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SAE 2016 International Powertrains, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting
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A Gasoline Fuelled Pre-Chamber Ignition System for Homogeneous Lean Combustion Processes

FAU Univ. of Erlangen-Nürnberg-Moritz Schumacher, Michael Wensing
Published 2016-10-24 by SAE International in United States
Pre-chamber ignition systems enable the combustion of homogeneous lean mixtures in internal combustion engines with significantly increased thermal efficiency. Such ignition systems provide a much higher ignition energy compared to a common spark ignition by burning a small portion of the charge in a separate chamber, generating multiple ignition sites in the main combustion chamber and increasing the turbulent flame speed. Pre-chamber ignition systems are commonly used in large natural gas engines but the integration in automotive engines is not feasible so far due to the lack of suitable fuelling systems needed to keep the pre-chamber mixture stoichiometric at lean operation of the engine. Based on preliminary investigations we developed an ignition system with fuelled pre-chamber for automotive engines utilizing the available space for the conventional spark plug. These investigations proved the thermal stability and function of the system up to a specific power of 100 kW/l and a speed of 12500 rpm. The fuelling system saturates air with fuel vapour and injects this mixture time-controlled into the pre-chamber. The already available fuel tank ventilation…
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Advanced Test Methods Aid in Formulating Engine Oils for Fuel Economy

Lubrizol Corp-Alexander Michlberger, Matt Gieselman
Lubrizol Corporation (The)-Ewan Delbridge
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Chassis dynamometer tests are often used to determine vehicle fuel economy (FE). Since the entire vehicle is used, these methods are generally accepted to be more representative of ‘real-world’ conditions than engine dynamometer tests or small-scale bench tests. Unfortunately, evaluating vehicle fuel economy via this means introduces significant variability that can readily be mitigated with engine dynamometer and bench tests.Recently, improvements to controls and procedures have led to drastically improved test precision in chassis dynamometer testing. Described herein are chassis dynamometer results from five fully formulated engine oils (utilizing improved testing protocols on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) and Highway Fuel Economy Test (HwFET) cycles) which not only show statistically significant FE changes across viscosity grades but also meaningful FE differentiation within a viscosity grade where additive systems have been modified. Demonstration of statistically significant differentiation of fuel economy within a viscosity grade is a result of both robust additive technology and high test precision. Furthermore, the work demonstrates that with the specific vehicle and test cycle used, it is possible to obtain the fuel…
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Impact of Aniline Octane Booster on Lubricating Oil

ExxonMobil-Herve Marie, Sascha Rigol
Porsche AG-Hans Peter Deeg, Harald Philipp
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the observed impact of aniline octane booster and more specifically N-Methyl Aniline (NMA) on lubricating oil, following field issues encountered in vehicles in certain areas of the world where aniline based octane booster was assumed to be used. The observed field issue was heavy sludge formation, leading to engine malfunctions.The impact of NMA on lubricating oil could first be replicated using a modified version of the CEC L-109 oxidation bench test, with oil diluted with fuel and NMA at start of test. Significant kinematic viscosity (KV100) increase at the end of test was evidenced, especially as NMA content was increased in the oil. Total base number (TBN) evaluated at end of test also showed values above fresh oil (at or above 4.5 wt% NMA) that was consistent with observations from the field.The assessment of NMA impact was then scaled up using ACEA black sludge engine test. Tests run with 3.5 wt% NMA added to black sludge reference fuel led to poorer sludge rating compared with standard black sludge test. Increased sludge formation…
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High-Speed UV and Visible Laser Shadowgraphy of GDI In-Cylinder Pool Fire

