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Combustion and combustion processes (250) Diesel / compression ignition engines (145) Particulate matter (PM) (114) Fuel consumption (85) Gasoline (82) Fuel economy (79) Pressure (75) Fuel injection (74) Engine cylinders (73) Nitrogen oxides (69) Emissions (67) Spark ignition engines (61) Combustion chambers (59) Computational fluid dynamics (53) Simulation and modeling (53) Diesel fuels (51) Knock (48) Pistons (41) Environmental regulations and standards (40) Ethanol (39) Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) (39) Exhaust emissions (37) Carbon monoxide (36) Alternative fuels (35) Natural gas (32) Energy conservation (29) Heat transfer (29) Lubricating oils (28) HCCI engines (25) Carbon dioxide (23) Engine efficiency (23) Selective catalytic reduction (23) Catalysts (22) Biodiesel (21) Cetane (21) Hybrid electric vehicles (20) Hydrocarbons (20) Mathematical models (20) Diesel particulate filters (19) Emissions measurement (19) Optimization (19) Technical review (19) Turbochargers (19) Ignition timing (18) Nozzles (18) Imaging and visualization (17) Test procedures (17) Transmissions (17) Valves (17) Corrosion (16)


Johansson, Bengt (12) Tunestal, Per (12) Shuai, Shi-Jin (10) Wang, Zhi (9) Huang, Zhen (8) Bargende, Michael (7) Li, Liguang (7) Stenlaas, Ola (7) Tuner, Martin (7) Deng, Jun (6) Dodos, George S. (6) Liu, Fushui (6) Ma, Xiao (6) Somers, Bart (6) Wu, Han (6) Cronhjort, Andreas (5) Denbratt, Ingemar (5) Golovan, Andrii (5) Gritsuk, Igor V. (5) Im, Hong (5) Karonis, Dimitrios (5) Maurya, Rakesh Kumar (5) Mubarak Ali, Mohammed Jaasim (5) Saxena, Mohit Raj (5) Sun, Kai (5) Zannikos, Fanourios (5) Zhang, Jun (5) Abidin, Zainal (4) Andersson, Arne (4) Andersson, Mats (4) Bai, Xue-Song (4) Cracknell, Roger (4) Dahlander, Petter (4) Grill, Michael (4) Hong, Guang (4) Leach, Felix (4) Lee, Chia-Fon (4) Mallikarjuna, J M (4) Masurier, Jean-Baptiste (4) Michlberger, Alexander (4) Millo, Federico (4) Mittal, Mayank (4) Natarajan, Vinod (4) Pandey, Anand Kumar (4) Pischinger, Stefan (4) Wang, Guoyang (4) Wannatong, Krisada (4) Wu, Zhijun (4) Yao, Mingfa (4) Yin, Zenghui (4)


SAE (594)


Tsinghua University (24) Beijing Institute of Technology (20) Southwest Research Institute (18) Tianjin University (18) Lund University (15) Chalmers University of Technology (13) Shanghai Jiao Tong University (11) Scania CV AB (10) Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (10) King Abdullah University of Science & Tech. (9) KTH Royal Institute of Technology (9) Saudi Aramco (8) Istituto Motori CNR (7) Tongji University (7) Afton Chemical Corp. (6) National Technical University of Athens (6) Shell Global Solutions (UK) (6) Argonne National Laboratory (5) Dongfeng Motor Corporation (5) FKFS (5) Ford Motor Company (5) Indian Institute of Technology- Madras (5) Politecnico di Torino (5) Toyota Motor Corp. (5) Wuhan University of Technology (5) CATARC (4) China North Engine Research Institute (4) Eindhoven University of Technology (4) IFP (4) IFP Energies Nouvelles (4) Indian Institute of Technology (4) Indian Institute of Technology Ropar (4) Kharkov National Auto and Highway University (4) King Abdullah University of Science & Tech (4) Odessa National Maritime University (4) Poznan Univ. of Technology (4) PTT Public Company Limited (4) Renault (4) RWTH Aachen University (4) Sandia National Laboratories (4) Shell Global Solutions (Deutschland) GmbH (4) The Lubrizol Corp. (4) Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia (4) University of Brighton (4) University of Oxford (4) University of Technology Sydney (4) West Virginia University (4) AVL MTC AB (3) Beijing Jiaotong University (3)


