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In Flight Real-Time Adaptation

Thales Avionics-Marc Gatti, Martin Rayrole
Université Pierre & Marie Curie-Bertrand Granado
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
Avionics is one kind of domain where prevention prevails. Nonetheless fails occur. Sometimes due to pilot misreacting, flooded in information. Sometimes information itself would be better verified than trusted. To avoid some kind of failure, it has been thought to add an new kind of embedded monitoring that enable adaptation.
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A Distributed Simulation of a Martian Fuel Production Facility

University of Central Florida-Katherine Loundy, Louis Schaefer, Andrew Foran, Catherine Ninah, Khristopher Bandong, Robert Brown, Hunter Heston, John-Paul Steed, William Young, Mark Heinrich, Luis Rabelo
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
The future of human exploration in the solar system is contingent on the ability to exploit resources in-situ to produce mission consumables. Specifically, it has become clear that the success of a manned mission to Mars will likely depend on fuel components created on the Martian surface. While several architectures for an unmanned fuel production surface facility on Mars exist in theory, a simulation of the performance and operation of these architectures has not been created. In this paper, the framework describing a simulation of one such architecture is defined. Within this architecture, each component of the base is implemented as a state machine, with the ability to communicate with other base elements as well as a supervisor. An environment supervisor is also created which governs low level aspects of the simulation such as movement and resource distribution, in addition to higher-level aspects such as location selection with respect to operations specific behavior. This simulation will be implemented as an HLA (IEEE 1516e High Level Architecture) application, where each component of the base exists as…
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The Flying Carpet: Aerodynamic High-Altitude Solar Reflector Design Study

Dhwanil Shukla
Georgia Institute of Technology-Narayanan Komerath, Shravan Hariharan, Sahaj Patel, Vishnu Rajendran, Emily Hale
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
Our concept studies indicate that a set of reflectors floated in the upper atmosphere can efficiently reduce radiant forcing into the atmosphere. The cost of reducing the radiant forcing sufficiently to reverse the current rate of Global Warming, is well within reach of global financial resources. This paper summarizes the overall concept and focuses on one of the reflector concepts, the Flying Carpet. The basic element of this reflector array is a rigidized reflector sheet towed behind and above a solar-powered, distributed electric-propelled flying wing. The vehicle rises above 30,480 m (100,000 ft) in the daytime by solar power. At night, the very low wing loading of the sheets enables the system to stay well above the controlled airspace ceiling of 18,288 m (60,000 ft). The concept study results are summarized before going into technical issues in implementation. Flag instability is studied in initial wind tunnel experiments. This has forced evolution of the concept to one similar to a hang-glider, the sheet supporting the propelled wing at very low flight speed. Later designs may dispense…
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Lights Out Cell Automatic Tool Change Solution for Nut and Collar Anvils with Integrated Fastener Feed Hardware

Electroimpact Inc.-Josh Elrod
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
Automated collar and nut installation requires complex hardware on the wet side of the spar or wing panel. Wet side automatic tool changers are becoming common but an operator is often required to connect electrical, pneumatic and fastener feed system components. This is unacceptable in a lights-out cell, and any fully automatic solution must be reliable while satisfying demanding design requirements. Figure 1Wet side anvil for nut installation.The 737 Spar Assembly Line (SAL) is a new lights-out machine cell at the Boeing factory in Renton, Washington. The SAL machines are equipped with a unique fully automatic tool changer (ATC). The wet side ATC interface is designed to automatically connect conventional as well as more unique services such as fastener feed. The fastener feed ATC module, called the “spinner,” rotates with the machine’s wet side rotary axis (C axis). It consists of a stack of rotors that rotate inside of a stationary annulus. Each rotor is designed for a size and type of fastener. Air conveys fasteners along the inner diameter of the annulus, requiring that…
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Experimental Investigation into the Degradation of Borosilicate Glass Used in Dielectric Barrier Discharge Devices

West Virginia University-Joseph Dygert, Patrick Browning, Magdalena Krasny
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has seen significantly increased levels of interest for its applications to various aerodynamic problems. The DBD produces stable atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma with highly energetic electrons and a variety of ions and neutral species. The resulting plasma often degrades the dielectric barrier between the electrodes of the device, ultimately leading to actuator failure. Several researchers have studied a variety of parameters related to degradation and time-dependent dielectric breakdown of various polymers such as PMMA or PVC that are often used in actuator construction. Many of these studies compare the degradation of these materials to that of borosilicate glass in which it is claimed that there is no observable degradation to the glass. Recent research at West Virginia University has shown that certain actuator operating conditions can lead to degradation of a glass barrier and can ultimately result in failure. This study has aimed at estimating the dominant electrical operating factors in the degradation process and has investigated the effects of varying voltage and frequency as well as investigates possible mechanisms for…
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Design, Development & Testing of Test Rig Setup for UAV Propulsion System

UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd-Parvez Alam M, Satheesh Chandramohan, Sabarish Chakkath, Sunil MAURYA
UCAL Fuel Systems, Ltd.-Dinesh Manoharan
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
In the present market, multiple sophisticate and expensive Thrust Test Rigs for Brushless Motors (BLDC Motor) are available making it impossible to conduct such thrust analysis on a regular and cost effective basis. Moreover the present test rigs are incapable to measure high Thrust values. This needs specialized thrust testing rig which is more expensive.This paper aims at Design & Development of the Small Scale Test Rig Setup for measurement of the thrust of any Brushless DC motor and helps in refining the Selection of motor and propeller. This is a set up based on cost efficiency factor to implement such rigs, test and for comparing the static thrust produced by the BLDC motor. The fairly simple construction contains a weighing machine, a Tachometer and a Wattmeter to measure the Thrust, RPM and the Current Drawn respectively, and provide comprehensive, accurate and efficient data coming from the BLDC Motor including the Propeller and Electronic Speed Control (ESC).
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Protection Requirements Capture for Superconducting Cables in TeDP Aircraft Using a Thermal-Electrical Cable Model

Univ of Stellenbosch-Graeme Burt
Univ of Strathclyde-Patrick Norman, Catherine Jones
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
Turbo-electric distributed propulsion (TeDP) for aircraft allows for the complete redesign of the airframe so that greater overall fuel burn and emissions benefits can be achieved. Whilst conventional electrical power systems may be used for smaller aircraft, large aircraft (~300 pax) are likely to require the use of superconducting electrical power systems to enable the required whole system power density and efficiency levels to be achieved. The TeDP concept requires an effective electrical fault management and protection system. However, the fault response of a superconducting TeDP power system and its components has not been well studied to date, limiting the effective capture of associated protection requirements. For example, with superconducting systems it is possible that a hotspot is formed on one of the components, such as a cable. This can result in one subsection, rather than all, of a cable quenching. The quench transition to normal conduction leads to a temperature rise which is not uniformly distributed along the cable length. Due to the high current density and low cable mass of a TeDP system,…
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A Fuel Cell System Sizing Tool Based on Current Production Aircraft

BAE Systems-Ian Harrington
Loughborough University-Alex Thirkell, Rui Chen
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
Electrification of aircraft is on track to be a future key design principal due to the increasing pressure on the aviation industry to significantly reduce harmful emissions by 2050 and the increased use of electrical equipment. This has led to an increased focus on the research and development of alternative power sources for aircraft, including fuel cells. These alternative power sources could either be used to provide propulsive power or as an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). Previous studies have considered isolated design cases where a fuel cell system was tailored for their specific application. To accommodate for the large variation between aircraft, this study covers the design of an empirical model, which will be used to size a fuel cell system for any given aircraft based on basic design parameters. The model was constructed utilising aircraft categorisation, fuel cell sizing and balance of plant sub-models. Fifteen aircraft categories were defined based on the primary function and propulsion method of the aircraft. For each category, propulsive power and electrical generation requirements were calculated. Based on the…
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EMR with High Reliability for Retrofit of E4100 Riveting Gantry Machines

Airbus-Christopher Wright
Electroimpact Inc-Troy Gray
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
Electroimpact has retrofitted two E4100 riveting gantry machines and two more are in process. These machines use the EMR (Electromagnetic Riveter) riveting process for the installation of slug rivets. We have improved the skin side EMR to provide fast and reliable results: reliability improved by eliminating a weekly shutdown of the machine. In paper 2015-01-2515 we showed the slug rivet injector using a Synchronized Parallel Gripper that provides good results over multiple rivet diameters. This injector is mounted to the skin side EMR so that the rivet injection can be done at any position of the shuttle table. The EMR is a challenging application for the fingers due to shock and vibration. In previous designs, fingers would occasionally be thrown out of the slots. To provide reliable results we redesigned the fingers retainer to capture the finger in a slotted plastic block which slides along the outside diameter of the driver bearing. The various size fingers are pinned to the block in such a fashion as to allow rotation and clamping on the rivet. The…
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Secure Deterministic L2/L3 Ethernet Networking for Integrated Architectures

TTTech-Bernd Hirschler
TTTech. Computertechnik AG-Mirko Jakovljevic
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
Cybersecurity attacks exploit vulnerabilities related to the increased complexity and connectivity of critical infrastructure systems. This paper investigates the context and use of key security technologies, processes, challenges and use cases for the design of advanced integrated architectures with security, safety, and real-time performance considerations. In such architectures, deterministic Ethernet standards are used as a baseline for system integration in closed embedded systems or open mixed criticality systems.Security-informed safety development processes for integrated architectures are required to prevent catastrophic failures caused by environmental and cyber threats, due to expanding number of security vulnerabilities in complex and increasingly open systems. State-of-art safety/security processes for integrated systems in cross-industry environments are considered and similarities examined, for different types of integrated architectures.In integrated systems and IMA which share common resources, multi-level secure systems and composable modular architectures such as MILS based on separation kernels and ARINC653 API are gaining importance for design of safe and secure distributed applications with real-time performance requirements. Network security is a core component of the overall cyber-security and defense-in-depth capability for distributed architectures.…
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