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Butanol-Diesel Blend Spray Combustion Investigation by UV-Visible Flame Emission in a Prototype Single Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Istituto Motori CNR-Gerardo Valentino, Simona Merola, Luca Marchitto, Cinzia Tornatore
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-24-2435
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
The paper reports the results of an experimental investigation carried out in a prototype optically accessible compression ignition engine fuelled with different blends of commercial diesel and n-butanol. Thermodynamic analysis and exhaust gas measurements were supported by optical investigations performed through a wide optical access to the combustion chamber. UV-visible digital imaging and 2D chemiluminescence were applied to characterize the combustion process in terms of spatial and temporal occurrence of auto-ignition, flame propagation, soot and OH evolution.The paper illustrates the results of the spray combustion for diesel and n-butanol-diesel blends at 20% and 40% volume fraction, exploring a single and double injection strategy (pilot+main) from a common rail multi-jet injection system. Tests were performed setting a pilot+main strategy with a fixed dwell time and different starts of injection. For the diesel case, the whole amount of injected fuel and injection pressure were set at 22 mg/str and 80 MPa corresponding to a medium load regime for an automotive light duty diesel engine. The fuel amount for the butanol-diesel blends was changed to get the same…
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Engine and After-Treatment System Performance within the Cold Start Transient: New Modelling and Experiments

Universita di Napoli-Paolo Iodice, Adolfo Senatore
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, due to catalyst improvements and electronic mixture control of last generation vehicles equipped with internal combustion engine, the most significant part of the total emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons takes place during the cold phase, if compared with those exhausted in hot conditions, with a clear consequence on air quality of urban contexts. The purpose of this research, developed by the Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Naples Federico II with reference to an European background, is a deeper analysis of the engine and after-treatment system behaviour within the cold start transient and the evaluation of cold start additional emissions: a methodology was developed and optimized to evaluate the cold transient duration, the emitted quantities during the cold phase and the relevant time-dependence function.The whole procedure was applied on the exhaust emissions of one scooter belonging to the Euro-3 legislative category, equipped with catalytic converter, and with a displacement of 280 cm3. Experimental tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer in cold and hot functioning conditions, during both driving cycle…
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Fluid Dynamic Comparison of AdBlue Injectors for SCR Applications

SAE International Journal of Engines

EMPA-Yujun Liao, Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Alexander Spiteri
Politecnico di Milano-Lorenzo Nocivelli, Gianluca Montenegro
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-24-2502
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
The injection process of urea-water solution (AdBlue) determines initial conditions for reactions and catalysis and is fundamentally responsible for optimal operation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. The spray characteristics of four, commercially available, injectors (one air-assisted and three pressure-driven with different nozzle-hole configurations) are investigated with non-intrusive measuring techniques.Injection occurred in the crossflow of a channel blowing preheated air in an exhaust duct similar configuration. The effect of several gas temperatures and flows on the spray propagation and entrainment has been extensively studied by shadow imaging. Shadow images, in addition, show that the spray of the pressure-driven injectors is only marginally affected by the gas crossflow. In contrast, the air assisted spray is strongly deflected by the gas, the effect increasing with increasing gas flow. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurements delivered droplet size distributions and droplet velocities. Measurements have been performed in several locations near the opposed channel wall area. Sauter mean diameters of the droplets from the pressure-driven injectors are between 60-80μm while of the air assisted 20μm. Higher velocities have been associated…
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Analysis of Crank Angle Resolved In-Cylinder Combustion Modeling for Real Time Diesel Engine Simulations

Bosch-Fabrice Aubertin
University of Versailles-LISV-Fadila Maroteaux, Charbel Saad, Pauline Canaud
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
Mainly due to environmental regulation, future Engine Control Unit (ECU) will be equipped with in-cylinder pressure sensors. The introduction of this innovative solution has increased the number of involved variables, requiring an unceasing improvement in the modeling approaches and in the computational capabilities of Engine Control Unit (ECU). Hardware in the Loop (HIL) test system therefore has to provide in-cylinder pressure in real time from an adequate model. This paper describes a synthesis of our study targeted to the development of in-cylinder crank angle combustion model excluding look up tables, dedicated to HIL test bench. The main objective of the present paper is a comprehensive analysis of a reduced combustion model, applied to a direct injection Diesel engine at varying engine operating range, including single injection and multi injection strategies. The developed model has required an important identification step to calibrate the parameters of the combustion model based on single and double Wiebe function. The difficulty to derive one calibrated model for all engine operations is discussed. This study allows to develop two calibrated combustion…
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Enhanced Multi-Zone Model for Medium Pressure Injection Spray and Fuel-Wall Impingement in Light-Duty Diesel Engines

Magneti Marelli SpA - Div. Powertrain-Matteo De Cesare
Università di Salerno-Ivan Arsie, Roberto Di Cianni, Rocco Di Leo, Cesare Pianese
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays the high competition reached by the automotive market forces Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) towards innovative solutions. Strict emission standards and fuel economy targets make the work hard to be accomplished. Therefore modern engines feature complex architecture and embed new devices for Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), turbocharging (e.g. multi-stage compressors), gas after-treatment (e.g. the Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR)) and fuel injection (either high or low pressure). In this context the Engine Management System (EMS) plays a fundamental role to optimize engine operation. The paper deals with fuel spray and combustion simulation by a multi-zone phenomenological model aimed at the steady-state optimal tuning of the injection pattern. The fuel spray model simulates the fuel-air mixture formation, the in-cylinder gas mixture evolution and accounts for fuel-wall impingement, which usually occurs in case of low-medium injection pressure or advanced injection timing. This feature is fundamental to investigate a wide range of injection timing, as that applied for advanced combustion concepts (i.e. Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI)). In the model the jet core is divided into many parcels in…
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Enhanced Investigations of High-Performance SI-Engines by Means of 3D-CFD Simulations

