Your Selections

SAE 2015 World Congress & Exhibition
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Jeremy S. Neubauer, Eric Wood, Ahmad Pesaran
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1306
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Battery second use-putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure-has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g., electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to battery degradation, including: How long will PEV batteries last in automotive service? How healthy will PEV batteries be when they leave automotive service? How long will retired PEV batteries last in second-use service? How well can we best predict the second-use lifetime of a used automotive battery? Under the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including the Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools and demonstrate their application. Under our assumed second use duty cycle of daily peak shaving, we have found that repurposed automotive batteries can last ten years or…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Performance of Lightweight Materials for Vehicle Interior Trim Subject to Monotonic Loading and Low Velocity Impact

Indian Institute of Science-Anindya Deb, Ashok Mache
Visvesvaraya Technological University-G S Venkatesh
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The usage of lightweight materials such as plastics and their derivatives continues to increase in automobiles driven by the urgency for weight reduction. For structural performance, body components such as A-pillar or B-pillar trim, instrument panel, etc. have to meet various requirements including resistance to penetration and energy absorption capability under impact indentation. A range of plain and reinforced thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics has been considered in the present study in the form of plates which are subject to low velocity perforation in a drop-weight impact testing set-up with a rigid cylindrical indenter fitted to a tup. The tested plates are made of polypropylene (PP), nanoclay-reinforced PP of various percentages of nanoclay content, wood-PP composites of different volume fractions of wood fiber, a jute-polyester composite, and a hybrid jute-polyester reinforced with steel. In order to estimate the energy absorbed by a test specimen, a novel procedure is followed in which the initial (i.e. just before impact) and final (i.e. immediately after perforation) velocities of the impactor system are obtained using images recorded by a high…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Jump-Starting AUTOSAR ECU Development

Mentor Graphics Corp.-James Price
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
More than ten years have passed since the establishment of the AUTOSAR consortium. Today, AUTOSAR has become a well-established standard for automotive electronic control unit (ECU) development and network design. In fact, several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) now mandate AUTOSAR when sourcing ECUs. With that being said, the standard is getting more complex as new concepts are added with each new release, making integration an increasingly difficult challenge - let alone a challenge developing it alongside ECU application functionality.This paper addresses the integration of AUTOSAR 4.x basic software stack into an ECU project and offers proposed flows for the integration process starting from the ECU extract to a fully configured AUTOSAR stack.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Effects of Fuel Physical Properties on Auto-Ignition Characteristics in a Heavy Duty Compression Ignition Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Univ. of Wisconsin-Michael A. Groendyk, David Rothamer
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0952
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The effect of fuel physical properties on the ignition and combustion characteristics of diesel fuels was investigated in a heavy-duty 2.52 L single-cylinder engine. Two binary component fuels, one comprised of farnesane (FAR) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN), and another comprised of primary reference fuels (PRF) for the octane rating scale (i.e. n-heptane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane), were blended to match the cetane number (CN) of a 45 CN diesel fuel. The binary mixtures were used neat, and blended at 25, 50, and 75% by volume with the baseline diesel. Ignition delay (ID) for each blend was measured under identical operating conditions. A single injection was used, with injection timing varied from −12.5 to 2.5 CAD. Injection pressures of 50, 100, and 150 MPa were tested. Observed IDs were consistent with previous work done under similar conditions with diesel fuels. The shortest IDs were seen at injection timings of −7.5 CAD. The largest difference in ID between all fuels of 75 ± 18 μs was observed at the earliest injection timing with an injection pressure of 50 MPa. The…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Optimization of MAC Side Window Demister Outlet by Parametric Modelling through DFSS Approach

Chrysler India Automotive Pvt, Ltd.-Vasanth Balashunmuganathan, Ramakrishna Nukala, Sathishkumar Sampath Kumar
FCA US LLC-Murali Govindarajalu
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In recent years clearing the mist on side windows is one of the main criterions for all OEMs for providing comfort level to the person while driving. Visibility through the side windows will be poor when the mist is not cleared to the desired level. “Windows fog up excessively/don't clear quickly” is one of the JD Power question to assess the customer satisfaction related to HVAC performance. In a Mobile Air Conditioning System, HVAC demister duct and outlet plays an important role for removing the mist formation on vehicle side window. Normally demister duct and outlet design is evaluated by the target airflow and velocity achieved at driver and passenger side window. The methodology for optimizing the demister outlet located at side door trim has been discussed. Detailed studies are carried out for creating a parametric modeling and optimization of demister outlet design for meeting the target velocity. In this methodology, a parametric modeling of demister outlet design using the factors such as length, width, vane angles and demister outlet to window angle is created…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Effects of Crash Pulse, Impact Angle, Occupant Size, Front Seat Location, and Restraint System on Rear Seat Occupant Protection

