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A Study of HCCI Combustion Using Spectroscopic Measurements and Chemical Kinetic Simulations: Effects of Fuel Composition, Engine Speed and Cylinder Pressure on Low-temperature Oxidation Reactions and Autoignition

SAE International Journal of Engines

Nihon Univ.-Yusuke Takahashi, Kenta Suyama, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-32-0524
Published 2011-11-08 by SAE International in United States
The Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is positioned as a next-generation internal combustion engine and has been the focus of extensive research in recent years to develop a practical system. One reason is that this new combustion system achieves lower fuel consumption and simultaneous reductions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, which are major issues of internal combustion engines today. However, the characteristics of HCCI combustion can prevent suitable engine operation owing to the rapid combustion process that occurs accompanied by a steep pressure rise when the amount of fuel injected is increased to obtain higher power output. A major issue of HCCI is to control this rapid combustion so that the quantity of fuel injected can be increased for greater power. Controlling the ignition timing is also an issue because it is substantially influenced by the chemical reactions of the fuel. Various approaches are being researched for expanding the range of stable engine operation, including the application of turbocharging, the use of residual combustion gas, stratification of the fuel concentration,…
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INTRODUCTION OF COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY FOR ELECTRODEPOSITION PAINTING PROCESS

Suzuki Motor Corp.-Takeshi Kashiyama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2011-32-0639
Published 2011-11-08 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The electrodeposition painting can make a coat adhere not only to the exterior surface but also on the inside of an object, and has excellent corrosion resistance. Therefore, it is widely used as paint for anti-corrosion to various vehicles.In electrodeposition painting, by the electricity from an electrode flowing into the surface of an object through paint solution, a paint deposits to the surface of an object and a paint film is formed. Therefore, if the object is simply in contact with paint solution, a paint film will not necessarily be formed. For example, even if paint solution has touched, since the electrical resistance of paint solution is not high, sufficient current flows through the outside of a motorcycle frame, nor the inner surface of the automobile body and a paint film may not be formed. In order to check the paint film thickness of electrodeposition painting conventionally, it was measuring by disassembling the actually painted object. As a result of measurement, when paint film thickness is inadequate, it is necessary to cope with the addition…
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Anodizing method for aluminum alloy by using high-frequency switching electrolysis

Kogakuin Univ.-H. Asoh, S. Ono
Suzuki Motor Corp.-H. Tanaka, M. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, H. Muramatsu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2011-32-0645
Published 2011-11-08 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Anodizing is applied to improve the durability and the corrosion resistance of aluminum alloy parts of engines and car bodies. Generally, anodic oxide film is formed using direct current anodizing (DCA). However, in the case of anodizing high silicon aluminum alloy cast parts, it is difficult to derive uniform film thickness distribution. Furthermore, it takes a long treatment time which causes low productivity. In this study, the authors have developed an anodizing method by using high-frequency switching anodizing (HSA) to solve these problems. The growth process of anodic oxide film is susceptible to the metallographic structure. Thus, the typical DCA application to the high silicon aluminum alloy produces a non-uniform film thickness, while HSA has the potential to form uniform film without being affected by metallographic structure. Moreover, the current density of HSA is higher than that of DCA which reduces treatment time to 1/5 as the film formation enhances. Our investigation is to apply HSA to the mass produced engine pistons that require both high durability and low cost.
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Effect of Cylinder Diameter of Monotube-Type MR-Damper on the Damping Force Changing Ratio and the Response Time

Kanazawa Univ.-Hajime Komatsu, Hiroshi Enomoto, Toshihiko Komatsuzaki, Kohei Izumi
Published 2011-11-08 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
MR-damper (Magneto-Rheological fluid damper) is used an actuator with high speed in response to control the movement of four-wheel vehicles. In this paper, performances of two MR-dampers were measured. These dampers had difference in diameter of cylinder, length of piston and orifice. These changes will influence the damping force, the damping force change ratio and the response time of damping force change. As a result, a larger damper showed 1.4 times damping force change ratio of smaller one and shorter response time in compression.
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1D and 3D CFD Investigation of Burning Process and Knock Occurrence in a Gasoline or CNG fuelled Two-Stroke SI Engine

University of Modena and Reggio Emilia-S. Fontanesi, E. Severi
University of Naples Federico II-F. Bozza, A. Gimelli
Published 2011-11-08 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The paper presents a combined experimental and numerical investigation of a small unit displacement two-stroke SI engine operated with gasoline and Natural Gas (CNG).A detailed multi-cycle 3D-CFD analysis of the scavenging process is at first performed in order to accurately characterize the engine behavior in terms of scavenging patterns and efficiency. Detailed CFD analyses are used to accurately model the complex set of physical and chemical processes and to properly estimate the fluid-dynamic behavior of the engine, where boundary conditions are provided by a in-house developed 1D model of the whole engine. It is in fact widely recognized that for two-stroke crankcase scavenged, carbureted engines the scavenging patterns (fuel short-circuiting, residual gas distribution, pointwise lambda field, etc.) plays a fundamental role on both of engine performance and tailpipe emissions.In order to assess the accuracy of the adopted numerical approach, comparisons between numerical forecasts and experimental measurements of instantaneous in-cylinder pressure history for steady-state operations of the engine are at first performed and shown in the paper.Subsequently, results from 3D simulations are used to improve the…
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Prediction Method of Speed Characteristics of V-Belt CVT

