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Brake Colloquium & Exhibition - 36th Annual
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Technical Paper (40)



Automotive (36) Commercial Vehicle (4)


Braking systems (15) Brake discs (9) Wheels (9) Simulation and modeling (7) Design processes (6) Noise (6) Wear (6) Brake pads (5) Disc brakes (5) Finite element analysis (5) Electric vehicles (4) Emissions (4) Logistics (4) Metals (4) Bearings (3) Drag (3) Iron (3) Optimization (3) Particulate matter (PM) (3) Aluminum (2) Axles (2) Batteries (2) Brake components (2) Combustion and combustion processes (2) Commercial vehicles (2) Composite materials (2) Corrosion (2) Durability (2) Heat transfer (2) Hydraulic systems (2) Manufacturing processes (2) Mathematical models (2) Pressure (2) Propellers and rotors (2) Reaction and response times (2) Regenerative braking (2) Reliability (2) Research and development (2) Road tests (2) Scale models (2) Tribology (2) Two or three wheeled vehicles (2) Vehicle acceleration (2) Vehicle drivers (2) Aerodynamics (1) Aluminum alloys (1) Anti-lock braking (1) Assembling (1) Brake drums (1) Brake fluids (1)


Antanaitis, David B. (2) Bulgakov, Nickolay (2) Gramstat, Sebastian (2) Gritsuk, Igor V. (2) Jang, Ho (2) Kim, Yoon Cheol (2) Klets, Dmytro (2) Lee, Seungpyo (2) Liu, Jialin (2) Meng, Dejian (2) Ostermeyer, Georg (2) Podrigalo, Mikhail (2) Rhee, Seong (2) Sergiyenko, Oleg (2) Winner, Hermann (2) Zhang, Jingyi (2) Agudelo, Carlos (1) Ahieiev, Maksym (1) Anil Shah, Ashesh (1) Antanaitis, David (1) Anthonysamy, Baskar (1) Asbach, Christof (1) Baitsur, Maksym (1) Ball, Christian (1) Barde, Vishal (1) Bilgic Istoc, Sami (1) Bilousova, Tetiana (1) Boboshko, Oleksandr (1) Bogomolov, Viktor (1) Bonfanti, Andrea (1) Bottalico, Luca (1) Bracamonte, Lori (1) Chen, Zhuo (1) Cho, Jun Hwi (1) Chung, Jin Taek (1) Deshmukh, Himanshu (1) Deshpande, Moresh (1) Fujii, Masahiro (1) Golovan, Andrii (1) Gorb, Yuliya (1) Gulden, Florian (1) Gweon, Jaehyun (1) Han, Wei (1) Hatsko, Vasyl (1) He, Tianming (1) Hoppel, Heinz Werner (1) Huang, Bo (1) Hwang, Hana (1) Ishida, Koki (1) Jeong, ByeongUk (1)


SAE (40)


Hyundai Motor Co. (4) Tongji Univ. (4) General Motors LLC (3) Kharkov National Auto & Highway Univ. (3) Korea Univ. (3) TU Braunschweig (3) Audi AG (2) Engin. Inst. Baja Calif. Autonom. Univ. (2) Iljin Global (2) Kherson State Maritime Academy (2) Mando Corp. (2) SKR Consulting LLC (2) Technische Universitat Darmstadt (2) ADVICS Co. Ltd. (1) Akebono Brake Corp. (1) ATS-MER, LLC (1) Beijing Institute of Space Launch Technology (1) Brembo S.p.A (1) Brembo S.p.A. (1) CiaoTech S.r.l. (1) Compact International (1994) Co. Ltd. (1) Endurance Technologies Ltd. (1) Equos Research Co. Ltd. (1) Exa Corp. (1) Heidelberg Cement (1) Henan Univ. of Technology (1) Horiba Europe GmbH (1) Hyundai & Kia Corp. (1) Hyundai Mobis (1) IUTA Duisburg (1) Kanagawa Institute of Technology (1) Kherson National Technical Univ. (1) Link Engineering Co. (1) Link Europe (1) Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. (1) Mando (1) Myunghwa Ind Co. Ltd. (1) National Aerospace Univ. (1) Newton Works Corp. (1) Odessa National Maritime Univ. (1) Okayama Univ. (1) Saitama Univ. (1) Sangsin Brake (1) Sangsin Brake Co. (1) Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering (1) Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt (1) Uchiyama Mfg Corp. (1) Uchiyama Mrkting & Devmt America LLC (1) Univ. of Denver (1) Univ. of Houston (1)


Brake Colloquium & Exhibition - 36th Annual (40)

A Study on Safety Intelligent Driving System for Heavy Truck Downhill in Mountainous Area