FKFS-Marlene Wentsch, Antonella Perrone, Marco Chiodi
FKFS/IVK, University of Stuttgart-Michael Bargende
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
Comparative analyses of a high-performance 4-cylinder DISI-engine and its equivalent single-cylinder research engine were performed by means of fast response 3D-CFD simulations. Both engines have identical geometries of intake and exhaust channels, cylinder head and piston. The used 3D-CFD tool QuickSim was developed at the Forschungsinstitut für Kraftfahrwesen und Fahrzeugmotoren Stuttgart (FKFS), particularly for the numerical simulation of internal combustion engines (ICE).A calibration of the air consumption enabled a comparison of in-cylinder processes, including charge motion, mixture formation and combustion. All calculated operating points showed a similar trend. Deviations during the gas exchange phase led to a higher turbulence level and hence combustion velocity for the single-cylinder research engine. This resulted in a slightly higher maximum cylinder pressure and indicated mean effective pressure. Results are presented for a representative full load operating point at 6000 rpm.
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Experimental Investigation on the Influence of Boost on Emissions and Combustion in an SGDI-Engine Operated in Stratified Mode

Chalmers Univ. of Technology-Anders N. Johansson, Petter Dahlander
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
Among many techniques used for increasing fuel efficiency of a modern Gasoline Direct-Injected (GDI) engine are boosting and stratified operation. In modern downsized GDI engines, boosting is standard in order to achieve a high power output. Boosted GDI-engines have however mostly been operated in homogenous mode and little is known on the effects of operating a boosted GDI-engine in stratified mode.This paper presents the influence on combustion, standard emissions and particulate size distribution in a Spray-Guided, Gasoline, Direct-Injected (SGDI), single cylinder, research engine operated with various levels of boost.The engine was operated in steady state mode at five engine operating points of various load and speed. The engine was boosted with a Roots blower and operated at four levels of boost as well as atmospheric pressure for comparison. The engine was fueled with market gasoline (95 RON) blended with 10% ethanol. The gas motion induced by the engine head was primarily tumble motion but a small amount of swirl. The spark plug and injector was mounted in parallel with the intake valves.Results indicate that exhaust…
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A Feasibility Study of Using Pyrolysis Oil/Butanol Blended Fuel in a DI Diesel Engine

KIMM-Seokhwan Lee, Tae Young Kim, Kern-Yong Kang
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
The vast stores of biomass available worldwide have the potential to displace significant amounts of petroleum fuels. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is one of several possible paths by which we can convert biomass to higher value products. Pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from wood has been regarded as an alternative fuel to be used in diesel engines. However, the use of PO in a diesel engine requires engine modifications due to the low energy density, high acidity, high viscosity, high water content, and low cetane number of PO. The easiest way to adopt PO without engine modifications is blending with other fuels that have a high cetane number. However, PO has poor miscibility with light petroleum fuel oils; the most suitable candidate fuels for direct fuel mixing are alcohol fuels. Early mixing with alcohol fuels has the added benefit of significantly improving the storage and handling properties of the PO.In this study, the properties of PO were upgraded by blending n-butanol and two cetane enhancements as additives. Blending with n-butanol effectively reduced the viscosity of PO…
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Comparison of Lab Versus Engine Tests In the Development of a Highly Efficient Ammonia Formation Catalyst for a Passive SCR System

Chalmers Univ. of Technology-Gerben Doornbos, Emma Adams, Per-Anders Carlsson, Ingemar Denbratt, Magnus Skoglundh
Haldor Topsoe A/S-Par Gabrielsson, Milica Folic
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
Commercial three way catalysts have limited capacity towards reducing NOx in the presence of excessive oxygen. This prevents lean-burn combustion concepts from meeting legislative emission standards. A solution towards decreasing NOx emissions in the presence of excess air is the use of a passive-SCR system. Under rich conditions ammonia is formed over an ammonia formation catalyst, the ammonia is stored in the SCR and in its turn reacts with the NOx under lean engine conditions.Here up-scaled Pt/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 catalysts as well as a commercially Pd-Rh based three-way catalyst (TWC) are evaluated using both engine and further lab-scale tests.The purpose of these tests is to compare the ammonia production for the various catalysts under various lambda values and temperatures by means of engine and lab scale tests. The Pd/Al2O3 showed little sensitivity to temperature both under engine and lab scale experiments. The Pt/Al2O3 was affected to a large extend by temperature for both test methods. The TWC showed stable production during the engine measurements while under lab tests an increased temperature resulted in a lower…
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Cylinder Pressure Based Fuel Path Control for Non-Conventional Combustion Modes

SAE International Journal of Engines

FEV GmbH-Joschka Schaub, Thomas Koerfer, Stefan Pischinger
FEV GmbH Diesel Engine Development-Thorsten Schnorbus
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-24-2508
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
Model-based control strategies along with an adapted calibration process become more important in the overall vehicle development process. The main drivers for this development trend are increasing numbers of vehicle variants and more complex engine hardware, which is required to fulfill the more and more stringent emission legislation and fuel consumption norms. Upcoming fundamental changes in the homologation process with EU 6c, covering an extended range of different operational and ambient conditions, are suspected to intensify this trend.One main reason for the increased calibration effort is the use of various complex aftertreatment technologies amongst different vehicle applications, requiring numerous combustion modes. The different combustion modes range from heating strategies for active Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration or early SCR light-off and rich combustion modes to purge the NOx storage catalyst (NSC) up to partially premixed combustion modes. A combination of advanced physically oriented control strategies and new model-based calibration procedures seems therefore favorable in order to significantly reduce the overall calibration effort and increase the robustness for the different combustion modes.Within this publication, a new…
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