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Damage Identification of Rear Axle Under Experimental Condition from Curvature Mode Change

Tongji Univ.-Xiaojun Peng, Hong Zhou, Haiqing Xu, Rong Guo
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
In this paper the approach of using modal parameters to detect and locate damage of automobile rear axle under experimental condition is explained. This method uses the changes in the curvature mode of the structure as the damage identification indicator to detect and locate damage. The curvature mode and the damage identification indicator are explained, the process of the identification is introduced. The method is demonstrated with a FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis on a plate under different damage conditions. And the indicator is improved with a weighting function. Then EMA (Experimental Modal Analysis) is conducted on a damaged and an undamaged rear axle of a vehicle to get the modal parameters for the damage identification indicator which later identifies and locates the damages, thus validating the introduced method.
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A Model Validation Methodology for Evaluating Rollover Resistance Performance of a Ford Commercial Vehicle

Ford Otosan AS-Berzah Ozan, Polat Sendur, M. Eren Uyanik, Yahya Oz, S. Ilker Yilmaz
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Rollover accidents are one of the most severe kinds of vehicle crashes, with a fatality rate higher than any other crash type [ 1 ]. Therefore, the rollover performance of a vehicle needs to be evaluated and improved, if necessary, before vehicle design is finalized. The objective of this paper is to present a correlation methodology of an ADAMS vehicle model of a commercial vehicle to static, quasi-static and dynamic behavior obtained from testing an actual program representative prototype. Achieving an acceptable level of correlation to physical test will allow this ADAMS model, with appropriate updates to production representative component data, to be used as the basis for assessing the rollover resistance performance of the vehicle.
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Large Eddy Simulation of Scalar Dissipation Rate in an Internal Combustion Engine

Sandia National Laboratories-Benjamin Petersen
Univ. of Wisconsin Madison-Yuxin Zhang, Jaal Ghandhi, Christopher Rutland
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
A novel algebraic similarity model for subgrid scalar dissipation rate has been developed as part of the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) package KIVA3V-LES for diesel engine study. The model is proposed from an a priori study using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of forced isotropic turbulence. In the a posteriori test, fully resolved turbulent passive scalar field measurements are used to validate the model in actual engine flows. For reason of the length limit by SAE and the specific interest in engine applications, only a prior test and a posteriori test in engine flows are included in this paper. A posteriori tests in isotropic cube flow, turbulent round jet and flame cases will be presented in separate papers. An engine LES simulation of multi consecutive cycles was performed in this study. In multi-cycle analysis, the LES simulations show the capability of capturing cycle-to-cycle variations in addition to correctly estimating the ensemble averaged scalar dissipation rate in the sampling domain. The averaged magnitude of resolved scalar dissipation rate as well as subgrid scalar dissipation rate is quantified…
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Diagnosing Vehicle Aggressiveness for Pedestrian Leg Impact and Development of Efficient Front End Energy Management Systems

GE India Technology Centre-Dhanendra Kumar Nagwanshi, Dinesh Mana, Somasekhar Bobba
SABIC Innovative Plastics-Kent Allen
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Worldwide involvement in Global Technical Regulation (GTR) discussion shows the increasing importance of pedestrian safety as a global concern. Vehicle front styling plays an important role in vehicle to pedestrian impact. Front styling can change the pedestrian kinematics and injury levels during an impact. Key elements of bumper front are Fascia, Upper & Lower Grille, Hood, spoiler or undertray, bumper beam and height of these components from ground level, determine the vehicle aggressiveness for pedestrian safety. This paper presents an approach to diagnose the vehicle front aggressiveness for pedestrian leg impact. Eight different vehicle bumper front configurations from ‘minis’ to ‘sedans’ are studied for lower leg impact cases, to understand the bumper stiffness profile (stiffness in upper, middle and lower load path). Numerical models are derived to relate the knee deceleration; knee bending and tibia shear with bumper stiffness profile, through extensive Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) and Design of Experiments (DOE) based numerical studies. The desirable ‘vehicle front stiffness profiles’ are identified for development of efficient pedestrian countermeasures and different front-end energy management solutions are…
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2009 Crown Victoria PCM EDR Accuracy in Steady State and ABS Braking Conditions

Michigan State Police-Timothy Brown
Ruth Consulting Inc.-Richard Ruth
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The accuracy of the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) Event Data Recorder (EDR) was tested on a 2009 Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor during both straight line steady state conditions and maximum ABS braking, at the Michigan State Police training facility in Lansing, MI. Six runs were made starting from 64 km/h (40 mph) and six runs starting from 96km/h (60 mph). Data was collected from the PCM EDR and the primary speed reference instrumentation was a Racelogic VBOX III (with IMU) 100 Hz differential GPS speed data acquisition system. On selected runs Radar was used as additional steady state speed verification and for the braking portion a Vericom 3000 was used to verify speed loss and calculated stop distance. Visible ABS tire marks were documented following each test, and the length of marks was compared to the calculated braking distance from each measurement device. Graphs of PCM speed/brake/accel pedal data versus VBOX speed over time are presented. The differences between PCM and VBOX are plotted and analyzed statistically, separated into steady state and braking conditions.
This content contains downloadable datasets
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Customizing a PXI-based Hardware-In-The-Loop Test System with LabVIEW

