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SAE 2012 Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress
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Development of SI-Engine based Extended MVEMs for use in Estimators for Engine Health Management

General Motors LLC-Kallappa Pattada
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur-Jonathan Vasu, Alok Kanti Deb, Siddhartha Mukhopadhyay
Published 2012-09-24 by SAE International in United States
Mean Value Engine Models (MVEM) represent average behaviour of an engine over one or more thermodynamic cycles and have been designed for automotive control and diagnosis applications. However, most MVEMs are limited to the description of the dynamics of few engine sub-systems. The diagnostic capabilities of a vehicular engine health management (VEHM) system that uses such MVEMs are limited. In this paper, the process of deriving an MVEM for an entire engine system from an instantaneous within-cycle crank-angle model (WCCM) is described. This is expected to be more beneficial for fault diagnosis in VEHMs since such MVEMs in the context of state observers, can be used to detect a broader range of faults and also generate a larger number of fault signatures for better fault detection and isolation (FDI). Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based estimators are developed that use this MVEM for state estimation. The quality of estimation results was significantly improved by modelling the inaccuracy of the MVEM as a bias and extending the MVEM with the knowledge of these bias tables. Fault residue…
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Certification Procedures for Advanced Technology Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Evaluating Test Methods and Opportunities for Global Alignment

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

MJ Bradley & Associates-Dana Lowell
The Intl Council on Clean Transportation-Benjamin Sharpe
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1986
Published 2012-09-24 by SAE International in United States
Advanced technology heavy-duty vehicles such as hybrids present unique regulatory challenges. Hybrids employ an additional energy source in conjunction with an internal combustion engine for motive power, and the interactions between the engine and the hybrid components affect criteria pollutant emissions and fuel consumption. Often, an engine installed in a hybrid vehicle will operate very differently from the same engine installed in a conventional vehicle driven over the same route. One of the difficulties in integrating vehicles such as hybrids into regulatory programs is developing the proper certification test procedures for criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions so that these advanced technologies and vehicles are evaluated fairly and consistently as compared to their conventional counterparts. This paper seeks to inform policy makers of the alternatives for moving toward more holistic approaches to testing and certifying powertrain systems and complete vehicles. The first part of the paper describes and compares the options for testing the emissions and fuel efficiency performance of heavy-duty vehicles from a technical perspective. The paper then goes on to discuss some…
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Driveline System - Suspension Interaction in a 6×6 Terrain Truck

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

The University of Alabama at Birmingham-Vladimir V. Vantsevich
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1915
Published 2012-09-24 by SAE International in United States
Normal and longitudinal dynamics of vehicles interrelates via the normal and longitudinal tire reactions. The normal reactions are supposed to be formed by characteristics of the suspension system and tires, and the longitudinal forces in the tire patches are produced by the driveline system by supplying torques to the drive wheels. Usually, the normal and longitudinal reactions, independently generated by the two vehicle systems, are considered to interrelate, but not to impact each other.An analytical study presented in this paper showed that the normal tire reactions are formed not only by the design of suspension but also by the longitudinal tire reactions (circumferential wheel forces), which follow from the wheel torques supplied by the driveline system. A 6×6 vehicle with A-type suspension systems at all three axles exhibits different normal tire reactions at the drive axles during motion even when the static weight distribution is equal. The paper presents this analytical study of the influence of the circumferential wheel forces on the normal reactions at the wheels.At the same time, the difference in the normal…
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An Over-Temperature Protection Control Strategy for Electric Power Steering Motor

Jilin University-Shaosong Li, Changfu Zong, Lei He
Published 2012-09-24 by SAE International in United States
The EPS motor will be over-heated if large current lasts for a long time, which will decline the performance of EPS motor and even lead to irreparable damage. So the over-temperature protection control should be conducted in order to protect the components of EPS system, especially the durability of EPS motor. In this paper, the motor temperature was estimated according to the environmental temperature and the current of motor armature, and then the EPS assist current was limited based on the estimated temperature of motor to ensure that the EPS motor had a good working condition. So the over-temperature protection control for motor can be realized without increasing the EPS system components. Finally the control strategy for over-temperature protection was conducted in a vehicle with EPS system and its performance was verified.
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Innovative Dense Lightweight Design for On-Board Hydrogen Storage Tank

West Virginia Univ.-Gergis W. William, Samir Shoukry, Jacky Prucz
Published 2012-09-24 by SAE International in United States
The hydrogen economy envisioned in the future requires safe and efficient means of storing hydrogen fuel for either use on-board vehicles, delivery on mobile transportation systems or high-volume storage in stationary systems. The main emphasis of this work is placed on the high -pressure storing of gaseous hydrogen on-board vehicles. As a result of its very low density, hydrogen gas has to be stored under very high pressure, ranging from 350 to 700 bars for current systems, in order to achieve practical levels of energy density in terms of the amount of energy that can be stored in a tank of a given volume. This paper presents 3D finite element analysis performed for a composite cylindrical tank made of 6061-aluminum liner overwrapped with carbon fibers subjected to a burst internal pressure of 1610 bars. As the service pressure expected in these tanks is 700 bars, a factor of safety of 2.3 is kept the same for all designs. The results indicated that a stress reduction could be achieved by a geometry change only, which could…
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Thermophoretic Transport of Submicron Particles in Pulsating Surface Sublayers