International Powertrains, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting (594)

A Parametric Study of the Flammability of Dieseline Blends with and without Ethanol

  • CONCAWE-John Rogerson
  • Concawe-Heather Hamje
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0020
To be published on 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Low Temperature Combustion using compression ignition may provide high efficiency combined with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen and soot. This process is facilitated by fuels with lower cetane number than standard diesel fuel. Mixtures of gasoline and diesel (“dieseline”) may be one way of achieving this; however, a gasoline/diesel mixture in a fuel tank can result in a flammable headspace, particularly at very cold ambient temperatures. A mathematical model to predict the flammability of dieseline blends, including those containing ethanol, was previously validated. In this paper, that model is used to study the flammability of dieseline blends parametrically. Gasolines used in the simulations had DVPE values of 45, 60, 75, 90 and 110 kPa. Simulations were carried out for dieseline blends containing ethanol with two types of specifications – a fixed ethanol volume percent in the blend (0-50% ethanol), or specified EXX gasolines (i.e., E10, E20 E30 E40 E60 and E85) added to diesel fuel. Predicted Upper Flammability Limit (UFL) temperatures and blend DVPEs are presented for all blends studied, as functions of diesel…

Kinetics Modeling of Ammonia-SCR and Experimental Studies over Monolith Cu-ZSM-5 Catalyst

  • Hokkaido Univ-Gen Shibata, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Ryutaro Koiwai, Hideyuki Ogawa, Kenichi Shimizu
  • Hokkaido University-Wataru Eijima
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  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0024
To be published on 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Ammonia-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems have been introduced commercially in diesel vehicles, however catalyst systems with higher conversion efficiency and better control characteristics are required to know actual driving emissions and emissions in random test cycles. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is effective when applied to SCR catalyst development, and many models have been proposed, but these models need experimental verification and are limited in the situations they apply to. Further, there are a few models taking account of the copper redox cycle, and this causes a low validity of SCR reaction calculations in the transient conditions of engine operation. Model development considering the redox reactions in a zeolite catalyst, Cu-ZSM-5, is an object of the research here, and the effects of exhaust gas composition on the SCR reaction and ammonia oxidation at high temperatures are investigated. The simulations are compared with the experimental results of a surrogate gas, a mixture of nitrogen mono-oxide (NO), oxygen (O2), water vapor (H2O), and nitrogen (N2), and the accuracy of the developed model is validated. To investigate the effect…

Visual analyses of end of injection liquid structures and the behaviour of nozzle surface-bound fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

  • BP International Ltd.-Martin Gold, Richard Pearson
  • University of Brighton-Dan Sykes, Guillaume de Sercey, Cyril Crua
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0059
To be published on 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Multiple injection strategies are implemented in the majority of modern diesel engines, increasing the frequency of transient injection phases and thus, end of injection (EOI) events. Recent advances in diagnostic techniques have identified several EOI phenomena pertinent to nozzle surface wetting as a precursor for deposit formation and a potentially contribution to unburnt hydrocarbon emissions. To investigate the underlying processes, high-speed optical measurements at the microscopic scale were performed inside an idling diesel engine. Visualisation of the injector nozzle surface and near nozzle region permitted an in-depth analysis of the post-injection phenomena and the behaviour of fuel films on the nozzle surface. Inspection of the high-speed video data enabled an interpretation of the fluid dynamics leading to surface wetting, elucidating the mechanisms of deposition and spreading. As the needle re-seats, the abrupt pressure drop inhibited atomisation, with large, slow moving, liquid structures released into the cylinder with the capability of impinging on nearby surfaces, creating localised fuel rich regions, or escaping through the exhaust, contributing towards un-burnt hydrocarbon emissions. Large ligaments remained attached to the…