Meiji Univ.-Kazuya Miyashita, Takamichi Tsukamoto, Yusei Fukuda, Katsufumi Kondo, Tetsuya Aizawa
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
For better understanding, model development and its validation of in-cylinder soot formation processes of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines, visualization of piston surface fuel wetting, vaporization and soot formation processes of in-cylinder pool fire via high-speed UV (266nm) and visible (445nm) laser shadowgraphy was attempted in an optically accessible Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine (RCEM). A direct-injection, spark-ignition and single-shot combustion event was achieved in the RCEM under engine-equivalent, simplified and well-defined conditions operated with engine speed 600 rpm, compression ratio 9.0, equivalence ratio 0.9 and natural aspiration. The tested fuel was composed of 70% iso-octane and 30% toluene by volume and the UV absorption by toluene enabled visualization of the in-cylinder fuel distribution. Significant UV absorption was caused also by in-cylinder soot particles, which was reasonably distinguishable from the fuel by comparing the UV shadowgraphs with visible shadowgraphs and direct photographs of soot luminosity taken under identical conditions. The obtained high-speed shadowgraphs successfully demonstrated the potential of the visualization technique for qualitative visualization of fuel spray, mixture formation, piston surface fuel wetting and vaporization,…
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Modeling Split Injections of ECN “Spray A” Using a Conditional Moment Closure Combustion Model with RANS and LES

SAE International Journal of Engines

ETH Zurich-Christopher Kim Blomberg, Lucas Zeugin, Sushant S. Pandurangi, Michele Bolla, Konstantinos Boulouchos
ETH Zurich/Combustion+FlowSolutions GmbH-Yuri M. Wright
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2237
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
This study investigates n-dodecane split injections of “Spray A” from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) using two different turbulence treatments (RANS and LES) in conjunction with a Conditional Moment Closure combustion model (CMC). The two modeling approaches are first assessed in terms of vapor spray penetration evolutions of non-reacting split injections showing a clearly superior performance of the LES compared to RANS: while the former successfully reproduces the experimental results for both first and second injection events, the slipstream effect in the wake of the first injection jet is not accurately captured by RANS leading to an over-predicted spray tip penetration of the second pulse. In a second step, two reactive operating conditions with the same ambient density were investigated, namely one at a diesel-like condition (900K, 60bar) and one at a lower temperature (750K, 50bar). For the diesel-like condition, both modeling approaches captured first injection ignition delay, overall soot mass and soot location well. Due to an under prediction of spray tip expansion during combustion in combination with the slight over-prediction of the vapor…
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Investigation on Dual Fuel Engine Gas Combustion using Tomographic In-Cylinder Measurement Technique and Simultaneous High Speed OH-Chemiluminescence Visualization

MAN Diesel & Turbo-Fridolin Unfug
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Strict emission regulations and the need of higher efficiency of future dual fuel engines require an optimized combustion process. For getting a better understanding of the in-cylinder combustion process optical investigations represent a powerful tool. For medium speed dual fuel engines, optical investigations are pretty rare respectively not available. Especially the avoiding of knock events within the combustion process is a key development topic to realize high engine load and high engine efficiency.For the investigations a fully flexible dual fuel test engine was used. The engine is operated with a natural gas / air cylinder charge which is ignited by a small micro pilot diesel injection within the gas mode.Beside standard development measurement techniques like cylinder pressure measurement and exhaust gas emission measurement, optical measurement techniques were used to gain information about the in-cylinder combustion process of the pilot fuel combustion as well as the combustion of the natural gas / air cylinder charge. It is desirable to realize an entire visualization of the combustion within the combustion chamber under real engine conditions at full…
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Feedforward Control of Fuel Distribution on Advanced Dual-Fuel Engines with Varying Intake Valve Closing Timings

Argonne National Laboratory-Andrew Ickes, Thomas Wallner
Illinois Institute of Technology-Mateos Kassa, Carrie Hall
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
This study examines the dynamics and control of an engine operated with late intake valve closure (LIVC) timings in a dual-fuel combustion mode. The engine features a fuel delivery system in which diesel is direct-injected and natural gas is port-injected. Despite the benefits of LIVC and dual-fuel strategy, combining these two techniques resulted in efficiency losses due to the variability of the combustion process across cylinders. The difference in power production across cylinders ranges from 9% at an IVC of 570°ATDC* to 38% at an IVC of 620 °ATDC and indicates an increasingly uneven fuel distribution as the intake valve remains open longer in the compression stroke. This paper describes an approach for controlling the amount of fuel injected into each cylinders’ port of an inline six- cylinder heavy-duty dual-fuel engine to minimize the variations in fuel distribution across cylinder.Since measuring the actual fuel reaching each cylinder is not a practical option on stock engines, this study aimed to produce a feedforward control technique. Using a model developed on an engine simulation software, the optimal…
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On the Evaluation Methods for Systematic Further Development of Direct-Injection Nozzles

