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High Quality Welding of Aluminum Alloys With High Power Lasers in OFFSET Technique

Fachgruppe Fügetechnik der Bundesanstalt für Materialfor-H. Schobbert
Festkörper-Laser-Institut Berlin GmbH-K. Richter, H.-G. Eberle, K.-H. Maucher
  • Technical Paper
  • 1993-25-0510
Published 1993-09-13 by ISATA - Dusseldorf Trade Fair in United Kingdom
The automotive and railways industries are trying to optimize the use of the available energy resources by reducing the weight of their products. For this reason aluminum alloys are employed, which need improved welding techniques, as conventional techniques are limited, if small heat-affected zones, a good width-to-depth relation of weld seams and high welding speeds are required. These limitations can now be overcome by the use of laser beam welding techniques. It could be demonstrated that many aluminum alloys are weldable with the laser beam under laboratory conditions. All laser-specific advantages for welding standard materials could be also used for the Al welding.The weldability of Al alloys with the laser technique is limited by the low absorption and the large heat conductivity of the aluminum. This is a particular problem, when a CO2 laser is used. The main problem using a laser for Al welding is to couple the energy uninterrupted into the material. The energy density of the laser beam must be so adjusted in such a way, that a low-density plasma is generated…

Adaptive Electronic Regulator Controlling Emissions in Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Methane-Supplied Engines

DEIS-Università di Bologna-G. Rustichelli
Microsistemi Srl-P. Martinelli
  • Technical Paper
  • 1993-25-0335
Published 1993-09-13 by ISATA - Dusseldorf Trade Fair in United Kingdom
The electronic control system regulates the air-fuel ratio, in gas- supplied engines, using a signal from oxygen sensor in order to reduce polluting emissions and fuel consumption. Moreover it permits the correct work of three-way catalytic converters, maintaining unchanged its characteristics.The electronic control system is compatible with conventional gas-supplied plants and different kinds of engines. It responds immediately to changes of the engines and of the environment conditions (temperature, pressure, humidity, etc.), compensating, moreover, the finite-delay introduced by control loop.In the short term the automatic adaptation is obtained changing the control mathematical model according to the delay introduced by control loop. In the long term, the adaptation is obtained considering the aging of engines and its components.The installation procedure is very simple: an instrument permits a mechanical set-point of the gas-supplied plant with stopped vehicle.The electronic control system has on-board detection of problems causing excess emissions, that signal any fault at the service centers and suggest the right inspection and maintenance program.In October 1992, an application of the system with a particular gas- supplied plant…

Novel Optical Components Designed for the CO2-Laser Welding of Aluminum Alloys

Kugler GmbH-U. Zoske
Lasertechnik Salem GmbH-T. Wahl
  • Technical Paper
  • 1993-25-0514
Published 1993-09-13 by ISATA - Dusseldorf Trade Fair in United Kingdom
Laser beam welding of aluminum alloys begins to become an interesting tool in industry, for example, for carbody manufacturing. A lot of partially severe problems are identified by research institutes and our job shop's work, but are to be solved in a way that fits industry's needs. Some of these solutions in the field of high-power laser optics are demonstrated in this contribution. Additionally it will be shown that there are technological advantages for the laser beam welding of aluminum alloys - also when using a qualified job shop's technological competence.

Electric Vehicle Control Unit

Steyr-Daimler-Puchs Fahrzeugtechnik GesmbH-O. Bitsche
Technische Universität Graz-M. Rentmeister, I. Mandic, R. Mandic
  • Technical Paper
  • 1993-25-0402
Published 1993-09-13 by ISATA - Dusseldorf Trade Fair in United Kingdom
With this drive system, above all - but not only - when combined with the automatic shifting two-speed transmission we are in a position to offer a lightweight, compact, reliable, well-performing and competitive unit, backed up by SFT's extensive experience in the field of vehicle design, testing and manufacturing.

X-Ray Cone Beam Computed Tomogrpahy for Automotive Ceramics Examination

Commissariat à L'Energie Atomique-P. Sire, M. Martin, P. Grangeat, P. Rizo
  • Technical Paper
  • 1993-25-0581
Published 1993-09-13 by ISATA - Dusseldorf Trade Fair in United Kingdom
Measurements on test samples, with intentionally introduced calibrated defects, defined by Renault (Fr) and developed by Fairey (GB) show that the geometric resolution is better than 50μm allowing detectability for defects smaller than 25μm. This geometric resolution, according to the size of the focus spot for low energies, could reach about 25μm for small samples.The 3D X-ray computed tomography provides a powerful tool for nondestructive evaluation of light and small industrial parts. Further developments could provide facilities for examination of region of interest of large parts.The reconstruction process needs high-speed computers. Further improvements in speed could be obtained by the design of special purpose processors for this task. Such a parallel architecture could be able to perform either 2D conventional reconstruction or 3D reconstructions via Grangeat's or Feldkamp's algorithms. The evaluation of such a design has been driven in LETI. It shows that the reconstruction of a volume of 2563 with 512 projections could be performed in 1 min., using Feldkamp's algorithm, in 1 min. 40 s, using Grangeat's algorithm.

