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A Parametric Study of the Flammability of Dieseline Blends with and without Ethanol

Concawe-Heather Hamje, John Rogerson
ENI Spa-Leonardo Pellegrini
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Low Temperature Combustion using compression ignition may provide high efficiency combined with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen and soot. This process is facilitated by fuels with lower cetane number than standard diesel fuel. Mixtures of gasoline and diesel (“dieseline”) may be one way of achieving this; however, a gasoline/diesel mixture in a fuel tank can result in a flammable headspace, particularly at very cold ambient temperatures. A mathematical model to predict the flammability of dieseline blends, including those containing ethanol, was previously validated. In this paper, that model is used to study the flammability of dieseline blends parametrically. Gasolines used in the simulations had Dry Vapour Pressure Equivalent (DVPE) values of 45, 60, 75, 90 and 110 kPa. Simulations were carried out for dieseline blends containing ethanol with two types of specifications - a fixed ethanol volume percent in the dieseline blend (0-50% ethanol), or blends containing specified EXX gasolines (E10, E20, E30, E40, E60 and E85) added to diesel fuel. Predicted Upper Flammability Limit (UFL) temperatures and blend DVPEs are presented for all…
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Kinetic Modeling of Ammonia-SCR and Experimental Studies over Monolithic Cu-ZSM-5 Catalyst

Hokkaido University-Wataru Eijima, Gen Shibata, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Ryutaro Koiwai, Hideyuki Ogawa, Kenichi Shimizu
Waseda University-Jin Kusaka
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Ammonia-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems have been introduced commercially in diesel vehicles, however catalyst systems with higher conversion efficiency and better control characteristics are required to know the actual emissions during operation and the emissions in random test cycles. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an effective approach when applied to SCR catalyst development, and many models have been proposed, but these models need experimental verification and are limited in the situations they apply to. Further, taking account of redox cycle is important to have better accuracy in transient operation, however there are few models considering the cycle. Model development considering the redox reactions in a zeolite catalyst, Cu-ZSM-5, is the object of the research here, and the effects of exhaust gas composition on the SCR reaction and NH3 oxidation at high temperatures are investigated. The simulations are compared with the experimental results of a surrogate gas, a mixture of nitrogen monoxide (NO), oxygen (O2), water vapor (H2O), and nitrogen (N2), and the accuracy of the developed model is validated. To investigate the effects of O2…
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Visual Analyses of End of Injection Liquid Structures and the Behaviour of Nozzle Surface-Bound Fuel in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

BP International Ltd.-Martin Gold, Richard Pearson
University of Brighton-Dan Sykes, Guillaume de Sercey, Cyril Crua
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
For efficiency, the majority of modern diesel engines implement multiple injection strategies, increasing the frequency of transient injection phases and thus, end of injection (EOI) events. Recent advances in diagnostic techniques have identified several EOI phenomena pertinent to nozzle surface wetting as a precursor for deposit formation and a potential contributor towards pollutant emissions. To investigate the underlying processes, highspeed optical measurements at the microscopic scale were performed inside a motored diesel engine under low load/idling conditions. Visualisation of the injector nozzle surface and near nozzle region permitted an indepth analysis of the post-injection phenomena and the behaviour of fuel films on the nozzle surface when the engine is not fired. Inspection of the high-speed video data enabled an interpretation of the fluid dynamics leading to surface wetting, elucidating the mechanisms of deposition and spreading. As the needle re-seated, the abrupt pressure drop inhibited atomisation. Large, slow moving, liquid structures were released into the cylinder with the capability of impinging on nearby surfaces, creating localised fuel rich regions, or escaping through the exhaust and contributing…
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Spray Characterization of Gasoline Direct Injection Sprays Under Fuel Injection Pressures up to 150 MPa with Different Nozzle Geometries

