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WCX™ 17: SAE World Congress Experience
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Technical Paper (1043) Journal Article (463)



Automotive (1506) Commercial Vehicle (101) Aerospace (14)


Combustion and combustion processes (248) Simulation and modeling (232) Fuel economy (190) Diesel / compression ignition engines (128) Optimization (126) Fuel consumption (114) Computational fluid dynamics (109) Particulate matter (PM) (106) Mathematical models (102) Pressure (91) Energy conservation (86) Vehicle drivers (86) Engine cylinders (80) Gasoline (69) CAD, CAM, and CAE (68) Emissions (68) Nitrogen oxides (64) Sensors and actuators (62) Fuel injection (58) Electric vehicles (57) Hybrid electric vehicles (57) Spark ignition engines (55) Transmissions (55) Test procedures (54) Batteries (52) Combustion chambers (52) Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) (52) Simulators (52) Environmental regulations and standards (51) Fatigue (51) Technical review (50) Powertrains (49) Computer software and hardware (48) Drag (47) Knock (47) Research and development (47) Control systems (44) Finite element analysis (43) Heat transfer (43) Catalysts (42) Wind tunnel tests (42) Design processes (39) Energy consumption (39) Logistics (38) Noise (37) Steel (37) Test facilities (36) Autonomous vehicles (35) Pistons (35) Selective catalytic reduction (35)


Tan, Gangfeng (12) Zhang, Yu (9) Som, Sibendu (8) Su, Xuming (8) Zhang, Yi (8) Johansson, Bengt (7) Naber, Jeffrey (7) Soloiu, Valentin (7) Traver, Michael (7) Zeng, Danielle (7) Beyerl, Thomas (6) Chen, Xingfu (6) Cleary, David (6) Liu, Liping (6) Lu, Jianbo (6) Mourelatos, Zissimos (6) Shahbakhti, Mahdi (6) Wei, Zhigang (6) Xu, Min (6) Zhang, Yunqing (6) Zheng, Ming (6) Adimi, Reda (5) Aliukov, Sergei (5) Brewer, Todd (5) Channiwala, Salim Abbasbhai (5) Chen, Lihua (5) D'Adamo, Alessandro (5) De Cesare, Matteo (5) Deng, Weiwen (5) Fontanesi, Stefano (5) Jawad, Badih (5) Kang, HongTae (5) Lee, Chia-Fon (5) Lucchini, Tommaso (5) Lv, Chen (5) Makki, Imad (5) Mastinu, Giampiero (5) Melz, Tobias (5) Moncada, Jose (5) Muinos, Martin (5) Onorati, Angelo (5) Pei, Yuanjiang (5) Ping, Xianyao (5) Singh, Yograj (5) Somers, Bart (5) Tjong, Jimi (5) Yang, Shuitao (5) Zhan, Zhenfei (5) Alam, Mohammed Khorshed (4) Alyukov, Alexander (4)


SAE (1506)


Ford Motor Company (304) Tongji University (37) Toyota Motor Corporation (35) DENSO Corporation (31) FCA US LLC (29) University of Michigan (29) Argonne National Laboratory (21) General Motors LLC (19) Oakland University (17) Wuhan University of Technology (17) Michigan Technological University (16) Tianjin University (16) US Army TARDEC (16) Southwest Research Institute (15) University of Windsor (15) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (14) Politecnico di Milano (14) Wayne State University (14) Clemson University (13) Honda R&D Co., Ltd. (13) Hyundai Motor Company (12) Shanghai Jiao Tong University (11) Tsinghua University (11) Chongqing University (10) DENSO International America Inc. (10) Istituto Motori CNR (10) Jaguar Land Rover (10) Loughborough University (10) Lund University (10) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (10) Sandia National Laboratories (10) Cummins Inc. (9) Jilin University (8) Lawrence Technological University (8) Massachusetts Institute of Technology (8) University of Michigan-Dearborn (8) Aramco Research Center (7) AVL LIST GmbH (7) Beijing Institute of Technology (7) Chalmers University of Technology (7) Cranfield University (7) Dalian University of Technology (7) Georgia Southern University (7) Huazhong University of Science and Technology (7) King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (7) Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (7) Tenneco Inc. (7) Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (7) University of Waterloo (7)


WCX™ 17: SAE World Congress Experience (1506) Noise and Vibration Conference and Exhibition (1)

Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine: Cold Start on Gasoline and Diesel

  • Wayne State University - Sampad Mukhopadhyay, Sunil Srinivas Badavath, Naeim Henein
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The superior fuel economy of direct injection internal combustion engines (diesel and gasoline) is related to use of a high compression ratio to auto-ignite the fuel and the overall lean combustible mixture. Two of the major problems in diesel engine emissions are the NOx and soot emissions, which are caused by the heterogeneity of the charge and the properties of the diesel fuel. Conventional Direct Injection Spark Ignition Gasoline engines don't have these problems because of the fuel properties particularly its volatility. However, its efficiency and specific power output are limited by the knock, knock produced preignition and the sporadic preignition phenomenon. The Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) engine combines the superior features of the two engines by increasing the compression ratio and use of gasoline as a fuel. One of the main advantages of the GDICI engine is the low combustion temperature and associated low engine out emissions of NOx and Particulates.