Speech Enhancement and the Automobile Environment

University of Paisley-D. R. Campbell
  • Technical Paper
  • 1993-25-0227
Published 1993-09-13 by ISATA - Dusseldorf Trade Fair in United Kingdom
Avoidance of Lombard speech will require a reduction in the noise field of about 10 dB SPL, mainly below 500 Hz, from construction, materials and perhaps ASC to give an operating environment with noise below 60 dB SPL and an SNR around OdB. Signal processing methods are unlikely to provide more than 15 dB SNR improvement under real-life conditions. Improved performance of recognizers, e.g., through noise modelling, would then require to supply another 10 dB to close the present 35 dB gap.Looking towards the 21st century the success in automobiles of safe telecommunications and speech recognition as a command interpreter, depend on hands-free working. If such systems are to be more than a luxury item they must operate reliably in medium price cars. This implies not only a reduction of the sound field but the maintaining of that condition for some reasonable operating period, e.g., 3 years. The achievement of this will require engineering design integrating mechanical, materials, signal processing and speech recognition disciplines with human factors considerations anticipating the acoustical vagaries of occupants and…

California~Environmental Seedbed

South Coast Air Quality Management District-H. Wedaa
  • Technical Paper
  • 1993-25-0406
Published 1993-09-13 by ISATA - Dusseldorf Trade Fair in United Kingdom
For nearly a half century, California has been a seedbed of invention. Some of my state's contributions are known the world over. They range from Mickey Mouse and the Walt Disney them parks to born-again dinosaurs at Jurassic Park.Many of our contributions, however, are of more long-lasting importance. We are here today, for example, because of a resurgence of worldwide concern over the state of the earth's environment, ranging from smog in the cities to heat waves in the grain belts.

Failure Predictions for Ceramic Components

University of Manchester-J. Smart, S. L. Fok
  • Technical Paper
  • 1993-25-0585
Published 1993-09-13 by ISATA - Dusseldorf Trade Fair in United Kingdom
When predicting failure loads and failure probabilities for ceramic components it is important that the material data is obtained under suitable test conditions, which reflect the loading conditions the ceramic will experience in service. If this is not done then the predicted failure probabilities may be unreliable.It is also important when analyzing the failure loads of a complex body that the numerical analysis, particularly the incorporation of the failure theory in the post-processing of finite element results, is done correctly. Failure to do so will lead to further errors.

Austrian Activities in the Field of Electric Vehicles and Hybrids

Graz University of Technology-W. Streicher
  • Technical Paper
  • 1993-25-0370
Published 1993-09-13 by ISATA - Dusseldorf Trade Fair in United Kingdom
During the last century there has been an increasing number of projects concerning Electric Vehicles (EVs) in Austria Beginning with the COST 302 action of the European Community in 1982 and the start of the development of the zinc-bromine (ZnBr) battery in 1983.There have been several stimuli for the growing interest in EVs.The Swiss solar races (Tour de Sol) and follow up activities in Switzerland and many other European countries since 1985 have been inducing: - solar and electric vehicle races, - exhibitions and conferences, - a public discussion about the benefits and disadvantages of a growing number of EVs in the transportation system, and - a small number of EV distributors in Austria.Due to the regulations of the California Air Resource Board there is an increasing interest of the Austrian car-component industry in EVs resulting in: - the development of complete drive trains and - enforced development of batteries that partly will be presented in separate papers of this conference.This growing interest on EVs led to a request of the Austrian parliament (July 10,…

Monitoring System for Hazardous Goods Road Transport: The Spanish Field Trial

LISITT-F. Soriano, G. Martin
On Campus Technology SA-S. Guillen
  • Technical Paper
  • 1993-25-0549
Published 1993-09-13 by ISATA - Dusseldorf Trade Fair in United Kingdom
The Spanish Road Traffic Administration (DGT) being responsible of road safety aspects throughout the national road network, sponsors the project ARTIS where among others, a field trial on Hazardous Goods Monitoring (HGM) is performed. It is mainly interested in: a) reduce the actuation time of the emergency services in case of accident, b) perform on-road checking with on-line connection with a Control Center, and c) implement a truly Hazardous Goods Monitoring Center, which gives support to the actions above. The architecture of the HGM system which will be actually implemented (functions and communications) represents a particular realization of the more general architecture proposed by ARTIS and other projects. This particular realization regards more deeply the user requirement coming from the road administration side. The other key element of the HGM is the location of vehicle throughout the road network of a region or the whole country. A satellite-based vehicle location will be used, while the tracking (where the vehicle should be at any time) is estimated using dead reckoning algorithm based on the travel times…