Chalmers University of Technology-Lucien Koopmans, Petter Dahlander
Denso Corp.-Akichika Yamaguchi
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Maximum fuel injection pressures for GDI engines is expected to increase due to positive effects on emissions and engine-efficiency. Current GDI injectors have maximum operating pressures of 35 MPa, but higher injection pressures have yielded promising reductions in particle number (PN) and improved combustion stability. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, and there have been few studies on fuel sprays formed at high injection pressures.This paper summarizes experimental studies on the properties of sprays formed at high injection pressures. The results of these experiments can be used as inputs for CFD simulations and studies on combustion behavior, emissions formation, and combustion system design. The experiments were conducted using an injection rate meter and optical methods in a constant volume spray chamber. Injection rate measurements were performed to determine the injectors’ flow characteristics. Spray imaging was performed using a high-speed video camera. Several spray properties such as the liquid spray penetration, spray plume angle, and the spray breakup point were determined as functions of the fuel injection pressure and injected fuel mass…
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Model-Based Approaches in Developing an Advanced Aftertreatment System: An Overview

Cummins Inc.-Changsheng Su, Joseph Brault, Achuth Munnannur, Z. Gerald Liu, Sean Milloy, Arvind Harinath, David Dunnuck, Ken Federle
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Cummins has recently launched next-generation aftertreatment technology, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system, for medium-duty and heavy-duty engines used in on-highway and off-highway applications. Besides meeting EPA 2010+ and Euro VI regulations, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system offers 60% volume and 40% weight reductions compared to current aftertreatment systems. In this work, we present model-based approaches that were systematically adopted in the design and development of the Cummins Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system. Particularly, a variety of analytical and experimental component-level and system-level validation tools have been used to optimize DOC, DPF, SCR/ASC, as well as the DEF decomposition device. The highlights of this work can be summarized as follows: a). internal dosing is more efficient than external dosing to control HC slip; High CPSI DOCs show better HC oxidation performance at high SV due to enhanced mass transfer; b). the adopted advanced DPF technologies enable greater ash capacity for long maintenance intervals; c). SCR performance was optimized with the use of a hydrothermally robust Cu-Zeolite catalyst coated on high CPSI substrates.
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Are Internal Diesel Injector Deposits (IDID) Mainly Linked to Biofuel Chemical Composition or/and Engine Operation Condition?

IFP Energies Nouvelles, Institute Carnot-Maira Alves Fortunato, Francis Lenglet, Arij Ben Amara, Laurie Starck
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
The increased use of alternative fuels has been linked to performance deterioration of injectors and engines as a result of internal diesel injector deposits (IDID). The present paper investigates fuel composition impact on injector tendency to blockage. Three main areas were investigated : (1) deposits linked to paraffins and aromatics content; (2) deposits linked to biodiesel composition using fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and hydrotreated vegetal oil (HVO); and (3) deposits linked to the presence of additives (Dodecenylsuccinic anhydride DDSA, Dodecenyl Succinimid DDSI and Sodium Naphthenate). A deposit formation method was developed for the injection bench in order to discriminate the impact of fuels on system performance in terms of fuel volume injected, injection duration and stability. Three operation conditions were tested to represent low, intermediate and high load. In addition, the influence of soaking time and injector heating temperature was evaluated. The nature of the deposit was studied based on its morphology and chemical composition determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) Spectroscopy. Deposits were observed for all fuels, even…
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Evaluation of Diesel Spray with Non-Circular Nozzle - Part I: Inert Spray

