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Combustion and combustion processes (214) Diesel / compression ignition engines (128) Particulate matter (PM) (95) Fuel consumption (75) Gasoline (71) Fuel economy (68) Nitrogen oxides (62) Pressure (62) Emissions (60) Fuel injection (59) Engine cylinders (57) Combustion chambers (50) Spark ignition engines (50) Simulation and modeling (44) Diesel fuels (43) Computational fluid dynamics (42) Knock (42) Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) (36) Alternative fuels (34) Environmental regulations and standards (34) Ethanol (34) Exhaust emissions (33) Pistons (33) Carbon monoxide (32) Natural gas (26) Heat transfer (25) Energy conservation (24) Lubricating oils (24) HCCI engines (23) Carbon dioxide (20) Catalysts (19) Engine efficiency (19) Selective catalytic reduction (19) Biodiesel (18) Hydrocarbons (18) Optimization (18) Cetane (17) Diesel particulate filters (17) Emissions measurement (17) Ignition timing (17) Turbochargers (17) Hybrid electric vehicles (16) Mathematical models (16) Test procedures (16) Valves (15) Corrosion (14) Logistics (14) Nozzles (14) Gases (13) Imaging and visualization (13)


Johansson, Bengt (10) Shuai, Shi-Jin (10) Wang, Zhi (9) Tunestal, Per (8) Tuner, Martin (7) Dodos, George S. (6) Huang, Zhen (6) Li, Liguang (6) Liu, Fushui (6) Ma, Xiao (6) Somers, Bart (6) Wu, Han (6) Bargende, Michael (5) Deng, Jun (5) Golovan, Andrii (5) Karonis, Dimitrios (5) Maurya, Rakesh Kumar (5) Mubarak Ali, Mohammed Jaasim (5) Saxena, Mohit Raj (5) Sun, Kai (5) Zannikos, Fanourios (5) Zhang, Jun (5) Bai, Xue-Song (4) Gritsuk, Igor V. (4) Hong, Guang (4) Im, Hong (4) Lee, Chia-Fon (4) Masurier, Jean-Baptiste (4) Michlberger, Alexander (4) Millo, Federico (4) Natarajan, Vinod (4) Pandey, Anand Kumar (4) Pischinger, Stefan (4) Wang, Guoyang (4) Wannatong, Krisada (4) Yao, Mingfa (4) Yin, Zenghui (4) Zenkin E.Y., Evgeny (4) Zhang, Fujun (4) Allocca, Luigi (3) An, Yanzhao (3) Bae, Choongsik (3) Beatrice, Carlo (3) Bell, Arthur (3) De Bellis, Vincenzo (3) Du, Wei (3) Elkelawy, Medhat (3) Feng, Lei (3) Feng, Qian (3) Gao, Hongli (3)


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Tsinghua University (24) Beijing Institute of Technology (20) Tianjin University (17) Southwest Research Institute (12) Lund University (11) Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (10) King Abdullah University of Science & Tech. (9) Shanghai Jiao Tong University (9) Chalmers University of Technology (7) Istituto Motori CNR (7) Saudi Aramco (7) Tongji University (7) Afton Chemical Corp. (6) National Technical University of Athens (6) Shell Global Solutions (UK) (6) Dongfeng Motor Corporation (5) Politecnico di Torino (5) Toyota Motor Corp. (5) Wuhan University of Technology (5) CATARC (4) China North Engine Research Institute (4) Eindhoven University of Technology (4) Ford Motor Company (4) IFP (4) IFP Energies Nouvelles (4) Indian Institute of Technology (4) Indian Institute of Technology Ropar (4) Indian Institute of Technology- Madras (4) Kharkov National Auto and Highway University (4) King Abdullah University of Science & Tech (4) Odessa National Maritime University (4) Poznan Univ. of Technology (4) PTT Public Company Limited (4) Renault (4) RWTH Aachen University (4) Sandia National Laboratories (4) Scania CV AB (4) Shell Global Solutions (Deutschland) GmbH (4) The Lubrizol Corp. (4) Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia (4) University of Technology Sydney (4) Argonne National Laboratory (3) Beijing Jiaotong University (3) Chiba University (3) Education & Technology Solutions Inc. (3) FKFS (3) General Motors LLC (3) IAV GmbH (3) Japan Automobile Research Institute (3)