  • Beijing Institute of Space Launch Technology-Yanming Zhao
  • Wuhan Univ. of Technology-Jiakang Quan, Gangfeng Tan, Yongbing Xu, Bo Huang, Tianming He
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
Mountainous area makes up more than half of the whole land area of China, the road of which is full of ups and downs. Heavy commercial vehicles as the main means of transport in mountainous areas, braking torque recession, even brake failure, often happens because of the overheating in long downhill journey, which seriously threatens the safety of the driving. Therefore, this paper presents an intelligent assistance system based on Geographic Information System and vehicle dynamics. The main brake duration and heat generation can be effectively reduced through adjusting the speed at the slope top, applying the engine auxiliary brake in the initial stage and choosing braking strategy appropriately, in order to prolong the downhill driving distance and improve the safety during continuous braking. This paper characterizes and analyses the road gradients and their effects on braking heat generation. To analysis the temperature rising characteristics of the main brakes under different initial speeds, the temperature rise model of the brake is established. Furthermore, the effectiveness has been recognized by comparing the main brakes’ temperature variation in real vehicle test. Research shows that an apparent temperature rise reduction performance of the typical slopes is achieved in the simulation, and the test results show a better performance of reducing braking temperature on actual road.

A Study of the Disc Scoring Generation Principle and Reduction (II)

  • Hyundai Motor Co.-ByeongUk Jeong, Hyoung Tae Ryu
  • Myunghwa Ind Co. Ltd.-Chang Jin Kim
  • Show More
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
In the latest paper [10], we presented our work based on experiments studying MPU (Metal Pick Up) of the pad and scoring(scratching) of the disc. The main component of MPU was iron “Fe”. If the roughness of the disc was small, the content of iron “Fe” was increased and the segregation of that was decreased especially in initial condition. In this study, we extended our study based on the results by adding some additional factors such as the location of the roughness of the disc, the coefficients brake pad friction, and disc slots. We made various discs of different roughness boundaries and slots, and pads of pad friction coefficients; and conducted two types of tests for whether a slot is present or not with the other same conditions to confirm the impact of the scoring. We find and believe that our experimental data should serve a useful guideline for reducing MPU of the pad and scoring of the disc.

Correlation of Objective and Subjective Evaluation in Automotive Brake Pedal Feel

  • Tongji Univ.-Jingyi Zhang, Dejian Meng, Jialin Liu
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
In order to establish the correlation between objective and subjective evaluation of brake pedal feel for passenger cars, road tests of brake pedal feel were carried out and an evaluation method was proposed. In the road tests, subjective scores and objective measurements were obtained under the conditions of uniform and emergency braking. The objective measurements include pedal preload, low deceleration pedal force and travel, moderate deceleration pedal force and travel, brake response time and brake linearity. Using the theory of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the design process of the evaluation method was established. Key setups including the hierarchical structure model, the judgement matrix and the score calculation method of objective measurements were described in detail. Then, the correlation between subjective and objective scores was analyzed. It can be concluded that the evaluation method is effective and it can be applied to brake pedal feel assessment and adjustment.

A Mathematical Model of the Braking Dynamics of a Car

  • Kharkov National Auto & Highway Univ.-Olexii Saraiev
  • Univ. of Houston-Yuliya Gorb
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
The braking efficiency of a vehicle is its most important operational property. However, in practice, researchers utilize simplistic physical-mathematical models for the process of vehicle braking that leads to accuracy reduction of these models predictions. The literature data show that the error in assessing braking efficiency can reach 30%. One of the main indicators of the efficiency of a braking system is deceleration. Most accurately, this value can be determined by experimental measurements. However, this is not always possible due to various technical reasons. The existing models typically ignore the impact of the car design and its speed on deceleration. They also either neglect air resistance completely or account only for its horizontal component. This paper presents an improved mathematical model written in the differential form that takes into account the impact of the lifting or downforce components of the aerodynamic forces. The proposed model accounts for the dependence of car wheels adhesion with a road surface on the vehicle’s speed. Model analysis and computation showed that all these factors improve braking performance of the car. Thus far, vehicle deceleration was represented by a discrete set of points obtained experimentally. The model proposed in the paper represents vehicle deceleration as a non-linear function of time, which is a solution to some differential equation. Numerical experimental studies conducted to validate this model demonstrate its efficiency. Results of this study can be used in enhancing the braking system of a vehicle, investigating traffic accidents, and also designing or improving racecars.

Identification and Resolution of Vehicle Pull and Steering Wobble Using Virtual Simulation and Testing

  • Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.-Baskar Anthonysamy, Vishal Barde, Naveen Medithi, Senthil S, Balaramakrishna N
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
A vehicle drifts due to several reasons from its intended straight path even in the case of no steering input. Vehicle pull is a condition where the driver must apply a constant correction torque to the steering wheel to maintain a straight-line course of the vehicle. This paper presents an investigation study into the characteristics of a vehicle experiencing steering drift. The aim of the work is to study vehicle stability and the causes of vehicle drift/pull during straight line to minimize vehicle pull level and hence optimize safety measures.