National Instruments-Matthew D. Rings
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation has become standard practice in the verification process of electronic control units (ECUs). However, new system control concepts continue to drive and expand the requirements for HIL systems. In this maturing application space, there is a natural trend towards the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and open, multivendor hardware architectures. This open architecture is critical in helping HIL testers meet these requirements in an increasingly cost effective and higher performance manner. Multicore processors today offer performance and flexibility on a scalable computing platform, which furthers this COTS trend. Computer platforms like desktop PCs, CompactPCI and PXI [ 1 ] (CompactPCI eXtensions for Instrumentation) deliver high-performance systems that allow for the leveraging of multicore processor capabilities in achieving highly realistic plant simulations for controller testing. With the desktop PCs, as well as CompactPCI and PXI machines, test systems can benefit from the low cost and high performance of the latest computer technology in an open industry standard. This paper discusses the use of a multicore-enabled PXI hardware platform that includes products from multiple…
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Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Aluminum Autobody Panels: Final Report

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Alcoa LLC-Francine S. Bovard
Auto Technology Co.-Kevin A. Smith
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-0726
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Over the past several years a task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee has conducted extensive on-vehicle field testing and numerous accelerated lab tests with the goal of establishing a standard accelerated test method for cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. This project has been a cooperative effort with OEM, supplier, and consultant participation and was also supported in part by DOE through USAMP (AMD 309). The focus of this project has been the identification of a standardized accelerated cosmetic corrosion test that exhibits the same appearance, severity, and type of corrosion products that are exhibited on identical painted aluminum panels exposed to service relevant environments. Multi-year service relevant exposures were conducted by mounting panels on-vehicles in multiple locations in the US and Canada. The accelerated tests have been ranked based on their relevance to the on-vehicle results and ASTM G85-A2 has been identified as the test method that most consistently replicates on-vehicle cosmetic corrosion performance. Comments concerning test reproducibility are included.
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Emulsification Plant Integrated into a Diesel Fuel Feeding System

Roma Tre Univ.-Giovanni Cerri, Laila Chennaoui, Mauro Miglioli, Fabio Botta
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
An innovative Emulsification Engine Feeding System (EEFS) has been developed in the Roma Tre University Fluid Machinery Lab. It is based on an emulsification loop, where fuel and water are fed in real time with the emulsion injection. Thus no chemicals are used to stabilize water in diesel fuel or ethanol in diesel fuel emulsions. The system assures the emulsion stability levels sufficient for the emulsion to be injected inside the engine. Tests carried out on the EEFS, developed for a 6 cylinder, four stroke, 12.88 liter, 382 kW diesel engine, have shown the good quality of the emulsion in terms of water droplet diameters and volumetric mixing ratio, at the various off line tests over emulsion flow rates varying about 2.5 l/h to 150 l/h representative of the idle (2 l/h of fuel) to full load (130 l/h of fuel) conditions with the engine rpm ranging from 500 to 2300. A water separation section that operates for the duration of the engine shutdown is a unique feature of the EEFS to avoid corrosion during…
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Development of the Combustion System for a Flexible Fuel Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

AVL List GmbH-Christian Spanner, Heribert Fuchs
AVL Powertrain Engineering Inc.-Paul Whitaker, Yuan Shen
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-0585
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engines, such as EcoBoost™ from Ford, are becoming established as a high value technology solution to improve passenger car and light truck fuel economy. Due to their high specific performance and excellent low-speed torque, improved fuel economy can be realized due to downsizing and downspeeding without sacrificing performance and driveability while meeting the most stringent future emissions standards with an inexpensive three-way catalyst.A logical and synergistic extension of the EcoBoost™ strategy is the use of E85 (approximately 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) for knock mitigation. Direct injection of E85 is very effective in suppressing knock due to ethanol's high heat of vaporization - which increases the charge cooling benefit of direct injection - and inherently high octane rating. As a result, higher boost levels can be achieved while maintaining optimal combustion phasing giving high thermal efficiency. However, due to their different properties, optimization of a combustion system for both regular grade (91 RON) gasoline and E85 is non-trivial.This paper describes the initial design and development of a new combustion system…
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Model Predictive Control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve

Univ. of Windsor-Nazila Rajaei, Xiaoye Han, Xiang Chen, Ming Zheng
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valves have been used in diesel engine operation to reduce NOx emissions. In EGR valve operation, the amount of exhaust gas re-circulating back into the intake manifold is controlled through the open position of the valve plate to keep the combustion temperature lower for NOx emission reduction. Different methods have been proposed to control the EGR valve. However, most of the approaches do not have the desired accuracy and the response time, which is critical for the after-treatment performance in low temperature diesel combustion. In this paper, the model of a motor driven EGR valve is first identified through experiments and then the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) method which is an effective Model Predictive Control (MPC) method is applied to control the plate position of the valve.
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