International Powertrains, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting (513)

Application of Models of Short Circuits and Blow-Outs of Spark Channels under High-Velocity Flow Conditions to Spark Ignition Simulation

  • DENSO Corp.-Akimitsu Sugiura
  • Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.-Ryo Masuda, Shogo Sayama, Takayuki Fuyuto, Makoto Nagaoka
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  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1727
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
This report describes the implementation of the spark channel short circuit and blow-out submodels, which were described in the previous report, into a spark ignition model. The spark channel which is modeled by a particle series is elongated by moving individual spark particles along local gas flows. The equation of the spark channel resistance developed by Kim et al. is modified in order to describe the behavior of the current and the voltage in high flow velocity conditions and implemented into the electrical circuit model of the electrical inductive system of the spark plug. Input parameters of the circuit model are the following: initial discharge energy, inductance, internal resistance and capacitance of the spark plug, and the spark channel length obtained by the spark channel model. The instantaneous discharge current and the voltage are obtained as outputs of the circuit model. When two arbitrary spark particles of the spark channel get close, the short circuit occurs if the electric potential differences between the two locations exceed a certain threshold voltage, which is raised with increasing distance between the two particles and decreasing discharge current. When the current falls below a lower limit current for maintenance of discharge, the spark blow-out occurs. A new spark channel is formed if the secondary circuit has the remaining energy which can break the electrical insulation between electrodes. Each line element of the spark channel particles heats and ignites the surrounding mixture gas. The turbulent flame speed and extinction are considered in the flame kernel behavior. The behavior of the spark channel, the current and voltage of the secondary circuit, and the ignition limit due to in-creases in the EGR rate were consistent with data measured from the spark ignition process in a combustion chamber.

Investigation of Flame Propagation Description in Quasi-Dimensional Spark Ignition Engine Modeling

  • Audi AG-Ulrich Baretzky, Hartmut Diel, Sebastian Wohlgemuth, Gordon Röttger
  • FKFS-Michael Grill
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Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The engine development process has been enhanced significantly by virtual engineering methods during the last decades. In terms of in-cylinder flow field, charge flow and combustion modelling, 3D-CFD (three dimensional) simulations enable detailed analysis and extended investigations in order to gain additional knowledge about design parameters. However, the computational time of the 3D-CFD is an obvious drawback that prevents a reasonable application for extensive analysis with varying speed, load and transient conditions. State-of-the-art 0D (zero dimensional) approaches close the gap between the demand of high computational efficiency and a satisfying accordance with experimental data. Recent improvements of phenomenological combustion approaches for gasoline spark ignition engines deal with the consideration of detailed flow parameters, the accuracy of the laminar flame speed calculation and the prediction of the knock limit. Little attention has been given to the influence of different combustion chamber designs on the prediction capability so far. This leads to an often used simplification consisting of a combustion chamber modeled as a disk and an acceptable inaccuracy of combustion modelling. With an increasing deviation of the surrogate combustion chamber from the investigated real chamber, the prediction capability becomes insufficient. This effect is intensified by the shift of the combustion process to a fast combustion nearby the top dead center (TDC), typical for high performance engines with advanced ignition timing for maximum brake torque.

Effects of Different Injection Strategies and EGR on Partially Premixed Combustion

  • Eindhoven University of Technology-Jinlin Han, Shuli Wang, Bart Somers
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition concepts are promising to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously and keeping a high thermal efficiency. Partially premixed combustion is a single fuel variant of this new combustion concepts applying a fuel with a low cetane number to achieve the necessary long ignition delay. In this study, multiple injection strategies are studied in the partially premixed combustion approach to reach stable combustion and ultra-low NOx and soot emission at 15.5 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure. Three different injection strategies (single injection, pilot-main injection, main-post injection) are experimentally investigated on a heavy duty compression ignition engine. A fuel blend (70 vol% n-butanol and 30 vol% n-heptane) was tested. The effects of different pilot and post-injection timing, as well as Exhaust-gas Recirculation rate on different injection strategies investigated. All the measurements were performed at the same load, combustion phasing, lambda and engine speed. The results show that all three injection strategies produced ultra-low soot emission, while less NOx emission was noticed for pilot-main injection because of less diffusion combustion mode. Pilot-main injection strategy decreases the maximum pressure rise rate effectively compared to single injection. For pilot-main injection at 15.5 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure, when 24.3% (pilot/total fuel mass ratio) of fuel injected at −30 crank angle after top dead center in the pilot and the rest injected in the main with 45% EGR rate, 48.97% gross indicated efficiency is achieved. In addition, ultra-low soot (0.19 ppm) and NOx (0.327 g/kWh) emissions are achieved respectively without using after treatment.