TRW Vehicle Safety Systems Inc.-Kurt Fischer, Paul Lange, Angelo Adler
Univ. of Michigan-Jingwen Hu
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, two sled series were conducted with a sled buck representing a compact vehicle. The first series of tests focused on the effects of crash pulse, impact angle, occupant size, and front seat location on rear seat occupant restraint with a generic rear-seat belt system without pre-tensioner or load limiter. The second series of tests focused on investigating the benefit of using advanced features for rear-seat occupant restraint in the most severe crash condition in the first sled series.The first series of tests include 16 test conditions with two impact angles (0° and 15°), two sled pulse (soft and severe), and four ATD sizes (HIII 6YO, HIII 5th female, HIII 95th male, and THOR-NT) with two ATDs in each test. The driver seat was located at the mid position, while the front passenger seat was positioned such that a constant distance between the ATD knee and the front seat is achieved. In all the tests, a generic rear-seat belt system without pre-tensioner, load limiter or dynamic locking tongue (DLT) was used.Test results from…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Finite-Element-Based Transfer Equations: Post-Mortem Human Subjects versus Hybrid III Test Dummy in Frontal Sled Impact

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Ford Motor Co.-Raed E. El-jawahri, Tony R. Laituri, Agnes S. Kim, Stephen W. Rouhana, Para V. Weerappuli
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1489
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Transfer or response equations are important as they provide relationships between the responses of different surrogates under matched, or nearly identical loading conditions. In the present study, transfer equations for different body regions were developed via mathematical modeling. Specifically, validated finite element models of the age-dependent Ford human body models (FHBM) and the mid-sized male Hybrid III (HIII50) were used to generate a set of matched cases (i.e., 192 frontal sled impact cases involving different restraints, impact speeds, severities, and FHBM age). For each impact, two restraint systems were evaluated: a standard three-point belt with and without a single-stage inflator airbag. Regression analyses were subsequently performed on the resulting FHBM- and HIII50-based responses. This approach was used to develop transfer equations for seven body regions: the head, neck, chest, pelvis, femur, tibia, and foot. All of the resulting regression equations, correlation coefficients, and response ratios (FHBM relative to HIII50) were consistent with a set of test-based results. The HIC15 transfer equation was used to transform the cadaver-based risk curve into the HIII50 domain.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Model Predictive Control as a Solution for Standardized Controller Synthesis and Reduced Development Time Application Example to Diesel Particulate Filter Temperature Control

Honeywell Automotive Software-Lukas Lansky, Dejan Kihas
RENAULT SAS-Karim Bencherif, Dirk von Wissel
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Over the past few years, innovative engine layouts have enabled significant reductions in both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. However, exponential growth of powertrain control strategies complexity has inevitably accompanied these achievements. As a result, control and calibration development time and effort have become an ever-growing concern in powertrain design. An illustrative example of this complexity is Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF), which requires periodic regeneration to eliminate the accumulated soot. The main challenge for a DPF is to enhance the efficiency of these regeneration events, which depend largely on the quality of the regeneration temperature control.In this paper, we describe the DPF regeneration process, especially the main constraints and identification tests. We then give a simulation based comparison of two model based control solutions for the DPF thermal control during regeneration. Finally, we compare Renault's currently applied industrial gain scheduling controller with a prototype Model Predictive Control (MPC) designed by a software toolset called OnRAMP Design Suite, marketed by Honeywell. Specific attention is drawn to the comparison of the development times and effort.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Turbocharger Matching Method for Reducing Residual Concentration in a Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

Imperial College London-Muhammad Izzal Ismail, Aaron Costall, Ricardo Martinez-Botas
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia-Srithar Rajoo
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In a turbocharged engine, preserving the maximum amount of exhaust pulse energy for turbine operation will result in improved low end torque and engine transient response. However, the exhaust flow entering the turbine is highly unsteady, and the presence of the turbine as a restriction in the exhaust flow results in a higher pressure at the cylinder exhaust ports and consequently poor scavenging. This leads to an increase in the amount of residual gas in the combustion chamber, compared to the naturally-aspirated equivalent, thereby increasing the tendency for engine knock. If the level of residual gas can be reduced and controlled, it should enable the engine to operate at a higher compression ratio, improving its thermal efficiency.This paper presents a method of turbocharger matching for reducing residual gas content in a turbocharged engine. The turbine is first scaled to a larger size as a preliminary step towards reducing back pressure and thus the residual gas concentration in-cylinder. However a larger turbine causes a torque deficit at low engine speeds. So in a following step, pulse…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

An Experimental Investigation of Injection and Operating Strategies on Diesel Single Cylinder Engine under JP-8 and Dual-Fuel PCCI Combustion

Advanced Institutes of Convergence Tech-Hoimyung Choi
Seoul National Univ-Sanghyun Chu, Jeongwoo Lee, Jaehyuk Cha, Kyoungdoug Min
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The alternative fuel jet propellant 8 (JP-8, NATO F-34) can be used as an auto-ignition source instead of diesel. Because it has a higher volatility than diesel, it provides a better air-fuel premixing condition than a conventional diesel engine, which can be attributed to a reduction in particulate matter (PM). In homogeneous charged compression ignition (HCCI) or dual-fuel premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion or reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), nitrogen oxides (NOx) can also be reduced by supplying external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). In this research, the diesel and JP-8 injection strategies under conventional condition and dual-fuel PCCI combustion with and without external EGR was conducted.Two tests of dual-fuel (JP-8 and propane) PCCI were conducted at a low engine speed and load (1,500 rpm/IMEP 0.55 MPa). The first test was performed by advancing the main injection timing from BTDC 5 to 35 CA to obtain the emissions characteristics. A fuel ratio of JP-8 to propane of approximately 30:70 was established based on the low heating value of each fuel without the addition of external…
Annotation ability available