Fatigue Life Prediction of Induction Hardened Case Depth Specimens Made From 38MnVS6 Micro Alloyed Steel

  • Bharat Forge, Ltd. - Dattaprasad Lomate
  • IIT Bombay - Asim Tewari
  • Show More
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The application of induction hardening treatment plays a vital role for enhancing fatigue life of various automotive components. This will incorporate compressive residual stresses in the component at significant extent. In this paper, wide range of experiments have been carried out on Rotating Bending Fatigue (RBF) specimens made from 38MnVS6 micro alloyed steel with induction hardening up to three different case depths. The set of specimens are fatigue tested at fully reverse loading condition using rotating bending fatigue testing machine. Based on this study a surface treatment factor is evaluated. This surface treatment factor is used as an input for evaluating precise fatigue life of the specimen using FEA packages. The fatigue life evaluated using FEA is showing good agreement with the results obtained through tests on the actual specimens.

Software Test and Calibration Using Virtual Manufacturing

  • GM Powertrain - William Goodwin
  • GM Global Propulsion Systems - Claudio Mancuso
  • Show More
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes how distributive computing along with statistical subsystem simulation can be applied to produce near production ready embedded vehicle software and calibrations. Coupling distributive computing and statistical simulation was first employed over a decade ago at General Motors to design and analyze propulsion subsystem hardware. Recently this method of simulation has been enhanced extending its capabilities to both test embedded vehicle code as well as develop calibrations. A primary advantage of this simulation technique is its ability to generate data from a statistically significant population of subsystems. The result is the acquisition of an optimal data set enabling the development of a robust design now including both embedded code and calibrations. Additionally it has been shown that there are significant economic advantages in terms of time and cost associated with this type of development when compared to traditional method. The following section will describe in detail using examples and data the advantages of this innovative approach to software testing and calibration.

An Indirect Tire Health Monitoring System Using On-board Motion Sensors

  • University of Michigan - Tomas Poloni
  • Ford Motor Company - Jianbo Lu
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a method to make diagnostic/prognostic judgment about the health of a tire, in term of its wear, using existing on-board sensor signals. The approach focuses on using an estimate of the effective rolling radius (ERR) for individual tires as one of the main diagnostic/prognostic means and it determines if a tire has significant wear and how long it can be safely driven before tire rotation or tire replacement are required. The ERR is determined from the combination of wheel speed sensor (WSS), Global Positioning sensor (GPS), the other motion sensor signals, together with the radius kinematic model of a rolling tire. The ERR estimation fits the relevant signals to a linear model and utilizes the relationship revealed in the magic formula tire model. The ERR can then be related to multiple sources of uncertainties such as the tire inflation pressure, tire loading changes, and tire wear. The estimated ERR are further processed to compute the unloaded tire radius (UTR). The UTR directly reflects the tread depth loss that the proposed on-board tire health monitoring system (THM) can detect and diagnose.

Safety Modeling of High Voltage Cabling in Electrified Powertrains

  • Ford Motor Company - Amar Marpu, George Garfinkel, Patrick Maguire
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Modeling of High Voltage (HV) wires is an important aspect of vehicle safety simulations for electrified powertrains to understand the potential tearing of the wire sheath or pinching of HV wiring. The behavior of the HV wires must be reviewed in safety simulations to identify potential hazards associated with HV wire being exposed, severed, or in contact with ground planes during a crash event. Modeling HV wire is challenging due to the complexity of the physical composition of the wire, which is usually comprised of multiple strands bundled and often twisted together to form the HV electrical conductor. This is further complicated by the existence of external insulating sheathing materials to prevent HV exposure during normal operating conditions.

Experimental and Numerical Study of the Water Injection to Improve the Fuel Economy of a Small Size Turbocharged SI Engine

  • University of Naples - Federico II - Vincenzo De Bellis
  • University of Naples - Fabio Bozza, Luigi Teodosio
  • Show More
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In this work, a promising technique, consisting of a liquid Water Injection (WI) at the intake ports, is investigated to overcome over-fueling and delayed combustions typical of downsized boosted engines, operating at high loads. In a first stage, experimental tests are carried out in a spark-ignition twin-cylinder turbocharged engine at a fixed rotational speed and medium-high loads. In particular, a spark timing and a water-to-fuel ratio sweep are both specified, to analyze the WI capability in increasing the knock-limited spark advance.