Spray characterization of Gasoline Direct Injection sprays under fuel injection pressures up to 150 MPa with different nozzle geometries

  • Chalmers Univ of Technology-Lucien Koopmans, Petter Dahlander
  • DENSO CORPORATION-Akichika Yamaguchi
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  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0063
To be published on 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Maximum fuel injection pressures for GDI engines is expected to increase due to positive effects on emissions and engine-efficiency. Current GDI injectors have maximum operating pressures of 35 MPa, but higher injection pressures have yielded promising reductions in particle number (PN) and improved combustion stability. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, and there have been few studies on fuel sprays formed at high injection pressures. This paper summarizes experimental studies on the properties of sprays formed at high injection pressures. The results of these experiments can be used as inputs for CFD simulations and studies on combustion behavior, emissions formation, and combustion system design. The experiments were conducted using an injection rate meter and optical methods in a constant volume spray chamber. Injection rate measurements were performed to determine the injectors’ flow characteristics. Spray imaging was performed using a high-speed video camera. Several spray properties such as the liquid spray penetration, spray plume angle, and the spray breakup point were determined as functions of the fuel injection pressure and injected fuel…

Model-Based Approaches in Developing an Advanced Aftertreatment System: An Overview

  • Cummins Inc.-Changsheng Su, Joseph Brault, Achuth Munnannur, Z. Gerald Liu, Sean Milloy, Arvind Harinath, David Dunnuck, Ken Federle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0026
To be published on 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Cummins has recently launched next-generation aftertreatment technology, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system, for medium-duty and heavy-duty engines used in on-highway and off-highway applications. Besides meeting EPA 2010+ and Euro VI regulations, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system offers 60% volume and 40% weight reductions compared to current aftertreatment systems. In this work, we present model-based approaches that were systematically adopted in the design and development of the Cummins Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system. Particularly, a variety of analytical and experimental component-level and system-level validation tools have been used to optimize DOC, DPF, SCR/ASC, as well as the DEF decomposition device. The highlights of this work can be summarized as follows: a). internal dosing is more efficient than external dosing to control HC slip; High CPSI DOCs show better HC oxidation performance at high SV due to enhanced mass transfer; b). the adopted advanced DPF technologies enable greater ash capacity for long maintenance intervals; c). SCR performance was optimized with the use of a hydrothermally robust Cu-Zeolite catalyst coated on high CPSI substrates.

Are the internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) linked to biofuel chemical composition or engine operation condition?

  • IFP Energies Nouvelles, Institute Carnot-Maira Alves Fortunato, Francis Lenglet, Arij Ben Amara, Laurie Starck
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0061
To be published on 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
The increased use of alternative fuels has been linked to deterioration in performance of injectors and engines as a result of internal diesel injector deposits (IDID). In the present paper, the biofuel chemical composition impact over engine tendency to blockage was studied based on three main axis: (1) deposits linked to paraffins and aromatics biofuels content; (2) deposits of FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) and HVO (hydrotreated vegetal oil); and (3) deposits linked to the presence of additives (DDSA, DDSI). Deposits were formed in laboratory using a microcoking device over a stainless steel surface as well as an injector bench after low, intermediate and high load. The soaking time of fuel remaining in the injector after engine operation was also accessed. The correlation of morphology and chemical composition with injector’s tendency to blockage is discussed.

Evaluation of Diesel Spray with Non-circular Nozzle - Part I: Inert Spray

  • Southwest Research Institute-Khanh Cung, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Bansal Shah, Vickey Kalaskar, Jason Miwa, Zainal Abidin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0065
To be published on 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Numerous studies have characterized the impact of high injection pressure and small nozzle holes on spray quality and the subsequent impact on combustion. Higher injection pressure or smaller nozzle diameter usually reduce soot emissions owing to better atomization quality and fuel-air mixing enhancement. The influence of nozzle geometry on spray and combustion of diesel continues to be a topic of great research interest. An alternate approach impacting spray quality is investigated in this paper, specifically the impact of non-circular nozzles. The concept was explored experimentally in an optically accessible constant-volume combustion chamber (CVCC). Non-reacting spray evaluations were conducted at various ambient densities (14.8, 22.8, 30 kg/m3) under inert gas of Nitrogen (N2) while injection pressure was kept at 100 MPa. Shadowgraph imaging was used to obtain macroscopic spray characteristics such as spray structure, spray penetration, and the spray cone angle. Analysis from image processing showed expected result of lower penetration rate and higher spray cone angle as ambient density increased. Two slot nozzles with different aspect ratios but similar flow area as compared with one…

Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on Power Loss of Vehicle Transmission Synchronizers with Spray Lubrication

  • TU Darmstadt-Zhihong Liu, Ye Shen, Stephan Rinderknecht
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0028
To be published on 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Besides optimal engine systems, high-efficiency vehicle transmissions are generally also required to improve fuel economy in automotive applications. For the energy loss analysis in transmissions, most researches focused on the major mechanical components, such as gears, bearings and seals, while the other mechanical losses, like synchronizer losses, were usually not considered. With increasing number of synchronizers in modern transmissions, a recent study of transmission power losses indicates that the power loss analysis of synchronizers should also be developed and appended for a more accurate investigation on overall power losses in transmissions. The synchronizer is an essential component of vehicle transmissions for equalizing the different rotational speeds of shafts and gear wheels by frictional torques, for which the synchronizers must be cooled and lubricated in order to enhance their service life. With the supplement of lubricants between synchronizer friction surfaces, fluid friction is generated due to the differential speed, when the synchronizers are in neutral position. This fluid friction can be principally regarded as load-independent synchronizer power losses. This paper will take the following approaches: theoretical…

Methods of Improving Combustion Efficiency in a High-Efficiency, Lean Burn Dual-Fuel Heavy-Duty Engine

  • Southwest Research Institute-Derek E. Nieman, Andrew P. Morris, Jason T. Miwa, Bradley D. Denton
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0032
To be published on 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Combustion losses are one of the largest areas on inefficiency in natural gas/diesel dual-fuel engines, especially when compared with the traditional diesel engines on which they are based. These losses can vary from 1-2% at high load, to more than 6% of the total fuel energy at part load conditions. For diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engines, the three main sources of combustion losses are: bulk losses (increasing AFR to the premixed fuel’s lean flammability limit), crevice losses (premixed fuel trapped near valve pockets and top ring lands unable to oxidize), and blow-through losses (fumigated fuel/air intake charge passes through the cylinder and out the exhaust valve during valve overlap). In order to improve overall engine efficiency and decrease greenhouse gas emissions, these losses must be minimized. In this paper, various mitigation techniques are explored experimentally on a 13L, 2010-class on-highway diesel engine that has been modified for fumigated natural gas dual-fuel research. An additional study separated the effects of bulk and crevice losses on lean mixtures by adding H2 to the fumigated natural gas to lower…

Spray-Wall Dynamics of High-Pressure Impinging Combustion

  • Michigan Technological University-Zhihao Zhao, Xiucheng Zhu, Le Zhao, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0067
To be published on 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
The fuel spray impingement on the piston head and/or chamber has frequently occurred in IC engines especially the small size ones with high injection pressure. The impingement plays a key role in combustion since it affects the air-fuel mixing process and leads to more emission due to deviated air-fuel ratio. In this study, the impinging combustion has been experimentally investigated to understand the mechanism and dynamics of spray-wall interaction. The experiments were performed in a constant volume combustion chamber over a wide range of ambient conditions, the ambient temperature was varied from 800 to 1000 K and ambient gas oxygen was varied from15% to 21%. Diesel was injected at the injection pressure of 150 MPa into ambient gas at a density of 22.8 kg/m3 and impinged on a surface at 523 K. The natural luminosity technique was applied in the experiment to explore the impinging combustion process using a Photron high-speed camera from two different views (bottom and side). An in-house Matlab program was used to post-process the images. The most reactive region was found…