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Development and Validation of a Simulation Model for Urea-Water-Solution Decomposition for Automotive SCR Systems

ANSYS Fluent India Pvt, Ltd.-Jayesh Mutyal
ANSYS Germany GmbH-Markus Braun
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
Stringent diesel emission regulations have been forcing constant reduction in the discharge of particulate matter and nitrogen oxide (NOx). Current state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions are falling short of achieving these limits. For this reason engine manufacturers are looking at different ways to meet the emission regulations. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of oxides of nitrogen with ammonia gas is emerging as preferred technology for meeting stringent NOx emission standards across the world. SCR system designers face several technical challenges, such as avoiding ammonia slip, urea crystallization, low temperature deposits and other potential pitfalls. Simulation can help to develop a deep understanding of these technical challenges and issues, identify root causes of problems and help develop better designs.This paper describes the modeling approach for Urea Water Solution (UWS) spray and its interaction with canister walls and exhaust gases. Custom subroutines are developed to capture the critical physical phenomena of spray-wall interaction and of heat and mass exchange between multi-component droplet and surrounding gases. These subroutines are validated by comparing simulation results with available experimental data. The proposed methodology…
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Self-Learning Control Strategy for Electrified Off-Highway Machines to Optimize Energy Efficiency

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology-Christian Pohlandt, Marcus Geimer
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2831
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
The electrification of off-highway machines are increasing significantly. Advanced functionalities, beneficial energy efficiency and effectiveness are only a few advantages of electric propulsion systems. To control these complex systems in varying environments intelligent algorithms at system level are needed. This paper addresses the topic of machine learning algorithms applied to off-highway machines and presents a methodology based on artificial neural networks to identify and recognize recurrent load cycles and work tasks. To gain efficiency and effectiveness benefits the recognized pattern settings are applied to the electric propulsion system to adjust relevant parameters online. A dynamic adaption of the DC-link voltage based on the operating points of the machine processes is identified as such a parameter.
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Parameters Matching and Effects of Different Powertrain on Vehicle: Performance for Pure Electric City Bus

Wuhan University of Technology-Shaopeng Tian, Yang Wang, Lei Wu
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
Dynamic and economic performance play an important role in the vehicle evaluation indexes, and also are crucial parts considered during the design progress. This paper applies a method of parameters matching of powertrain to one Pure Electric City Bus(PECB), with which a four-speed transmission dynamic system is designed. Meanwhile two powertrain models adopting motors with identical peak power but different base speeds and peak torques coupled with two-speed transmission or without transmission are introduced for comparison to analyze if a smaller motor performs better in performance. The three models are based on identical type of bus. Then according to the powertrain parameters, simulation models of three bus models are established respectively. From the results of simulation, vehicle performances of the four-speed transmission powertrain, especially economic performance, are compared with the other two. Results show that the four-speed dynamic system is the most optimal amongst three types. For testing the four-speed powertrain further and proving the superiority, it is loaded onto the real bus to collect data of performances. After analysis of data obtained, the four-speed…
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Practical Lightweight Polymer Material for Heavy Duty Truck Application with Cost-Effective Surface Treatment for Paint Adhesion Performance - A Case Study

Sherwin Williams-Paul Joiner
Volvo Group Trucks Technology-Saeil Jeon, Stacey Spencer
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
Lightweight solution is one of the keywords that we see every day. Developing smart, light and durable materials is one focal area that is inevitable to be done in the ground transportation sector. Another angle to look for is the protection and beautification of the substrate finish where surface treatment technology stands out. Combining both aspects is crucial in the industry for customer satisfaction. Recycled carbon fibers are used to form the reinforcement in the composite side, where they are infused or mixed with the matrix materials either in SMC (Sheet Mold Compound) or BMC (Bulk Mold Compound) format, depending upon the application. Glass fibers are usually used for their practical application, however considering further weight cut on the component, carbon fibers cannot be overlooked for their superior mechanical properties. However, due to the cost of carbon fibers many times the application may be over-designed. Furthermore, considering the life cycle assessment of the vehicle, virgin carbon fibers from PAN (Polyacrylonitrile) as its precursor may not be environmentally friendly. In this paper, we show a case…
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Displacement Joystick/Thumb Wheel Switch Control Profile for Precision and Jerk Free Speed Control Application in Open Loop System

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

John Deere India Pvt. Ltd.-Sanket Pawar
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2870
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
Displacement joystick controls are considered as most suitable for manual controls wherever proportional outputs are required for dynamic applications such as when variable speed sensitivity or position are required. These joysticks are being used widely in both open loop as well as in close loop controls. The operator applies force to either the joystick itself or to its proportional linear displacement thumb wheel switches. This movement is then detected by either resistive or Hall Effect sensors, placed right inside joystick, and converted into an electrical signal. These joysticks, along with proportional linear displacement thumb wheel switches, find a wide range of applications in off-road vehicles such construction and forestry vehicles, harvester machines, and etc. for applications like attachment speed controls, boom position control, rotation speed control, and etc. The higher the displacement of the joystick, or its linear displacement thumb wheel switches, the better will be the control over the control parameter.When it comes to open loop attachment control systems, where joystick displacement is directly linked with speed, most times the displacement provided by joystick…
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Driving and Steering Coordination Control for 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle

ASCL Jilin University-Chunshan Li, Pan Song, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong, Wenchao Liu
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an integrated chassis controller with multiple hierarchical layers for 4WID/4WIS electric vehicle. The proposed systematic design consists of the following four parts: 1) a reference model is in the driver control layer, which maps the relationship between the driver's inputs and the desired vehicle motion. 2) a sliding mode controller is in the vehicle motion control layer, whose objective is to keep the vehicle following the desired motion commands generated in the driver control layer. 3) By considering the tire adhesive limits, a tire force allocator is in the control allocation layer, which optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments to the four wheels so as to minimize the tire workloads during normal driving. 4) an actuator controller is in the executive layer, which calculates the driving torques of the in-wheel motors and steering angles of the four wheels in order to finally achieve the distributed tire forces. Experimental verification is made to show that the proposed integrated chassis controller is able to improve the vehicle's stability and handling performance through coordinating the steering…
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Failure Analysis and Design Optimisation of Steering Linkage Pivot Shaft of Commercial Vehicle

Ashok Leyland Ltd-Balaji Lomada, V Vijaykumar
Ashok Leyland Technical Center-N G Rajakumar
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
Commercial vehicles have steering systems with one or more steering links connecting the steering gear box pitman arm and front axle steering arm. In case of twin steer vehicles, intermediate pivot arm is used to transfer the motion proportionately between the two front axles. Intermediate pivot arm is also used in some longer front over-hang vehicles to overcome their packaging constraints and to optimize the mechanical leverage. The pivot shaft is a mechanical part of the intermediate pivot arm assembly upon which pivot arm can swivel in one axis. Steering forces transferred through the drag links generates resultant forces and bending moments on the pivot shaft. In this work, study has been carried out on premature failure of the pivot shaft in city bus application model (Entry + 1 step). Metallurgical analysis of failed part indicated the failure to be due to fatigue. Pivot shaft was tested in rig with similar load conditions in order to replicate the failure. The failure mode and location of both, tested as well as field failure samples were identical.…
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The Effect of Application Air Pressure on Brake Stroke Measurements from 70 to 125 psi

SEA, Ltd.-Ashley L. Dunn, Brian Boggess, Nicholas Eiselstein, Michael Dorohoff, Harold Ralston
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
Brake chamber construction allows for a finite stroke for pushrods during brake application. As such, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs) mandate maximum allowable strokes for the various chamber types and sizing. Brake strokes are often measured during compliance inspections and post-accident investigations in order to assess vehicle braking performance and/or capability. A number of studies have been performed, and their results published, regarding the effect of brake stroke and function on braking force and heavy truck stopping performance [1] through [4]. All of the studies have relied on a brake supply pressure of 100 pounds per square inch (psi). When brake strokes are measured in the field, following the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) procedure, the application pressure is prescribed to be maintained between 90 and 100 psi. However, circumstances that are difficult for investigators to control in the field often result in brake stroke measurements being taken with the application pressure outside of the CVSA-prescribed range. Although opinions have been offered regarding suitable correction factors, the authors could not locate any published…
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Optimizing OSRVM Package for Maximizing In-vehicle Visibility

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Subramanian Premananth, Hareesh Krishnan, Riyaz Mohammed, Dharmar Ganesh
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
Overall in-vehicle visibility is considered as a key safety parameter essentially mandated due to the increasing traffic scenario as seen in developing countries. Driver side bottom corner visibility is one such parameter primarily defined by A-pillar bottom and outside rear-view mirror (OSRVM). While defining the OSRVM package requirements such as size, position and regulatory aspects, it is also vital to consider other influencing parameters such as position of pillars, waist-line height, and Instrument panel which affect the in-vehicle visibility. This study explains the various package considerations, methods to optimize OSRVM position, shape and housing design in order to maximize the in-vehicle visibility considering the road and traffic conditions. A detailed study on in-vehicle visibility impacted by OSRVM packaging explained and had been verified for the results.
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Low Pumping Loss Hydraulic Retarder with Helium Circulation System

Wuhan University of Technology-Yuandong Liu, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Li Zhou, Wenbin Liu, Zhiqiang Hu, Kangping Ji, Binyu Mei
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
The hydraulic retarder, an important auxiliary brake, has been widely used in heavy vehicles. Under the non-braking working condition, the air resistance torque in the working chamber, which is formed by the rotor of hydraulic retarder's stirring the air, causes pumping loss. This research designs a new type of hydraulic retarder, whose helium is charged into working chamber through closed loop gas system under non-braking working condition, can reduce the parasitic power loss of transmission system. First, under non-braking working condition, the resistance characteristics are analyzed on the base of hydraulic retarder pumping model; then, considering some parameters, such as the volume of chambers and the initial gas pressure, the working chamber gas charge model is established, and the transient gas charge characteristics are also analyzed under non-braking working condition. Finally, the helium circulation model is established, and the impact of the circulation system parameters on the retarder's oil filling time is analyzed. The results show that the retarder's helium charge system can reduce the pumping loss by more than 70% comparing with traditional hydraulic…
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