Physical and Virtual Simulation of Lightweight Brake Drum Design for Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicles Using Alternate Material Technologies

  • VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd.-Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Himanshu Deshmukh, Shivdayal Prasad, Sonu Paroche, Ashesh Anil Shah
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
Brake drum in commercial vehicles is very important aggregate contributing towards major weight in brake system module. The main function of brake drum is to dissipate kinetic energy of vehicle into thermal energy, as a results in braking operation major load comes on brake drum. Hence this is very critical component for vehicle safety and stability [1].

Study on Brake Disc Dynamics under Asymmetric Thermal Loads

  • Tongji Univ.-Dejian Meng, Jialin Liu, Jingyi Zhang, Lijun Zhang
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
In order to explore the generation mechanism of hot-spots on the automotive brake disc, disc tests under non-frictional thermal loads are carried out on the brake dynamometer test bench. In the tests, the oxy-acetylene flame is used as the heat source, and the distribution characteristics of the disc temperature and displacement are measured and analyzed. To confirm the mechanism of the disc deformation, a disc thermal buckling model using finite element method is established, and the key factors for the disc thermal buckling under thermal loads are further analyzed. It is found that the temperature circumferential gradient is small but the temperature radial gradient is large. The disc presents waviness deformation mode with 5th order in circumferential direction, which is the first thermal buckling mode of the disc. A method using spatial frequency spectrum has been proposed to find the critical time and load of thermal buckling. The heat source power and the rotational speed have no significant influence on the temperature and displacement circumferential and radial distribution of the disc. The temperature radial gradient is the main reason for the disc thermal buckling. The larger the temperature radial gradient is, the more easily the disc thermal buckling occurs.

The Factors Governing Corrosion Stiction of Brake Friction Materials to a Gray Cast Iron Disc

  • Hyundai Mobis-Wangyu Lee, Dooyeon Kim, Keeyang Lee
  • Korea Univ.-Jaehyun Gweon, Sanghee Shin, Ho Jang
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
Corrosion stiction at the contact interface between a brake friction material and a gray iron disc under the parking brake condition was investigated by evaluating the possible parameters that affect the shear force to detach the corroded interface. Using production brake friction materials, comprising non-steel and low-steel types, corrosion tests were carried out by pressing the brake pad onto the gray iron disc using a clamp at various conditions. Results showed that the shear force to detach the corroded interface tended to increase with applied pressure and corrosion time. On the other hand, porosity, acidity, and hydrophobicity of the friction material did not show a reliable correlation to the stiction force. The poor correlation of the stiction force with the friction material properties indicated that the stiction force was not determined by a single factor but governed by multiple parameters including surface contact areas and inhomogeneity of the ingredients. Microscopic observation of the detached disc surface showed adhered fragments that were removed from the friction material surface, thus shedding light on the possible estimation of the stiction force from the disc area covered by the friction materials. The scattered small areas without corrosion on the gray iron surface, which were well matched with hollow areas on the friction material surface, supported the importance of the contact area information in understanding the poor correlation between the stiction force and of the friction material properties.

Bearing Life Evaluation for Automotive Wheel Bearings Using Design of Experiments

  • Iljin Global-Seungpyo Lee
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
Automotive wheel bearings have primary functions of translating the rotating motion of the wheels into linear vehicle motion while bearing the vehicle weight. Bearing life is affected by many parameters such as bearing geometry, vehicle and bearing technical specifications, driving conditions, lubrication conditions, material properties, and so on. In this paper, both the basic bearing rating life and modified bearing rating life were evaluated using design of experiments. Bearing lives were calculated by the international standard, and the factors affecting bearing life were investigated. Sequential experimental designs were applied. First, screening experiments were performed to analyze the factors affecting bearing life. Next, confirmation experiments were carried out to determine accurate effects of the selected factors from the screening experiments. As a result, contact angle and curvature of inner ring were significant at a 95% of significance level.

Non-Asbestos Organic (NAO) Disc Pad Wear Behavior: Divergence of Thickness Loss and Weight Loss

  • Compact International (1994) Co. Ltd.-Meechai Sriwiboon, Nipon Tiempan, Kritsana Kaewlob
  • SKR Consulting LLC-Seong Rhee
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
There is anecdotal evidence that disc pad wear numbers measured in thickness loss and disc pad wear numbers measured in weight loss do not show the same wear trends after wear or performance testing. However, research papers on this topic are difficult to find. Therefore, this investigation was undertaken to study and document this behavior in detail on high-copper, low-copper and no-copper (or copper-free) NAO pads. In all cases, thickness loss measurements are found to be substantially lower than expected from the weight loss data according to the SAE J2522 test schedule. This divergence is caused by pad swelling in the pad layer adjacent to the friction contact surface during brake testing at high temperatures. In addition to formulation changes, disc pad processing conditions such as mixing time and hot molding pressure are found to affect pad swelling. As pad physical properties, especially in the layer adjacent to the friction contact surface, are expected to dynamically change during braking due to the pad swelling, one has to seriously question any attempt to correlate physical properties of unused pads to brake performance and squeal generation. Detailed characterization of the dynamic changes taking place in the pad during testing/usage is recommended to gain better understanding and better prediction of brake performance and squeal.