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SAE 2012 International Powertrains, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting
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FAME Filterability: Understanding and Solutions

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Infineum UK Ltd-Ben Hornby, Isabel van Zuylen
Infineum USA LP-Stephanie Camerlynck, John Chandler
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1589
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) into the diesel pool has led to an increase in the incidence of diesel fuel filter blocking. In contrast to conventional diesel, filter blocking events can occur above a fuel's Cloud Point (CP). It has been shown that this phenomenon is due to trace levels of impurities carried over from the original oil source into the final fuel. The two species identified as being the main cause of the filtration problems are saturated monoglycerides (sMG) and sterol glucosides (SG).Reported in this paper is an extensive study completed to understand the impact that these impurities have on the filterability of FAME and FAME containing fuels. This has been investigated using laboratory based filterability tests that incorporate a specific cold soak and the critical contaminant levels causing failure have been determined. In addition to this, the appearance of the crystals formed and their coverage of the fuel filter surface have been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).These two techniques have also been used to identify and select additive technology…
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Design of a Series-Parallel Plug-in Hybrid Sedan through Modeling and Simulation

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Mississippi State University-Matthew Doude, G. Marshall Molen, William Brown, Joshua Hoop, Jonathan Moore, William Dickerson
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1768
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
EcoCAR 2: Plugging In to the Future is a three-year design competition co-sponsored by General Motors and the Department of Energy. Mississippi State University has designed a plug-in hybrid powertrain for a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu vehicle platform. This vehicle will be capable of 57 miles all-electric range and utility-factor corrected fuel economy of greater than 80 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge). All modifications are designed without sacrificing any of the vehicle's utility or performance. Advanced modeling, simulation, and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation capabilities are being used for rapid control prototyping and vehicle design to ensure success in the following years of the competition.
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Towards Model-Based Identification of Biofuels for Compression Ignition Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

RWTH Aachen University-Manuel Dahmen, Manuel Hechinger, Juan Victoria Villeda , Wolfgang Marquardt
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1593
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Depleting fossil resources, a constantly rising energy demand and worries about greenhouse gas emissions force society to explore novel concepts for future mobile propulsion. In the context of biofuels, the identification of novel, sustainably producible, tailored molecules meeting the property specifications derived from advanced engine combustion concepts therefore constitutes a major objective. Due to the tremendous amount of possible molecular structures, solely experimental search strategies are infeasible and highlight the need for a computer-aided biofuel identification framework. To this end, a holistic approach for deriving truly predictive Quantitative-Structure-Property-Relationships (QSPRs) for engine-relevant fuel properties is presented. Such QSPRs are combined with a rigorous generation of molecular structures aiming at identification of single-compound fuel candidates for use in compression ignition (CI) engines. Besides addressing thermophysical fuel properties relevant to CI engines, an accurate QSPR model for the cetane number has been established and integrated into the fuel identification framework. A comprehensive list of potential CI fuel molecules is generated automatically and subsequently screened by sequentially applying property constraints to identify those compounds predicted to exhibit all desired…
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Reduction of Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust Particle Number and Mass at Low Exhaust Temperature Driving by the DOC and the SCR

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Finnish Meteorological Institute-Sanna Saarikoski, Minna Aurela, Risto Hillamo
Metropolia Univ of Applied Sciences-Aleksi Malinen, Liisa Pirjola
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1664
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The effect of SCR on nanoparticle emissions has been a subject for some recent diesel particle emission related studies. In this study, the effect of after-treatment (DOC and SCR) on particle emissions was studied with a heavy-duty off-road diesel engine (emission level stage 3b with an SCR). A special “transient cold test cycle” (TCTC) was designed to describe the SCR system operation at low exhaust gas temperatures. The particle instrumentation made it possible to measure on-line the particle number concentration, particle size distribution and chemical composition of particles. The largest particle number concentrations were measured after the exhaust manifold. The exhaust after-treatment was observed to reduce the total particle number concentration by 82.5% with the DOC and 95.7% with the DOC+SCR. Also the mean particle composition was affected by the after-treatment; while the organics formed the main fraction of the particulate mass without exhaust after-treatment, after the DOC and especially after the DOC+SCR the organic particulate matter was reduced so that most significant particle fraction was soot. The effect of after-treatment was similar both on…
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Assessing Boost-Assist Options for Turbocharged Engines Using 1-D Engine Simulation and Model Predictive Control

Univ of Cambridge-Alexander Darlington, Dariusz Cieslar, Nick Collings, Keith Glover
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Delivering acceptable low end torque and good transient response is a significant challenge for all turbocharged engines. As downsized gasoline engines and Diesel engines make up a larger and larger proportion of the light-duty engines entering the market, the issue takes on greater significance.Several schemes have been proposed to improve torque response in highly boosted engines, including the use of electrical assist turbochargers and compressed air assist. In this paper we examine these methods with respect to their effectiveness in improving transient response and their relative performance along with some of the practical considerations for real world application.Results shown in this paper are from 1-D simulations using the Ricardo WAVE software package. The simulation model is based on a production light-duty Diesel engine modified to allow the introduction of compressed air at various points in the air-path as well as direct torque application to the turbocharger shaft (such as might be available from an electrical assist turbocharger).Whilst the 1-D simulation software provides a suitable environment for investigating the various boost assistance options, the overall air…
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Emission Control Test Bench for SCR Testing