Southwest Research Institute-Khanh Cung, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Bansal Shah, Vickey Kalaskar, Jason Miwa, Zainal Abidin
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Numerous studies have characterized the impact of high injection pressure and small nozzle holes on spray quality and the subsequent impact on combustion. Higher injection pressure or smaller nozzle diameter usually reduce soot emissions owing to better atomization quality and fuel-air mixing enhancement. The influence of nozzle geometry on spray and combustion of diesel continues to be a topic of great research interest. An alternate approach impacting spray quality is investigated in this paper, specifically the impact of non-circular nozzles. The concept was explored experimentally in an optically accessible constant-volume combustion chamber (CVCC). Non-reacting spray evaluations were conducted at various ambient densities (14.8, 22.8, 30 kg/m3) under inert gas of Nitrogen (N2) while injection pressure was kept at 100 MPa. Shadowgraph imaging was used to obtain macroscopic spray characteristics such as spray structure, spray penetration, and the spray cone angle. Analysis from image processing showed expected result of lower penetration rate and higher spray cone angle as ambient density increased. Two slot nozzles with different aspect ratios but similar flow area as compared with one…
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Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on Power Loss of Vehicle Transmission Synchronizers with Spray Lubrication

TU Darmstadt-Zhihong Liu, Ye Shen, Stephan Rinderknecht
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Besides optimal engine systems, high-efficiency vehicle transmissions are generally also required to improve fuel economy in automotive applications. For the energy loss analysis in transmissions, most research focused on the major mechanical components, such as gears, bearings and seals, while the other mechanical losses, like synchronizer losses, were usually not considered. With increasing number of synchronizers in modern transmissions, a recent study indicates that the power loss analysis of synchronizers should also be developed and appended for a more accurate investigation on overall power losses in transmissions. The function of synchronizer is to equalize the different rotational speeds of shafts and gear wheels by frictional torques, for which the synchronizer must be cooled and lubricated in order to enhance the service life. With the supplement of lubricants, fluid friction is generated due to the differential speed, when the synchronizer is in neutral position. This fluid friction can be principally regarded as load-independent synchronizer power loss. In this paper, fluid states and fluid dynamics in synchronizers with spray lubrication are analyzed analogously to multiple-plate clutches. Based…
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Methods of Improving Combustion Efficiency in a High-Efficiency, Lean Burn Dual-Fuel Heavy-Duty Engine

Southwest Research Institute-Derek E. Nieman, Andrew P. Morris, Jason T. Miwa, Bradley D. Denton
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Combustion losses are one of the largest areas on inefficiency in natural gas/diesel dual-fuel engines, especially when compared to the traditional diesel engines on which they are based. These losses can vary from 1-2% at high load, to more than 6% of the total fuel energy at part load conditions. For diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engines, the three main sources of combustion losses are: bulk losses (increasing air-fuel ratio, AFR, to the premixed fuel’s lean flammability limit), crevice losses (premixed fuel trapped near valve pockets and top ring lands unable to oxidize), and blow-through losses (fumigated fuel/air intake charge passes through the cylinder and out the exhaust valve during valve overlap). In order to improve overall engine efficiency and decrease greenhouse gas emissions, these losses must be minimized. In this paper, various mitigation techniques are explored experimentally on a 13 L, 2010-class on-highway diesel engine that has been modified for fumigated natural gas dual-fuel research. An additional study separated the effects of bulk and crevice losses on lean mixtures by adding H2 to the fumigated natural gas…
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Spray-Wall Dynamics of High-Pressure Impinging Combustion

Michigan Technological University-Zhihao Zhao, Xiucheng Zhu, Le Zhao, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
The fuel spray impingement on the piston head and/or chamber often occurs in compact IC engines. The impingement plays one of the key roles in combustion because it affects the air-fuel mixing process. In this study, the impinged combustion has been experimentally investigated to understand the mechanism and dynamics of flame-wall interaction. The experiments were performed in a constant volume combustion chamber over a wide range of ambient conditions. The ambient temperature was varied from 800 K to 1000 K and ambient gas oxygen was varied from 15% to 21%. Diesel fuel was injected with an injection pressure of 150 MPa into ambient gas at a density of 22.8 kg/m3. The natural luminosity technique was applied in the experiments to explore the impinged combustion process. High-speed images were taken using a high-speed camera from two different views (bottom and side). An in-house Matlab program was used to post-process the images. The potential region of soot formation was found on the impinging plate based on the strength of local soot luminosity. The effect of air entrainment…
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