Michigan State Univ.-Meisam Mehravaran, Giles Brereton
Published 2012-09-24 by SAE International in United States
EGR coolers are widely used in reciprocating engines to reduce NOx emission. Thermophoresis-an important transport mechanism for submicron particles such as soot-drives gas-suspended particles from hot regions towards cool surfaces and is responsible for soot deposition and build-up in EGR coolers and related devices. Although much is known about thermophoresis in steady flow, little is known about soot deposition in flows with oscillatory heat and mass transfer. In this paper we present new results for the model problem of thermophoretic particle transport in a thin pulsatile shear layer above a flat, cold wall. The transport equations for this sublayer flow with oscillating shear have been solved numerically and, in the case of steady flow, are in excellent agreement with the exact solution for the steady wall shear. Results describing the effect of pulsation on heat and particle mass transfer show that it has only a small effect which is consistent with the experimental measurements. It follows that steady-flow results can be used to describe accurately the average behavior of devices with unsteady pulsating laminar flows.
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Calibration Process for SCR Only TIER4i Engine for Construction Equipment

EMITEC GmbH-Peter Bauer, Karsten Pietschmann
IAV GmbH-Thaddaeus Delebinski, Joern Seebode, Lars Henning
Published 2012-09-24 by SAE International in United States
The current legislation for industrial applications and construction equipment including earthmoving machines and crane engines allows different strategies to fulfill the corresponding exhaust emission limits. Liebherr Machines Bulle SA developed their engines to accomplish these limits using SCRonly technology. IAV supported this development, carrying out engine as well as SCR aftertreatment system and vehicle calibration work including the OBD and NOx Control System (NCS) calibration, as well as executing the homologation procedures at the IAV development center. The engines are used in various Liebherr applications certified for EU Stage IIIb, EPA TIER 4i, China GB4 and IMO MARPOL Tier II according to the regulations “97/68/EC”, “40 CFR Part 1039”, “GB17691-2005” and “40 CFR Parts 9, 85, et al.” using the same SCR hardware for all engine power variants of the corresponding I6 and V8 engine families.This paper covers aspects of the different emission regulations as well as the different engine applications with their individual load collectives and restrictions. Special emphasis is placed on the SCR hardware and its calibration. For the different applications of this…
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SAE J 1939 Over Real Time Ethernet: The Future of Heavy Duty Vehicle Networks

IMAMOTER-Massimiliano Ruggeri, Giorgio Malaguti, Massimo Dian
Published 2012-09-24 by SAE International in United States
Heavy duty machines have become more electronically sophisticated and in-vehicle electronics are growing in number and complexity, keeping pace with technology advancements. New machines implements (both mounted or trailed) and machine automation, demand this evolution, and thus a new way of designing on-board Electronic Control Units (hereafter ECU) is required. Moreover, the connectivity between vehicles, often extended to World Wide Web, and machine control and Working Session Task Controllers demand to become really distributed and executed in real time. So, integrated control systems ask for more performing distributed controls over networks, in order to better manage the machine torque and power and in order to optimize the fuel consumption, as a function of power request. In a similar way, more complex distributed control systems ask for using all machine actuators and sensors from remote Electronic Control Units (ECUs) “by wire”, using a networked control system efficient, fast and safe. The paper realizes a first practical experience of the SAE J 1939 protocol migration from the CAN network to the more performing and world accepted TCP/IP…
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SUMEBore - The Coating Solution to Protect Cylinder Liner Surfaces

SAE International Journal of Engines

Sulzer Metco AG (Switzerland)-Peter Ernst
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1992
Published 2012-09-24 by SAE International in United States
Rising fuel prices and more stringent requirements in the field of the vehicle emissions such as nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and carbon dioxide will increase the pressure on the engine manufacturers to utilize technologies which contribute to a reduction in these emissions. As a result, interest in cylinder surface coatings has increased considerably in the last few years, also in the SUMEBore® coating solution from Sulzer Metco.SUMEBore coatings are applied by a powder-based air plasma spraying (APS) process. Such an APS process is very flexible and can also process materials to which wire-based methods do not have any access, particularly metal matrix composites and pure ceramics. The compositions can be tailored to the specific challenges in an engine, e.g., excessive abrasive wear, scuffing, corrosion caused by adulterated fuel or high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates, etc. Over the past several years cylinder liner running surfaces from trucks, diesel locomotives, marine and gas engines, for power generation and gas compression have been coated with such APS materials and engines have been tested successfully. Most of the…
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Powertrain Cycle for Emission Certification

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Cummins Inc.-Morgan Andreae, Zhen Sun
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2059
Published 2012-09-24 by SAE International in United States
In August of 2011, the US Environmental Protection Agency issued new Green House Gas (GHG) emissions regulations for heavy duty vehicles. These regulations included new procedures for the evaluation of hybrid powertrains and vehicles. One of the hybrid options allows for the evaluation of an engine plus a hybrid transmission (a powertrain). For this type of testing, EPA has proposed simulating a vehicle following the hybrid vehicle test procedures, including the use of the vehicle cycles and the A to B comparison testing - as required for the full vehicle evaluation option.This paper proposes an alternative approach by defining a powertrain cycle. The powertrain cycle is based on the heavy duty engine emissions cycle - the transient FTP cycle. Simulation and test results are presented showing similar performance over the engine and vehicle cycles. This approach offers several advantages as compared to the procedure described in EPA's GHG rule. Linking the powertrain cycle to the engine cycle ensures an equivalent evaluation as compared to the engine test, and allows evaluation against the engine standard instead…
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