VTT Technical Research Centre Of Finland-Kati Lehtoranta, Hannu Vesala, Leif Kåll, Raimo Turunen, Sami Nyyssönen
Wärtsilä Finland Oy-Niko Soikkeli, Lucas Esselström
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
A new tool for SCR (selective catalytic reduction) testing is developed. This side stream test bench has an advantage to test smaller catalysts with a proper exhaust. The exhaust mass flow and temperature are adjustable. A control program is developed to adjust and save the needed parameters. NOx sensors are utilized in the test bench to measure the levels upstream and downstream of SCR reactor. In this study one SCR with a volume of 40.5 dm3 is tested with exhaust flows ranging from 400 to 600 kg/h and exhaust temperatures from 280 to 360°C. The tests are conducted using exhaust gas from a medium-speed diesel engine running on heavy fuel oil. A decrease from 75% to 99% (depending on test conditions) was observed in NOx over the catalyst. In addition HC and PM were found to decrease while CO was increased over the catalyst. The controlling of exhaust flow and temperature with the test bench succeeded with only minor errors. The measured value of exhaust flow deviated from the set value in the order of…
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UEGO-based Exhaust Gas Mass Flow Rate Measurement

Magneti Marelli Powertrain SPA-Matteo De Cesare, Federico Stola
University of Bologna-Nicolo Cavina, Alberto Cerofolini
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
New and upcoming exhaust emissions regulations and fuel consumption reduction requirements are forcing the development of innovative and particularly complex intake-engine-exhaust layouts. Especially in the case of Compression Ignition (CI) engines, the HC-CO-NOx-PM after-treatment system is becoming extremely expensive and sophisticated, and the necessity to further reduce engine-out emission levels, without significantly penalizing fuel consumption figures, may lead to the adoption of intricate and challenging intake-exhaust systems configurations. The adoption of both long- and short-route Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems is one example of such situation, and the need to precisely measure (or estimate) mass flow rates in the various elements of the gas exchange circuit is one of the consequences. Within this context, the paper presents an innovative solution for real-time estimation of the exhaust gas mass flow rate of a modern Turbo-Diesel Engine, equipped with Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), and EGR.The proposed methodology is based on the measurement of standard operating parameters of the UEGO sensor incorporated heater, such as the applied voltage and the sensing tip temperature, which…
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HCCI Engine Application on a Hydraulic Hybrid Bus

SAE International Journal of Engines

US Environmental Protection Agency-Ruonan Sun, Richard Patrick Thomas, Xiaoguo Tang
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1631
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
After initial trials on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine design and tests pursuing feedback control to avoid misfire and knocking over wide transient operation ranges, Engineers at the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Vehicle Fuel and Emissions Laboratory identified the crucial engine state variable, MRPR (Maximum Rate of Pressure Rise) and successfully controlled a 1.9L HCCI engine in pure HCCI mode [1]. This engine was used to power a hybrid Ford F-150 truck which successfully ran FTP75 tests in 2004. In subsequent research, efforts have been focused on practical issues such as improving transient rate, system simplification for controllability and packaging, application of production grade in-cylinder pressure sensors, cold start, idling and calibration for ambient conditions as well as oxidation catalyst applications for better turbine efficiency and HC and CO emissions control. A 6.4L V8 HCCI engine and control system was then developed for a hydraulic hybrid shuttle bus as a demonstration platform. The bus has been tested in the laboratory against various driving cycles and driven on city streets, country roads and…
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Vehicle System Design Process for a Series-Parallel Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Virginia Tech.-P. Christopher Manning, Eli White, R. Jesse Alley, Jonathan King, Douglas J. Nelson
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1774
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech is one of 15 schools across the United States and Canada currently competing in EcoCAR 2: Plugging In to the Future. EcoCAR 2 is a three year competition that mimics GM's Vehicle Development Process (VDP): design, build, then refine. The first step in the design process is the selection of a powertrain architecture. In the architecture selection process, HEVT considered three options: a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV), a Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), and a Series-Parallel PHEV. The team chose the Series-Parallel PHEV based on powertrain modeling and simulation and CAD packaging analysis. Next, the team looked at a variety of component combinations and selected the one that offered the best capacity to meet competition and team goals. These components are then packaged in the CAD model to plan for component integration. As this integration was happening, a control system was also being developed. A Hybrid Vehicle Supervisory Controller (HVSC) will be added to the vehicle along with the other hybrid components. This controller handles high…
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Effects of Biodiesel Blends on Emissions of a Diesel Engine Using DPF

T.E.I. of Serres-Ilias Stogiantzikis
T.E.I. of Thessaloniki-Merkourios Gogos, John Triandafyllis
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The use of biomass fuels such as biodiesel as an alternative fuel for petroleum diesel in automotive sector is of great importance today, as it reduces global warming. Previous research has pointed out that biodiesel/diesel blends can be used in diesel engines with little or no modification. It is estimated that the differences on the characteristics of diesel engines exhaust emissions are due to the different molecule composition of conventional diesel and biodiesel fuels.The scope of this work was to compare the exhaust gas emissions from the use of mixtures of biodiesel and diesel and their effect on the performance of a passenger car engine. The blends B10, B50 and neat biodiesel, B100, were used in an old technology 1600 cc diesel car, equipped with a retrofit catalytic diesel particulate filter. While the car was running on a chassis dynamometer with wide open throttle and under full engine load, measurements of torque, speed and fuel consumption were taken for three different vehicle speeds and gear ratios. Regarding the emissions, the concentrations in the exhaust gases…
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