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SAE Brake Colloquium & Exhibition - 32nd Annual
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Analysis Method to Study the Potentials in Recovering the Brake Energy in Articulated Haulers

Blekinge Institute of Technology-Mandeep Singh Walia, Lars Hakansson, Gaurav Chopra
Volvo Construction Equipment AB-Magnus Karlsson
Published 2014-09-28 by SAE International in United States
An analysis method to study the potentials of recovering the brake energy from Volvo articulated haulers has been developed. The study has been carried out with purpose to find out how and where possible hybrid solutions can be used. The method is based on the mapping of the peak brake power, brake energy and engine energy. This method was developed using adequate signals collected on haulers at three different customer sites. A conceptual study was also carried out concerning the brake energy to understand the actual amount of brake energy that may be stored in an Energy storage system (ESS). The results indicate that the analysis method developed can map the brake energy generated and also provide an overview of the actual amount of brake energy that can be accumulated in an ESS. Hence, the method may also providing guidelines regarding the selection of an ESS for a particular work site.
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Design, Modeling and Simulation of a New Compact Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

China FAW Group Corp.-Yongsheng Zhang, Wenruo Wei
Tsinghua Univ.-Ning Pan, Liangyao Yu, Zhizhong Wang, Liangxu Ma, Jian Song
Published 2014-09-28 by SAE International in United States
With the advantages of free from engine vacuum, wheel cylinder pressure decoupled from the brake pedal and can be regulated individually and precisely, the brake-by-wire system has a huge application potential in vehicles, especially in electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Electro-hydraulic Brake system is the first approach towards brake-by-wire technology.This paper proposed a new compact EHB, aiming at decreasing the size, volume and cost without compromise of performance. The main components of the proposed EHB are pedal simulator, motor pump, accumulator and eight solenoid valves. An authentic model of the EHB and other key components of the brake system were established based on the test data from the test bench. A control algorithm using Round-Robin scheduling was presented to regulate the fluid pressure. Some parameters of the components were discussed to research their effects on system performance. The effects of pressure regulation were examined in simulation, and the results showed that the response time and the control precision of the system are feasible for vehicle application.
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Modeling and Simulation of Dynamic Behavior of Pneumatic Brake System at Vehicle Level

Wabco India, Ltd.-Mithun Selvaraj, Anand Kumar Suresh
Wabco Vehicle Control Systems-Suresh Gaikwad
Published 2014-09-28 by SAE International in United States
The highest goal for a good brake system design must be that the vehicle when braking obtains a shorter stopping distance does not leave the track and remains steerable. From the perspective of road traffic, safety and for avoidance of accidents the time and location of a vehicle coming to halt after braking are crucial. In heavy commercial vehicle having longer wheel base, pneumatic brake system is being used.The pneumatic brake system configuration has to be designed in such a way that the response time should meet the safety regulation standards and thereby achieve shorter stopping distance and vehicle stability. Validating the effectiveness of pneumatic brake system layout experimentally on stopping distance and vehicle stability is expensive. This paper deals with the modeling of a typical heavy commercial vehicle along with the entire pneumatic brake system layout with actuating valves, control valves and foundation brakes to predict the dynamic behavior and stopping distance. The modeling and simulation was carried out using AMESim, commercially available multi-domain physical modeling software employing bond graph technique and lumped system.…
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Effects of Different Oil Inlet and Outlet Distribution on Hydraulic Retarder

Hubei Key Lab of Adv Tech for Auto Components, Wuhan Univ.-Ming Chen, Xuexun Guo, Gangfeng Tan
Published 2014-09-28 by SAE International in United States
The paper studies on the basis of VOITH R133-2 hydraulic retarder, the inlet and outlet structures of the oil passage on the stator are rearranged, which are made a more uniform structure distribution. In order to find out the characteristics of this kind of structure arrangement. The flow passage models for two different structures are established, and the internal flow field characteristics are studied by using the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) method. The flow rules of the internal oil, the distribution of pressure field and velocity field as well as output braking torque are obtained. The results show that rearranged structure retarder has a more uniform pressure distribution and a lower output braking torque than original structure retarder. And the simulation verifies the effectiveness of simulating true flow by CFD in hydraulic retarder flow field and conduct retarder design and structure optimization.
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Design Concepts of the Four-Wheel-Independent Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

Tsinghua Univ.-Zhizhong Wang, Liangyao Yu, Yufeng Wang, Kaihui Wu, Ning Pan, Jian Song, Liangxu Ma
Published 2014-09-28 by SAE International in United States
The four-wheel-independent Electro-hydraulic Braking system (4WI EHB) is a wet type Brake-by-Wire system for passenger vehicle and is suitable for electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to cooperate with regenerative braking. This paper gives a review on the design concepts of the 4WI EHB from the following three aspects. 1. Hydraulic architectures. 2. Design concepts of the brake actuator. 3. Installation of the components on the vehicle. Simulations and experiments are carried out to further explore the performance of hydraulic backup and implicit hardware redundancy (IHR). A method to integrate the IHR with hydraulic backup without increasing the total amount of valves is proposed, making the IHR cost and weight competitive. By reviewing various design concepts and analyzing their advantages and drawbacks, a cost and weight competitive design concept of the 4WI EHB with good fail-safe and fault-tolerant performance is proposed.
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Comparison of Various Concepts of Twin Leading Brake Performance by Method of Virtual Simulation