Robert Bosch GmbH-Tobias Knorsch, Philipp Rogler, Maximilian Miller, Wolfram Wiese
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
To satisfy future emission classes, e.g. EU6c, the particulate number (PN) of Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) engines must be reduced. For these engines, different components influence the combustion process and thus also the formation of soot particles and deposits. Along with other engine components, the injector nozzle influences the particulate number and deposits in both fuel spray behavior and nozzle “tip wetting”.In case of non-optimized nozzle layouts, fuel may impinge on the piston and the liner in an unfavorable way, which implies low-oxygen diffusive combustion by retarded vaporizing wall films. For the tip wetting, wall films are present on the actual surface of the nozzle tip, which is also caused by unadapted nozzles. For non-optimized nozzles, the latter effect can become quite dominant.This paper deals with systematic nozzle development activities towards low-deposit nozzle tips and thus decreasing PN values. To reduce formerly high PN values, the fuel wall film on the nozzle tip must be made smaller. For this purpose, different geometrical designs of the inner nozzle geometry, the nozzle holes and the tip shape are…
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Low-viscosity Gear Oil Technology to Improve Wear at Tapered Roller Bearings in Differential Gear Unit

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

TonenGeneral Sekiyu K.K.-Takafumi Mori, Masanori Suemitsu, Nobuharu Umamori, Takehisa Sato, Satoshi Ogano
Toyota Motor Corporation-Kenji Ueno, Oji Kuno, Kotaro Hiraga, Kazuhiko Yuasa, Shinichiro Shibata, Shinichiro Ishikawa
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2204
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Torque loss reduction at differential gear unit is important to improve the fuel economy of automobiles. One effective way is to decrease the viscosity of lubricants as it results in less churning loss. However, this option creates a higher potential for thin oil films, which could damage the mechanical parts. At tapered roller bearings, in particular, wear at the large end face of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing bottom wear is one of major failure modes. To understand the wear mechanism, wear at the rolling contact surface of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing side wear, was also observed to confirm the wear impact on the tapered roller bearings. Because gear oils are also required to avoid seizure under extreme pressure, the combination of a phosphorus anti-wear agent and a sulfurous extreme pressure agent are formulated. Because the latter could cause an antagonistic impact on the former, we focused on control of active sulfur content as well as the treat ratios to reduce wear at the tapered roller bearing while maintaining anti-seizure.…
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Engine Friction and Wear Performances with Polyalkylene Glycol Engine Oils

Argonne National Laboratory-Ali Erdemir
Ford Motor Company-Arup Gangopadhyay, Larry Elie, Z. Liu, Douglas Mcwatt
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
The application of polyalkylene glycol (PAG) as a base stock for engine oil formulation has been explored for substantial fuel economy gain over traditional formulations with mineral oils. Various PAG chemistries were explored depending on feed stock material used for manufacturing. All formulations except one have the same additive package. The friction performance of these oils was evaluated in a motored single cylinder engine with current production engine hardware in the temperature range 40°C-120°C and in the speed range of 500 RPM-2500 RPM. PAG formulations showed up to 50% friction reduction over GF-5 SAE 5W-20 oil depending on temperature, speed, and oil chemistry. Friction evaluation in a motored I-4 engine showed up to 11% friction reduction in the temperature range 40°C-100°C over GF-5 oil. The paper will share results on ASTM Sequence VID fuel economy, Sequence IVA wear, and Sequence VG sludge and varnish tests. Chassis roll fuel economy data will also be shared.
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