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Environmental and Sustainability Aspects of an Aviation Auxiliary Power Unit Analyzed with the Aid of Exergy

C.V. Raman College of Engineering-Aishi Sahu
Gayatri Vidya Parishad College of Engineering-Mithilesh Kumar Sahu
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
During the past decade environmental and sustainability issues have become major problems to overcome since they have caused regional and global consequences. This paper discusses the environmental and sustainability aspects of Gas Turbine (GT) based aviation Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) analyzed with the aid of exergy. Exergy analysis is a potential tool to determine exergy destructions and losses and their true magnitudes and exact locations. In this study some exergy based parameters such as: exergetic efficiency, waste exergy ratio, exergy recoverability ratio, exergy destruction ratio, environmental impact factor, and exergetic sustainability index are proposed and investigated. Cycle operating parameters such as compressor-pressure-ratio (rp,c), Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT) have been chosen for analysis of the gas turbine cycle based APU. Mathematical modeling of the cycle has been done and the same has been coded in MATLAB. Results show that increasing waste exergy ratio decreases the exergetic efficiency and exergetic sustainability index. However, any increase in waste exergy ratio results in an increasing environmental impact of the GT cycle based APU. Exergetic efficiency, waste exergy ratio, exergy…
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Water Load Determination Approach in Two Wheeler Exhaust System

Bosch Limited-Ranjana Kumari Meena
Robert Bosch GmbH-Andrea Krusch, Konrad Meister, Christopher Holzknecht
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Future emission norms in India (BS6) necessitates the 2 wheeler industry to work towards emission optimization measures. Engine operation at stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) would result in a good performance, durability and least emissions. To keep the AFR close to stoichiometric condition, an Oxygen sensor is placed in the exhaust system, which detects if air-fuel mixture is rich (λ<1) or lean (λ>1) and provides feedback to fuel injection system for suitable fuel control.O2 sensor has a ceramic element, which needs to be heated to a working temperature for its functioning. The ceramic element would break (thermal shock) if water in liquid form comes in contact with it when the element is hot. To counter this, oxygen sensor is either fully heated only when all the water in the exhaust system is evaporated, which results in delayed closed loop control, or is capable to withstand higher amount of water in the exhaust system by for example being applied with thermal shock protection and a protective tube. It’s a challenge to control the HC emissions during first…
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Ion Current Comparison in Small, Fast Running Gasoline Engines for Non-Automotive Applications

ANDREAS STIHL AG & Co. KG-Martin Arenz
Graz University of Technology-Riccardo Basso, Gabriel Gruber, Pascal Piecha, Hans-Juergen Schacht, Stephan Schmidt
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Small engines for non-automotive applications include 2-stroke and 4-stroke gasoline engine concepts which have a reduced number of sensors due to cost and packaging constraints. In order to cope with future emission regulations, more sophisticated engine control and monitoring becomes mandatory. Therefore, a cost-effective way has to be found to gain maximum information from the existing sensors and actuators. Due to an increasing bio-fuel share in the market, the detection of bio-fuel content is necessary to guarantee a stable combustion by adapting the injection and ignition control strategy.Meaningful information about the combustion can be retrieved from combustion chamber ion current measurements. This paper proposes a general overview of combustion process monitoring in different engine concepts by measuring the ion current during combustion. Actually, the ion current measurement technique is not yet established in the automotive sector due to the presence of other more accurate and less signal analysis intense sensors as the oxygen and knock sensor. But in small non-automotive applications the ion current could be beneficial for a dynamic control of the engine, due…
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Influence of Autoignition and Pressure Wave Behavior on Knock Intensity Based on Multipoint Pressure Measurement and In-Cylinder Visualization of the End Gas

Nihon University-Takahiro Yamashita, Shuhei Takahata, Hiroki Kudo, Takuya Izako, Takahiro Ishikawa, Masanori Saito, Mitsuaki Tanabe, Akira Iijima
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
In this study, the effect of autoignition behavior in the unburned end-gas region on pressure wave formation and knock intensity was investigated. A single-cylinder gasoline engine capable of high-speed observation of the end gas was used in the experiments. Visualization in the combustion chamber and spectroscopic measurement of light absorption by the end gas were carried out to analyze autoignition behavior in the unburned end-gas portion and the reaction history before autoignition. The process of autoignition and pressure wave growth was investigated by analyzing multipoint pressure histories. As a result, it was found that knocking intensity increases through interaction between autoignition and pressure waves.
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CFD Analysis of a Port Fuel Injection IC Engine to Study Air-Fuel Mixture Preparation and Its Impact on Hydrocarbon Emission and Mixture Homogeneity in Combustion Chamber

TVS Motor Co., Ltd.-Arivazhagan G B, Manish Garg
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
At part load conditions, effective utilization of fuel is critical for drivability of an IC engine driven automobile, with minimum emissions and fuel consumption. It becomes cardinal to study the mixture preparation in engines to understand the injection strategy that helps in achieving the prime objectives of lower emission and reliable operation. To add to the complexity of the problem being studied, the injection phenomenon is rapid, turbulent, multi-phase, two-way coupled (where the continuous phase affects the droplets and vice versa) and involves turbulence length scales and time scales, few orders of magnitude lower compared to the characteristic length in the turbulence integral scale. A methodology is developed in Star-CD and ES-ICE to simulate the mixture preparation in Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines.High quality mixture preparation which is essential for combustion stability and lower emissions is aimed at part load conditions which constitute the majority of driving cycle. This methodology is helpful to understand and solve the injection timing development issues and in improving the combustion stability and lowering the emissions. The fuel injection parameters…
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On the Effect of the Injector Position on Fuel-Air Mixture Preparation in a Two-Stroke GDI Engine