Simulated Bearing Durability and Friction Reduction with Ultra-Low Viscosity Oils

  • MAHLE Engine Systems (UK) Ltd.-Konstantinos Kalogiannis, Omar Mian
  • Shell Global Solutions (UK) Inc.-Robert Mainwaring
  • Show More
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Legislation aimed at reducing carbon dioxide emissions is forcing significant changes in passenger car engine hardware and lubricants. Reduced viscosity lubricants can reduce friction levels and are therefore helpful to manufacturers seeking legislative compliance. MAHLE and Shell have worked together to determine the crankshaft, bearing and lubricant combination which minimizes friction with an acceptable level of durability. This paper describes the results of our joint simulation studies.

OH Radical and Soot Concentration Structures in Diesel Sprays under Low Sooting and Non-Sooting Conditions

  • Chalmers University of Technology-Chengjun Du, Mats Andersson
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
In an optically accessible high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) chamber, OH radicals, soot concentration, and OH* chemiluminescence images were captured simultaneously at a constant ambient temperature of 823 K and a gas density of 20 kg/m3, with injection pressures of 800-2000 bar using an injector with nozzle orifice having a diameter of 0.1 mm. Swedish market sold MK1 diesel fuel was used in this study. The optical diagnostic methods used were the two-dimensional laser extinction for the soot concentration measurement, planar laser induced fluorescence for the OH radical measurement, OH* chemiluminescence imaging, and the natural flame luminosity imaging. The objective of this study is to explore the diesel spray structures under the low sooting and non-sooting conditions. In this study, it was found that the OH radical zone in the jet’s upstream region expanded to the jet center and the soot concentration decreased when the fuel injection pressure increased. The expansion of the OH radical zone correlated well with the reduction of the sooting zone in the radial and axial directions. Under the non-sooting conditions, the OH radicals occupied the entire reacting region of the jet. A longer lift-off length leading to a reduction in the equivalence ratio (i.e. fuel leaner mixture), which resulted in an expansion of the OH radical zone, a decrease in sooting zone width, and a decrease in the soot formation.

Outwardly Opening Hollow-Cone Diesel Spray Characterization under Different Ambient Conditions

  • Istituto Motori CNR-Alessandro Montanaro, Luigi Allocca, Carlo Beatrice
  • Università di Cassino-Roberto Ianniello
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The combustion quality in modern diesel engines depends strictly on the quality of the air-fuel mixing and, in turn, from the quality of spray atomization process. So air-fuel mixing is strongly influenced by the injection pressure, geometry of the nozzle duct and the hydraulic characteristics of the injector. In this context, spray concepts alternative to the conventional multi-hole nozzles could be considered as solutions to the extremely high injection pressure increase to assure a higher and faster fuel-air mixing in the piston bowl, with the final target of increasing the fuel efficiency and reducing the engine emissions.

Effect of Thermocouple Size on the Measurement of Exhaust Gas Temperature in Internal Combustion Engines

  • University of Oxford-Nick Papaioannou, Felix Leach, Martin Davy
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Accurate measurement of exhaust gas temperature in internal combustion engines is essential for a wide variety of monitoring and design purposes. Typically these measurements are made with thermocouples, which may vary in size from 0.05 mm (for fast response applications) to a few millimetres. In this work, the exhaust of a single cylinder diesel engine has been instrumented both with a fast-response probe (comprising of a 50.8 μm, 127 μm and a 254 μm thermocouple) and a standard 3 mm sheathed thermocouple in order to assess the performance of these sensors at two speed/load conditions. The experimental results show that the measured time-average exhaust temperature is dependent on the sensor size, with the smaller thermocouples indicating a lower average temperature for both speed/load conditions. Subject to operating conditions, measurement discrepancies of up to ~80 K have been observed between the different thermocouples used. Thermocouple modelling supports the experimental trends and shows that the effect of conduction is inversely proportional to the thermocouple junction size-an effect attributed to changes in the thermal inertia of the device. This conduction error is not typically considered in the literature for exhaust gas temperature measurement. Modelling results also show that radiative heat transfer is small compared to the effect of conduction on the measurements. Finally, a new dynamic response thermocouple compensation method is presented, in order to correct for the dynamic error induced by the thermocouples. This technique recovers the “true” gas temperature with a maximum error of ~1.5-2% in peak temperature depending on speed/load conditions.