Hero MotoCorp Ltd.-Shiwalik Ghosh, Baskar Anthonysamy, Ravi Kaushik
Published 2014-09-28 by SAE International in United States
Prevailing cut-throat competition in Indian Two wheeler market requires design engineers to enhance performance of traditional braking systems with reduction in cost and weight. The increasing need of road safety however requires the braking system to minimize stopping distance and increasing Mean Fully Developed Deceleration (MFDD). The purpose of this study is to augment the braking performance of two wheeler by comparing various combinations of twin leading drum brake layouts by method of Virtual Simulation.The conventional drum brake system utilizes one cam, one pivot, one leading shoe member and one trailing shoe member. In the event of braking, leading shoe causes the generation of drag force. The other shoe is “trailing”, moving against the direction of rotation, is thrown away from the friction surface of the drum and is far less effective. The present study highlights the incorporation and enhancement of braking characteristics of bigger brake drum system into smaller brake drum system through the adoption of double leading shoe concept with the added advantage of reduction in cost. The study necessitates the designing of…
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Stability Control of Four-Wheel-Drive Electric Vehicle with Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

China Automotive Technology and Research-Yong Sun
Jilin Univ.-Dongmei Wu, Haitao Ding, Konghui Guo, Yang Li
Published 2014-09-28 by SAE International in United States
Four-wheel-drive electric vehicles (4WD Evs) utilize in-wheel electric motors and Electro-Hydraulic Braking system (EHB). Then, all wheels torque can be controlled independently, and the braking pressure can be controlled more accurately and more fast than conventional braking system. Because of these advantages, 4WD Evs have potential applications in control engineering. In this paper, the in-wheel electric motors and EHB are applied as actuators in the vehicle stability control system. Based on the Direct Yaw-moment Control (DYC), the optimized wheel force distribution is given, and the coordination control of the hydraulic braking and the motor braking torque is considered. Then the EHB hardware-in-the-loop test bench is established in order to verify the effectiveness of the vehicle stability control algorithm through experiments. The simulation and experiment results show that the stability control system with in-wheel electric motors and EHB as actuators can improve the stability of the 4WD Evs effectively.
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Experimental Study of Interaction between Brake-Disc Surface Texture and Friction Material on Friction and Wear through Small-Scale Tests on Tribotester

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

KIRIU Corp.-Toshikazu Okamura
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2502
Published 2014-09-28 by SAE International in United States
There are various processes for finishing the friction surfaces of a brake disc, which affect the braking effectiveness of a vehicle in the early stages of use in some cases. To examine the interaction between the disc surface texture, rotational direction, and friction material, a series of experiments on a tribotester using small-scale specimens was conducted.In a previous paper (2013-01-2056), the results from the first series of experiments, which involved of thirty disc surface textures and a less aggressive non-asbestos organic (NAO) friction material in on-brake-drag conditions combining constant speed and normal-load, was reported. Disc surfaces were finished by the following finishing processes in two rotational directions: turning under four cutting conditions, roller burnishing after turning, turning with a wiper insert, and grinding with two stones. Contact-pressure dependency of friction and wear was confirmed. Roller-burnished and wiper-turned discs exhibited different friction and wear at a certain contact pressure between rotational directions in the turning process.In the present study, four discs finished by grinding in a different cross-hatch pattern from that in the previous study and…
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A Study of Mass Drivers in the Brake System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

General Motors Co.-David B. Antanaitis
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2506
Published 2014-09-28 by SAE International in United States
It is obvious at this point even to the most casual observer of the automotive industry that efforts to reduce mass throughout the vehicle are at a fervor. The industry is facing its most significant increase in fuel economy standards in its history, and light-weighting the vehicle is a major enabler. Despite the performance and quality of the brake system being intensely related to its mass, it too has not been spared scrutiny. However, like many modern automotive subsystems, it is very complex and mass reduction opportunities that do not sacrifice performance or quality are not always obvious. There are some interesting and sometimes even profound relationships between mass and other vehicle attributes built into brake system design, and making these more visible can enable a better balancing of brake system with the rest of the vehicle design objectives. Examples include - what is the cost, in terms of brake system mass, of added engine power? Of tire and wheel size? What is the mass cost of brake pad volume and service life? Can the…
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Test Results of A Sensor-Less, Highly Nonlinear Electro-Mechanical Brake

CT Engineering-Markus Schiffer
Egasi Mehatronske Rešitve d.o.o.-Jure Peternel
Published 2014-09-28 by SAE International in United States
The electro-mechanical brake (EMB) of Vienna Engineering (VE) uses a highly non-linear mechanism to create the high pressing force of the pad. The advantage is that the pad moves very fast when the pad pressing force is low and moves slower with increasing pressing force.The normal force in EMBs is often controlled by observing mechanical deformation to conclude to stress or force, commonly using strain gauges. It causes costs of the gauge itself and attaching them to e.g. the caliper and a sensitive amplifier. The full gauge equipment goes into the safety-related brake control system. The faintest damage (e.g. stone impacts, heat) gets the vehicle to the repair shop making expensive replacement necessary.To avoid the costs of the force measurement in the safety related system VE took the electrical motor measurements from the very beginning of the brake development for EMB control. These electrical values (position, rpm, current, voltage) are already present to operate the brushless DC motor and need no additional parts.In this paper a comparison is done between the effort to use force…
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