Università degli Studi di Firenze-Francesco Balduzzi, Luca Romani, Andrea Tanganelli, Simone Bigalli, Giovanni Ferrara
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Modern injection systems are characterized by low cost, light weight and diversified components based on a mature technology. In addition, the constant growth of computational resources allows an in-depth understanding and control of the injection process. In this scenario, increasing interest is presently being paid to understand if an application of such technologies to small two-stroke engines could lead to a return to popularity in place of the more widespread use of the four-stroke engine. Indeed, the possibility of achieving a drastic reduction of both specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions would completely reverse the future prospect of the two-stroke engine. The authors in previous studies developed a low pressure direct injection (LPDI) system for a 300 cm3 two-stroke engine that was ensuring a performance consistent with a standard four-stroke engine of similar size. The main drawbacks of the system were the large time required for delivering the fuel and the incomplete vaporization in some working conditions, due to the large size of the injected droplets. In this study, the use of a single high…
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Influence of Ethanol and 2-Butanol Blended Fuels on Combustion and Emissions in a Small Displacement Two Stroke Engine

Andreas Stihl AG & Co. KG-Tilman Seidel
Graz University of Technology-Stephan Jandl, Stephan Schmidt, Pascal Piecha, Hans-Juergen Schacht
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Small displacement two-stroke engines are cheap and low-maintenance propulsion systems and commonly used in scooters, recreation vehicles and handheld power-tools. The restriction by emission legislation and the increasing environmental awareness of end users as well as decreasing energy resources cause a rethinking in the development of propulsion systems and fuels in these fields. Despite recent improvements of electric powertrains, two stroke engines are the challenged propulsion system in high performance handheld power tools at the moment. The reasons are the extraordinary high power to weight ratio of two-stroke engines, the high energy density of liquid fuels and the reliability of the product with respect to extreme ambient conditions. Nevertheless, further improvements on emissions and fuel consumption of small displacement two-stroke engines can be realized.This research is focused on the use of alternative renewable fuels, so called biofuels, like ethanol and 2-butanol in small displacement two-stroke engines. The different physical and chemical properties of ethanol and 2-butanol can have a positive impact on the combustion process and emission composition and are a possibility to contribute future…
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Study of a Turbocharged Engine for Motorbike Application

Porsche Engineering Services GmbH-Vincenzo Bevilacqua, Giovanni Corvaglia, Klaus Fuoss, Matthias Penzel
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the engine charging practice is widely adopted in the automotive field in relation to the “downsizing” technology: the reduction of the displacement and the adoption of a higher boost pressure, through a charging system, allow shifting the engine operating point in a zone of higher efficiency for a given engine torque. On the other hand, given a certain displacement, a supercharger can be adopted to increase the performance of the engine.The objective of this work is to provide a detailed analysis about the feasibility of the implementation of a charged engine to a motorbike, with main focus on the possibility to achieve a challenging performance target: in a first stage, several engine architectures (In-line, V-configuration, Boxer) together with different charging concepts (centrifugal or volumetric compressor, with mechanical or fluid-dynamic connection to the engine) have been analyzed from the point of view of packaging. In a second part, a V4 engine architecture has been selected for a patrol motorcycle application: the conceptual investigation of the base engine design has been carried out with the development…
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A Study of the Factors Determining Knocking Intensity Based on High-Speed Observation of End-Gas Autoignition Using an Optically Accessible Engine

Honda R&D Co Ltd-Hibiki Koga
Honda R&D Europe GmbH-Toshiro Kiura
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this study was to investigate how autoignition leads to the occurrence of pressure oscillations. That was done on the basis of in-cylinder visualization and analysis of flame images captured with a high-speed camera using an optically accessible engine, in-cylinder pressure measurement and measurement of light emission from formaldehyde (HCHO). The results revealed that knocking intensity tended to be stronger with a faster localized growth speed of autoignition. An investigation was also made of the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a means of reducing knocking intensity. The results showed that the application of EGR advanced the ignition timing, thereby reducing knocking intensity under the conditions where knocking occurred.
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A Study on Accomplishing Lean Combustion by Multistage Pulse Discharge Ignition Using an Optically Accessible Engine

Mitsubishi Electric Corp.-Taichiro Tamida, Takahiro Inoue
Nihon University-Yosuke Abe, Masaya Iimura, Takuma Furusho, Kotaro Takeda, Akira Iijima
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Lean burn technology has a problem of greater combustion fluctuation due to unstable initial flame formation and slow combustion. It is generally known that generating a flow field in the cylinder is effective for reducing combustion fluctuation and shortening the combustion period. In this study, we investigated the influence of the discharge condition and in-cylinder swirl flow on initial flame formation and ignition performance between conventional spark ignition (SI) and multistage pulse discharge (MSPD) ignition. Visualized photographs were obtained near the spark plug with a high-speed camera in an optically accessible engine. In-cylinder pressure analysis was also performed in order to explicate the combustion phenomena. The results revealed that ignition performance of both SI and MSPD was improved under a swirl flow condition in the cylinder and that combustion fluctuation was effectively reduced. Under the generation of in-cylinder swirl flow, the effect on reducing combustion fluctuation was greater with MSPD than with SI, and more stable combustion was obtained.
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