Evaluating the Efficiency of a Conventional Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for Dual-Fuel RCCI Diesel-Gasoline Combustion

  • Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-Jesus Benajes, Antonio Garcia, Javier Monsalve-Serrano, Rafael Sari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1729
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion has demonstrated to be able to avoid the NOx-soot trade-off appearing during conventional diesel combustion (CDC), with similar or better thermal efficiency than CDC under a wide variety of engine platforms. However, a major challenge of this concept comes from the high hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, which are orders of magnitude higher than CDC and similar to those of port fuel injected (PFI) gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures during RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatment technologies.

Numerical Investigation of Syngas Fueled HCCI Engine Using Stochastic Reactor Model with Detailed Kinetic Mechanism

  • Indian Institute of Technology Ropar-Rakesh Kumar Maurya, Mohit Raj Saxena, Rahul Yadav, Akshay Rathore
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Research in the utilization of hydrogen and syngas has significantly increased due to their clean-burning properties and the prospect of production from several renewable resources. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is low-temperature combustion (LTC) concept which combines the best features of conventional spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. HCCI combustion engine has shown the potential for higher efficiency and ultralow NOx and soot emissions. In this study, syngas fueled HCCI combustion is simulated using stochastic reactor model (SRM) with a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism (32 species and 173 reactions). Detailed syngas oxidation mechanism included NOx reactions also. In SRM models physical parameters are described by a probability density function (PDF). These parameters does not vary within the combustion chamber, and thus the spatial distribution (due to local inhomogeneity’s) of the charge is represented in terms of a PDF. The SRM based approach simplifies many aspects of CFD processes while retaining the predictive capability similar to 3-D CFD codes. Simulations are conducted for different engine operating conditions by varying intake temperature, engine load, and speed at compression ratio 19:1 for an engine of 0.435 L swept volume. The simulation shows good conformity with experimental engine data. Start of combustion and cylinder pressures are predicted with sufficient accuracy. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the influential reactions in syngas oxidation. Combustion characteristics and efficiency of an engine operating on varying blends of synthesis gas in HCCI mode are also investigated.

Effect of Piston Geometry on Stratification Formation in the Transition from HCCI to PPC

  • Lund University-Changle Li, Xue-Song Bai, Per Tunestal, Martin Tuner
  • Lund University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Leilei Xu
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is an advanced combustion strategy that has been proposed to provide higher efficiency and lower emissions than conventional compression ignition, as well as greater controllability than homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). Stratification of the fuel-air mixture is the key to achieving these benefits. The injection strategy, injector-piston geometry design and fuel properties are factors commonly manipulated to adjust the stratification level. In the authors’ previous research, the effects of injection strategy and fuel properties on the stratification formation process were investigated. The results revealed that, for a direct-injection compression ignition engine, by sweeping the injection timing from −180° aTDC (after top dead center) to −20° aTDC, the sweep could be divided into three different regimes: an HCCI regime, a Transition regime and a PPC regime, based on the changing of mixture stratification conditions. When running in the Transition regime, the engine’s efficiency and emissions were poor. Hence, it is optimal to minimize the length of the Transition regime. At the same time, it would be very beneficial to expand the PPC regime as this allows greater tolerance between the stratification level and injection timing control, thus improving controllability. Accordingly, a method was proposed for lengthening the PPC regime and shortening the Transition regime by using a small spray angle injector or a wider bowl piston. In this paper, two piston designs with different bowl profiles were tested to observe the effect of piston bowl geometry on the stratification formation process. The results show that with a wider piston bowl, the early half of the PPC regime was lengthened by approximately 50% and the Transition regime was shortened. However, an unexpected “bump” in the required intake temperature was observed within the PPC regime with the wider bowl piston, which was assumed to be caused by a “hill” on the combustion chamber wall. Simulation work based on the experimental data was conducted using the KIVA-3v code. The results were used to analyze the fuel spray development processes and equivalence ratio distributions.