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Prediction of Aeroacoustical Interior Noise of a Car, Part-2 Structural and Acoustical Analyses

Allied Engineering Corporation-Kunizo Onda
Mizuho Information and Research Institute-Yoshinobu Yamade
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
One-way coupled simulation method that combines CFD, structural and acoustical analyses has been developed aiming at predicting the aeroacoustical interior noise for a wide range of frequency between 100 Hz and 4 kHz. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) has been widely used for evaluating transmission of sound through a car body and resulting interior sound field. Instead of SEA, we directly computed vibration and sound in order to investigate and understand propagation paths of vibration in a car body and sound fields. As the first step of this approach, we predicted the pressure fluctuations on the external surfaces of a car by computing the unsteady flow around the car. Secondly, the predicted pressure fluctuations were fed to the subsequent structural vibration analysis to predict vibration accelerations on the internal surfaces of the car. Finally, an acoustical analysis was performed to predict sound fields in the cabin by using particle velocities of sound on the interior surfaces of the car, predicted by the structural analysis. To transfer predicted surface data, such as pressure fluctuations, vibration accelerations and…
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Combustion Characteristics of Acetone, Butanol, and Ethanol (ABE) Blended with Diesel in a Compression-Ignition Engine

Central South University-Yuqiang Li
Dalian University of Technology-Xiangyu Meng
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) is an intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol. As an additive for diesel, it has been shown to improve spray evaporation, improve fuel atomization, enhance air-fuel mixing, and enhance combustion as a whole. The typical compositions of ABE are in a volumetric ratio of 3:6:1 or 6:3:1. From previous studies done in a constant volume chamber, it was observed that the presence of additional acetone in the blend caused advancement in the combustion phasing, but too much acetone content led to an increase in soot emission during combustion. The objective of this research was to investigate the combustion of these mixtures in a diesel engine. The experiments were conducted in an AVL 5402 single-cylinder diesel engine at different speeds and different loads to study component effects on the various engine conditions. The fuels tested in these experiments were D100, ABE(3:6:1)10, ABE(3:6:1)20, ABE(6:3:1)10, and ABE(6:3:1)20. The acetone-butanol-ethanol mixtures were blended in either a 3:6:1 or 6:3:1 ratio by volume. ABE10 and ABE20 consists of 10% ABE mixture and 90% diesel…
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Impact of Connectivity and Automation on Vehicle Energy Use

Argonne National Laboratory-Pierre Michel, Dominik Karbowski, Aymeric Rousseau
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Connectivity and automation are increasingly being developed for cars and trucks, aiming to provide better safety and better driving experience. As these technologies mature and reach higher adoption rates, they will also have an impact on the energy consumption: Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) may drive more smoothly, stop less often, and move at faster speeds, thanks to overall improvements to traffic flows. These potential impacts are not well studied, and any existing studies tend to focus solely on conventional engine-powered cars, leaving aside electrified vehicles such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs).This work intends to address this issue by analyzing the energy impact of various CAV scenarios on different types of electric vehicles using high-fidelity models. The vehicles-all midsize, one HEV, one BEV, and a conventional-are modeled in Autonomie, a high-fidelity, forward-looking vehicle simulation tool. They are simulated on various CAVs scenarios and modeled by variations of the drive cycle.First, a reference fuel consumption value is obtained for steady-state speeds, which estimate an optimal state reached by the highest achievable…
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Engine Noise Reduction Using Self-Tuning Torsional Vibration Damper

Nermar, Ltd.-George Nerubenko
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Up to 30% of engine noise is delivered by front end pulley combined with torsional vibration damper, and technically it is the main contributor to recorded engine noise level. So the novel solutions in terms of improving the design and performance of torsional vibration damper would help to reduce radically this component of engine noise. The results of dynamical study of patented torsional vibration damper combined with pulley are presented. Design and structure of torsional vibration damper is based on author’s US Patent 7,438,165 having the self-tuning control system for all frequencies in running engine in all operational regimes. Mathematical model has been used for the analysis of the emitting noise of engine having proposed torsional vibration damper. Attention is paid to mitigation of the sound power levels contributing by engine subsystem “end of crankshaft - torsional vibration damper - pulley”. Theoretical analysis reveals that the proposed self-tuning torsion damper could nullified the vibration (and, consequently, the noise) consisting of components having up to 9 frequencies. Tests have been conducted in order to get the…
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Development of Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Management System for Electric Vehicles Based on a Power Sharing Strategy Using Terrain Information

Jilin University-Zhang Qiao, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu, Feng Ju, Jingshan Li
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Since road electric vehicles typically require a significantly variable and random load power demand in response to traffic conditions, such as frequent sequences of acceleration and deceleration and uphill followed by downhill runs. In this context, the energy management system of electric vehicle must ensure an effective power distribution between battery and supercapacitor to satisfy load demand. In this paper, the power management control strategy of hybrid energy storage system is developed by introducing terrain information to optimize system efficiency and battery lifetime. In this presented research, we aim at developing a power management control strategy considering the influence of the terrain information on system efficiency and battery lifetime. In order to avoid rapid changes of power demand and achieve high efficiency without degrading the mechanism performance, a Haar wavelet transform algorithm is proposed to decompose different frequencies components of the load power demand. In addition, the dynamic relationships are also established between the desired supercapacitor voltage and vehicle velocity and terrain to guide the power distribution. Finally, the hybrid system models are developed using…
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Sub-200 g/kWh BSFC on a Light Duty Gasoline Engine