Novel Approach in Vehicle Front-End Modeling for Numerical Analyses of Pedestrian Impact Scenarios

  • University of West Bohemia - Jan Vychytil, Jan Spicka, Ludek Hyncik
  • Mecas ESI s.r.o. - Jaroslav Manas
  • Show More
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In this paper a novel approach in developing a simplified model of a vehicle front-end is presented. Its surface is segmented to form an MBS model with hundreds of rigid bodies connected via translational joints to a base body. Local stiffness of each joint is calibrated using a headform or a legform impactor corresponding to the EuroNCAP mapping. Hence, the distribution of stiffness of the front-end is taken into account. The model of the front-end is embedded in a whole model of a small car in a simulation of a real accident. The VIRTHUMAN model is scaled in height, weight and age to represent precisely the pedestrian involved. Injury risk predicted by simulation is in correlation with data from real accident. Namely, injuries of head, chest and lower extremities are confirmed. Finally, mechanical response of developed vehicle model is compared to an FE model of the same vehicle in a pedestrian impact scenario. VIRTHUMAN model of a 13-year-old boy (150 cm, 40 kg) is chosen to represent the pedestrian and the lateral impact at 45 km/h is considered for various initial positions of pedestrian. While local deformation of the MBS bonnet leads to the HIC value corresponding to the EuroNCAP assessment, prediction obtained in the case of FE model may differ. This reflects the fact that deformation of the bonnet caused by an impact of the torso may influence the shape and the stiffness of the bonnet at the location of head strike.

The Role of Turbulent-Chemistry Interaction in Simulating End-of-Injection Combustion Transients in Diesel Sprays

  • Georgia Institute of Technology - Sayop Kim, Dorrin Jarrahbashi, Caroline Genzale
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This study investigates the role of turbulent-chemistry interaction in simulations of diesel spray combustion phenomena after end-of-injection (EOI), using the commercially-available CFD code CONVERGE. Recent experimental and computational studies have shown that the spray flame dynamics and mixture formation after EOI are governed by turbulent entrainment, coupled with rapid evolution of the thermo-chemical state of the mixture field. A few studies have shown that after EOI, mixtures between the injector nozzle and the lifted diffusion flame can ignite and appear to propagate back towards the injector nozzle via an auto-ignition reaction sequence; referred to as “combustion recession”. Because combustion recession occurs in the near-nozzle region, where characteristic fuel jet scales are on the order of the injector nozzle diameter, typical engine CFD simulations with relatively large grid scales may not accurately capture sub-grid scale turbulent mixing and mixing-chemistry interactions in this phenomenon. In this study, CFD simulations of combustion recession in diesel spray flames are executed to explore this topic. The Representative Interactive Flamelets (RIF) model with a multiple flamelets approach is employed to account for the non-uniformity of reactive scalars at the sub-grid scale. The results are compared with a laminar chemistry based combustion model, i.e. Well-Stirred Reactor (WSR) model. Both simulations are performed using a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) framework, such that all the resolved quantities are characterized by ensemble average variables. Both chemistry modeling methods utilize the same chemical kinetics, so that the effect of turbulent-chemistry interaction can be assessed independent of kinetics. The results from both approaches are validated against experimental measurements of liquid and vapor penetration lengths under non-reacting conditions, and ignition delay time and flame lift-off length under reacting conditions. Results show that the combustion model choice plays a significant role in the prediction of both initial spray flame stabilization and combustion recession. The introduction of turbulent mixing in combustion modeling significantly changes the turbulent mean scalar fields, and may better represent unsteady flame flapping motions. This study also reveals that there are needed improvements to the RIF model to better account for fast changes in flamelet history associated with the local scalar dissipation rate, which is prevalent in diesel spray combustion problems.

The Position Control of a Gasoline Engine during Shutdown

  • Loughborough University - Yiu Heng Cheung, Zhijia Yang, Richard Stobart
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Since the first stop-start system introduced in 1983, more and more vehicles have been equipped with this kind of automatic engine control system. Recently, it was found that there is strong correlation between engine resting position and the subsequent engine start time. The utilization of the synchronization time working from a required engine stop position prior the engine start request was shown to reduce start times. Hence the position control of an engine during shutdown becomes more significant. A naturally aspirated engine was modelled using the GT-Suite modelling environment to facilitate the development of position controllers using Simulink ®. The use of respectively the throttle and a belt mounted motor generator to provide a control input was considered. Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID), sliding mode and deadbeat control strategies were each used in this study. The control simulation results show that the PID control and sliding mode control can achieve accurate position control with deviations less than 0.1 degree from the target. However, the deadbeat control which was designed using an identified engine model gives poor tracking performance of a constant speed reference and unstable tracking of the constant deceleration reference. This study has produced two feasible control solutions to accurately position the crank shaft at the engines top dead centre location after shutdown. This allows the use of direct or assisted direct starting techniques which yield benefits in the quality of automatic stop/start systems.

Formation of Engine Internal NO2: Measures to Control the NO2/NOX Ratio for Enhanced Exhaust After Treatment

  • Karlsruhe Institute Of Technology - Michael Rößler, Amin Velji, Corina Janzer, Thomas Koch, Matthias Olzmann
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The proportion of nitrogen dioxide in the engine-out emissions of a Diesel engine is of great importance for the conversion of the total oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions in SCR catalysts. Particularly at lower engine loads and lower exhaust temperatures an increase of the already low NO2/NOX fraction will enhance the SCR operation significantly. For this purpose, the understanding of the NO2 formation during the Diesel combustion and expansion stroke is as substantial as being aware of the different thermodynamic impacts and engine operating parameters that affect the formation process.