Engine

  • GM Global Propulsion Systems - Alberto Vassallo
  • Istituto Motori CNR - Carlo Beatrice, Gabriele Di Blasio, Giacomo Belgiorno
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Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States

The paper describes the results achieved in developing a new diesel combustion system for passenger car application that, while capable of high power density, delivers excellent fuel economy through a combination of mechanical and thermodynamic efficiencies improvement.

Experimental Investigation and Modelling of a 1.5 kW Axial Turbine for Waste Heat Recovery of a Gasoline Passenger Car through a Rankine Cycle

  • Olivier Dumont
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States

The Rankine cycle power system is a promising technology to convert the wasted thermal energy from engines into useful energy. In a way to decrease the CO2 emissions of passenger cars, it is possible to recover the waste heat from the exhaust gas that presents a high exergy compared to other sources of waste heat (engine cooling, exhaust gas recovery cooling, etc.). A Rankine cycle test-rig is designed and built to assess the performance of such a cycle in real operating conditions. The most critical component is the expander. This component needs to be compact, light, efficient, reliable and cheap among other criteria. In this context, a 1.5 kW axial turbine composed of two wheels is tested on a Rankine cycle test-rig coupled with a 150 kW engine. A detailed analysis of the performance is proposed. The maximum turbine mechanical isentropic efficiency reached is 41.5%. A semi-empirical approach is proposed to predict the performance of the axial turbine in a wide range of conditions. Finally, the performance on a driving cycle is compared with another technology of expander (scroll).

48 V Hybrid System Technologies to Develop the Most Efficient and Cleanest Diesel

  • General Motors Propulsion Systems - Roberto Romanato, Francesco Acquaviva, Flavia Duma, Rocco Fuso, Andrea Tripodi
  • Continental Automotive GmbH - Laetitia Passilly, Magdalena Vieracker
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States

The tighter exhaust emissions standards introduced by governments for light duty vehicles are challenging car manufactures to meet at the same time legal emission limits and fuel efficiency improvements, still providing excellent fun to drive characteristics. The Hybrid and Diesel propulsion systems are two important players on that competition. In this scenario, the 48 V hybridization has the potential to become a cost-effective solution compared to High Voltage systems, outlining a new way to approach the well-known trade-off between CO2 and NOx in Diesels.

Supercar Hybridization: A Synergic Path to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Improve Performance

  • Politecnico di Torino - Luciano Rolando, Federico Millo
  • Ferrari SpA - Francesco Pulvirenti, Massimo Medda
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States

The trend towards powertrain electrification is expected to grow significantly in the next future also for super-cars. The aim of this paper is therefore to assess, through numerical simulation, the impact on both fuel economy and performance of different 48 Volt mild hybrid architectures for a high-performance sport car featuring a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition (TDISI) engine. In particular the hybrid functionalities of both a P0 (Belt Alternator Starter - BAS) and a P2 (Flywheel Alternator Starter - FAS) architecture were investigated and optimized for this kind of application through a global optimization algorithm. The analysis pointed out CO2 emission reductions potential of about 6% and 25% on NEDC, 7% and 28% on WLTC for P0 and P2 respectively. From the performance perspective, a 10% reduction in the time-to-torque was highlighted for both architectures in a load step maneuver at 2000 RPM constant speed.

Robust Optimization for Real World CO2 Reduction

  • Exa Corporation - Joaquin Gargoloff, Bradley Duncan, Edward Tate, Ales Alajbegovic, Alain Belanger, Barnali Paul
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States

Ground transportation industry contributes to about 14% of the global CO2 emissions. Therefore, any effort in reducing global CO2 needs to include the design of cleaner and more energy efficient vehicles. Their design needs to be optimized for the real-world conditions. Using wind tunnels that can only reproduce idealized conditions quite often does not translate into real-world on-road CO2 reduction and improved energy efficiency. Several recent studies found that very rarely can the real-world environment be represented by turbulence-free conditions simulated in wind tunnels. The real-world conditions consist of both transversal flow velocity component (causing an oncoming yaw flow) as well as large-scale turbulent fluctuations, with length scales of up to many times the size of a vehicle. The study presented in this paper shows how the realistic wind affects the aerodynamics of the vehicle. The real-world aerodynamic drag of the vehicle is used in a system model tool to predict the changes in energy consumption and CO2 emissions under various driving cycles. The goal is to compare the on-road fuel economy considering realistic wind, in contrast to the standard drive cycle obtained under ideal ambient conditions. Different wind characteristics or wind profiles, representing different geographies or typical route conditions, were tested to assess their effects on the drive cycle. The use of real-world aerodynamics to predict a more realistic load curve could also impact the tuning of the vehicle sub-systems, like the transmission mappings, cooling module design, cooling flow sizing, heat exchanger properties, active grille shutter control map, etc. All these are also important in the design of autonomous vehicles. This work describes new techniques to design the vehicle including real-world aerodynamics, cooling module and other systems, in-order to improve fuel economy for on-road driving.

FCA Full Scale Wind Tunnel: WLTP and Coast Down Test Performed With Wind Tunnel Method

  • FCA ITALY S.p.A. - Marco Stellato, Luca Betti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-37-0017
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States

The effect of pollutants emission on health and environment is a problem that has become even more important with time: WLTP represents the harmonization of test procedures that aims to characterize all vehicles predicting their emissions, depending on coast down road test results and new different driving cycles. UN GTR technical regulation allows the use of wind tunnel to perform a bench coast down with the use of dynamometer or flat belt to calculate the whole vehicle drag (aerodynamic, mechanic and rolling resistance). During 2013, FCA Italy made an upgrade to wind tunnel facility installing a new balance with 5 moving belts: one central belt and four wheels flat belts, each one connected to a specific balance. This upgrade is very important because wheel spinning unit balances allow the calculation of rolling resistance as required by UN GTR. Moreover UN GTR prescribes several criteria that must be respected from facility to allow wind tunnel to be used instead of road test. Nowadays, FCA is working on self-certification of its facility but the aim is to reach an ISO9001 certification. Wind tunnel coast down test requires two in-parallel measurements to be done: aerodynamic force is measured by main balance, while forces on wheels are obtained by wheel spinning unit balances. Thus coast down coefficients are known, letting possible the calculation of emitted CO2. Comparison between wind tunnel and road test results has been performed and a very good correlation has been obtained with a percent difference of cycle energy under 5% as required by UN GTR. The possibility to perform a wind tunnel coast down has many advantages: controlled environment condition, fixed ground condition and no relative wind. But above all it takes less than one hour to perform test and find results in terms of coast down coefficients. Moreover this procedure allows calculation of wheel ventilation drag, thus characterizing aerodynamic impact of different rims and wheel caps.

Virtual Simulation for Clutch Thermal Behavior Prediction

  • Politecnico di Torino - Fabio Tosi
  • FCA Italy - Matteo Gautero, Laura Lorefice, Nicola Paola lng
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States

The clutch is that mechanical part located in an internal combustion engine vehicle which allows the torque transmission from the shaft to the wheels, permitting at the same time gear shifting and supporting engine revolutions while the car is idling. This component exploits friction as working principle, therefore heat generation is in its own nature. The comprehension of all the critical issues related to thermal emission, and also of the principal physical parameters driving the phenomena are a must in design phases.