MAHLE Powertrain LLC-Michael Bunce, Hugh Blaxill
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent global fuel economy and carbon dioxide (CO2) legislation for light duty passenger cars has created an interest in unconventional operating modes. One such mode in spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines is lean combustion. While lean operation in SI engines has previously demonstrated the ability to reduce fuel consumption, the degree of enleanment capability of the system is limited by increasingly unstable combustion in the lean region, particularly for homogeneous lean approaches. MAHLE Jet Ignition® (MJI) is a pre-chamber-based combustion system that extends this lean limit beyond the capabilities of modern SI engines by increasing the ignition energy present in the system. This allows the engine to exploit the benefits of homogeneous ultra-lean (λ > ∼1.6) combustion, namely reduced fuel consumption and reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx).Pre-chamber combustors such as that utilized in MJI have been studied extensively for decades. Pre-chamber-based jet ignition concepts have unique features such as flame quenching and ignition site targeting that enable further system optimization. In the present study, the engine performance improvement pathways of the system are…
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Aerodynamic Side Forces on Passenger Cars at Yaw

Loughborough University-Jeff Howell
Tata Motors European Technical Centre-Sumit Panigrahi
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Side force has an influence on the behaviour of passenger cars in windy conditions. It increases approximately linearly with yaw angle over a significant range of yaw for almost all cars and the side force derivative, (the gradient of side force coefficient with yaw angle), is similar for vehicles of a given category and size. The shape factors and components which affect side force for different vehicle types are discussed. The dominant influence on side force, for most cars, however, is shown to be the vehicle height which is consistent with slender wing theory if the car and its mirror image are considered. This simple theory is shown to apply to 1-box and 2- box shapes, covering most MPVs, hatchbacks and SUVs, but does not adequately represent the side forces on notchback and fastback car shapes. Data from simple bodies is used to develop a modification to the basic theory, which is applied to these vehicle types.
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EPAS System Tests Using Rack Force Models

Ford Motor Company-Dexin Wang, Frank Esser
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Evaluation of electric steering (EPAS) system performance using vehicle specific load conditions is important for steering system design validation and vehicle steering performance tuning. Using real-time vehicle dynamics mathematical models is one approach for generating steering loads in steering hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing. However achieving a good correlation of simplified mathematical models with real vehicle dynamics is a challenge.Using rack force models from measured steering tie rod forces or from simulations using a high-fidelity vehicle dynamics model is an effective data-driven modelling method for testing EPAS systems under vehicle specific load conditions. Rack force models are identified from physical measurements or validated vehicle simulations of selected steering test maneuvers. The rack force models have been applied in steering system performance evaluation, benchmarking, and steering model validation.
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Clarification of Transient Characteristics by Coupled Analysis of Powertrains and Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.-Ryoichi Hibino, Tomohiko Jimbo, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi, Yasuaki Tsurumi
Toyota Motor Corporation-Hideaki Otsubo, Shinji Kato
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1314
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
With the goal of improving drivability, this research aimed to clarify the mechanism of vehicle longitudinal acceleration, focusing on tip-in acceleration. Conventional typical analysis methods include experimental modal and model-based analysis. However, since the former requires the measurement of impulses and other input forces while the vehicle is stopped, measurement under actual driving conditions is difficult. The latter requires characteristic values such as the stiffness and damping coefficients to be identified in advance, which cannot be achieved either easily or precisely. Therefore, this paper proposes a new experiment-based analysis method. This method enables the acquisition of engine torque and transmission torque/force by measuring only the acceleration values of some components under driving conditions. The key to realizing this method is the measurement of motions with the necessary and sufficient degrees of freedom (e.g., pitch motion) since these greatly affect vehicle behavior. Another aspect of this method is the adoption of appropriate equations to express the relationship between action and reaction forces and the measured acceleration (inertial force). Once the torque and force are obtained, a…
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Knock Resistance and Fine Particle Emissions for Several Biomass-Derived Oxygenates in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew A. Ratcliff, Jonathan Burton, Petr Sindler, Earl Christensen, Lisa Fouts, Gina M. Chupka, Robert L. McCormick
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0705
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Several high octane number oxygenates that could be derived from biomass were blended with gasoline and examined for performance properties and their impact on knock resistance and fine particle emissions in a single cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The oxygenates included ethanol, isobutanol, anisole, 4-methylanisole, 2-phenylethanol, 2,5-dimethyl furan, and 2,4-xylenol. These were blended into a summertime blendstock for oxygenate blending at levels ranging from 10 to 50 percent by volume. The base gasoline, its blends with p-xylene and p-cymene, and high-octane racing gasoline were tested as controls. Relevant gasoline properties including research octane number (RON), motor octane number, distillation curve, and vapor pressure were measured. Detailed hydrocarbon analysis was used to estimate heat of vaporization and particulate matter index (PMI). Experiments were conducted to measure knock-limited spark advance and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The results show a range of knock resistances that correlate well with RON. Molecules with relatively low boiling point and high vapor pressure had little effect on PM emissions. In contrast, the aromatic oxygenates caused significant increases in PM emissions (factors of 2…
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