Suzuki Motor Corp.-Michinori Takeuchi, Mitsugu Koide, Yoshihiko Sunayama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2011-32-0643
Published 2011-11-08 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The Mechanical CVT is mainly used for small size motorcycle called “scooter”, which has a 250 cc or less engine capacity. The speed characteristics of the Mechanical CVT are decided by engine speed and load-torque on driven pulley. In few papers, these characteristics are studied under full-load or no-load condition [1]-[2]. However, the characteristics at part-load condition are not well known. To develop a motorcycle with low fuel consumption, it is important that the characteristics at part-load condition are considered in driving cycle. Driving cycle simulation is needed to estimate CVT ratio at design stage. This research proposes equations representing the speed characteristics of the Mechanical CVT at part-load condition. Driving cycle simulation is also developed for estimation of the fuel consumption at optional driving cycles and the dynamic behavior of the CVT system. It could be a CVT design tool to makes sure whether its performance is achieved for design targets.
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Development of lead-free crankshaft for motorcycle

Sumitomo Metals (Kokura), Ltd.-Shigefumi Nishitani
Suzuki Motor Corp.-Osahiko Horii, Shigenori Yamada, Hiroshi Chigira, Kunihiko Hiraoka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2011-32-0649
Published 2011-11-08 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Lead-added free-cutting steel has been used by many parts which need high machinability because lead improves chip friability and drill life. However, the demand of lead reduction increases in recent years, because of environmental impact substance reduction. Therefore, we developed lead-free crankshaft for motorcycle.Until now, crankshaft for motorcycle has been manufactured with lead-added free-cutting steel by a following process; Hot-Forging - Quenching and Tempering (QT) - Prior Machining - Nitrocarburizing - Finishing process because of strength and machinability. When we tried to change steel to lead-free, we examined to change to sulfur-added free-cutting steel. However, chip friability of sulfur-added free-cutting steel is inferior to lead one. Thus, we concerned about increase in machining expense. Then, heat-treatment after forging was examined to change from QT to normalizing for reducing the heat-treatment expense. As a result, total production cost achieved equivalent to conventional.Deterioration of fatigue strength was feared because of a decrease of hardness by changing heat-treatment. Thus, we paid attention to that crankshaft for motorcycle needs nitrocarburizing. We adjusted the alloying elements so that hardness near…
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Investigation of the Flow Velocity in the Spark Plug Gap of a Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine using Laser-Doppler-Anemometry

SAE International Journal of Engines

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)-Kai W. Beck, Ulrich Spicher
MOT GmbH-Markus Bertsch, Kai Schreer, Christian Disch
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-32-0529
Published 2011-11-08 by SAE International in United States
The two-stroke SI engine remains the dominant concept for handheld power tools. Its main advantages are a good power-to-weight ratio, simple mechanical design and low production costs. Because of these reasons, the two-stroke SI engine will remain the dominant engine in such applications for the foreseeable future. Increasingly stringent exhaust emission laws, in conjunction with the drive for more efficiency, have made new scavenging and combustion processes necessary. The main foci are to reduce raw emissions of unburned hydrocarbons via intelligent guidance of the fresh air-fuel mixture and to improve performance to reduce specific emissions. The flow velocity in the electrode gap of the spark plug is of great interest for the ignition of the air-fuel-mixture and the early combustion phase of all kinds of SI engines. In these investigations, the flow velocity in the spark plug gap of a two-stroke gasoline engine with stratified scavenging was measured under various conditions. Two spatial directions in the spark plug gap were measured without influencing the in-cylinder flow. The measurements were performed using LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry),…
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Effects of Ethanol Ratio and Temperature on Gasoline Atomizing Using Local-Contact Microwave-Heating Injector

Kanazawa Univ.-Thu Huong Thi Tran, Hiroshi Enomoto, Kosuke Nishioka, Motoki Kushita, Takaaki Sakitsu, Naoki Ebisawa
Published 2011-11-08 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Improvement of atomization process is one of the most effective methods to promote the cold-start period of an internal combustion engine (ICE) using port fuel injector (PFI). In this paper authors present a fuel heating method using microwave energy through the local-contact microwave-heating injector (LMI) to enhance the properties of fuel sprays in such a risky working area of ICE. Temperature and mixing ratios of blended fuel are varied and characteristics of atomization are investigated. The fuel using in experiments is blended fuel of gasoline and ethanol, the mixing ratio is varied among 0 (E0), 5 (E5), 50 (E50), and 100 (E100) percentages in volume ratio of ethanol. The temperature of the fuel is measured just before the injection by using K-typed sheath thermo-couple. Spray characteristics measured are Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD), droplet size distribution, spray cone angle, and particle size distribution width. The SMD and the droplet size distribution are measured by using laser diffraction method. The spray cone angle is measured through pictures of actual appearance atomization. The results show that, the higher…
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Effect of Electrically Controlled MR-Damper on the Cornering of Small Racing Car

Kanazawa Univ.-Hajime Komatsu, Hiroshi Enomoto, Toshihiko Komatsuzaki, Kohei Izumi
Published 2011-11-08 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Chassis performance greatly influences driving in the turn inn movement. Spec of the active damper is simulated to achieve a chassis that satisfies various requirements. In this paper, an MR-damper (Magneto-Rheological fluid damper), which is high-response active damper, is chosen. The MR-damper is mounted in FSAE vehicles and controlled vehicle behavior electronically in a simulator. As a result, the MR-damper brought a big effect to pitch action rather than roll action, and an initial damping force effected vehicle behavior more than damping force change ratio.
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