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Zero-dimensional Model and Pressure Data Analysis of a Variable-Displacement Lubricating Vane Pump

University of Calabria – Italy-Silvio Barbarelli, Sergio Bova, Rocco Piccione
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
A zero-dimensional dynamic model was developed in the Matlab/Simulink® environment to predict the behaviour of a variable-displacement lubricating vane pump for internal combustion engine applications. Based on the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the pump, the model allows predictions of the pressure evolution in each chamber of the pump and in the delivery piping, by employing an integrative-derivative approach. Simulation results were compared with experimental data of pressure transducers, which were fitted along the periphery of the pump case and in the delivery channel. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the pressure dynamics, which is experienced by the transducers, is in some cases quite different from the pressure dynamics in the pump chambers and produces pressure peaks which are not actually present in the original signal. The pressure transducers output was then also modelled in order to properly compare simulation results and experimental data.
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On-Road Test and Evaluation of Emissions and Fuel Economy of the Hybrid Electric Bus

Beijing Environment Protection Bureau-Yi Ai
China Automotive Technology and Research Center-Kongjian Qin, Mengliang Li, Junhua Gao, Jidong Gao
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
A test evaluation method for the emissions and fuel economy of heavy duty hybrid electric vehicles (HD-HEVs) was developed, which was implemented on a standard track with an integrated onboard measurement system (IOMS). One home-made hybrid electric bus (HEB) and a conventional diesel bus were tested with the presented procedure. The track test adopted a city-bus cycle which was developed and formed through bus driving modes collection in several typical megacities of China. The feasibility and effectiveness of the presented method and procedure were validated in the track tests: the test cycle can be well followed with a high unity more than 0.97 and a R2 more than 0.99 by a driver after only a few hours training, and the on-board measurement system performed with a good reliability. Results of the track tests shows that the tested HEB possesses 39% higher fuel economy than (or achieves 28% fuel saving compared with) its conventional counterpart, and the HEB’s emissions of HC, CO, NOx, CO2 and PM are respectively 26.8%, 28.9%, 15.8%, 27% and 37.3% less than…
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Analysis of DPF Incombustible Materials from Volvo Trucks Using DPF-SCR-Urea With API CJ-4 and API CI-4 PLUS Oils

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Chevron Global Lubricants and Chevron Energy Technology Company-James McGeehan, Sheila Yeh, James Rutherford, Melvin Couch
Johnson Matthey, Catalytic Systems Division-Andrew Walker
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1781
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
This paper reports on a field test with 23 Volvo D12C non-exhaust gas recirculation diesel engines using the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), and urea system with Ultra-Low-Sulfur-Diesel (ULSD). This combination will be used to meet the on-highway emission standards for U.S. 2010, Japan 2010, and Europe 2013.Because of future widespread use of DPF-SCR, this study reports on our field experience with this system, and focuses on enhancing our understanding of the incombustible materials which are collected in the DPF with API CJ-4 and API CI-4 PLUS oils.The average weight of incombustibles was lower in the trucks using API CJ-4 oils at 1.0% sulfated ash, than in those using API CI-4 PLUS oils at 1.4% sulfated ash. The difference in weight between the two groups was highly significant. Further, the weight of the incombustibles per kilometer substantially decreased with each subsequent cleaning within a truck.The gray powder of incombustible materials recovered from the DPF is dominated by inorganic lubricant additives-Ca, Mg, P, S, Zn, and Mo. Calcium sulfate, zinc magnesium phosphate and…
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Development of Specific Tools for Analysis and Quantification of Pre-ignition in a Boosted SI Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

IFP-Jean-Marc Zaccardi, Laurent Duval, Alexandre Pagot
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1795
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Recent developments on highly downsized spark ignition engines have been focused on knocking behaviour improvement and the most advanced technologies combination can face up to 2.5 MPa IMEP while maintaining acceptable fuel consumption. Unfortunately, knocking is not the only limit that strongly downsized engines have to confront. The improvement of low-end torque is limited by another abnormal combustion which appears as a random pre-ignition. This violent phenomenon which emits a sharp metallic noise is unacceptable even on modern supercharged gasoline engines because of the great pressure rise that it causes in the cylinder (up to 20 MPa).The phases of this abnormal combustion have been analysed and a global mechanism has been identified consisting of a local ignition before the spark, followed by a propagating phase and ended by a massive auto-ignition. This last step finally causes a steep pressure rise and pressure oscillations.One of our objectives was to evaluate the sensitivity of an engine to pre-ignition regarding its design and settings. Therefore, in addition to our comprehension work, we have developed a first methodology based…
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On the Main Factors Governing Auto-Ignition Phenomenon of Alcohol Spray – A Study from the View Point of Fuel Properties –

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Sojo University-Hironori Saitoh, Kouji Uchida
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1931
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
This study deals with the development of compression ignition DI alcohol engine with higher efficiency and lower emissions comparing to the conventional internal combustion engines. In order to establish such high performance alcohol engines, development of controlled ignition technology is required. This paper focuses on the main factors that govern auto-ignition phenomenon of alcohol spray from the view point of fuel properties. The reason of poor auto-ignition quality of alcohol spray was theoretically and experimentally revealed. That is difficulty of simultaneous attainments of ignition-suitable concentration and temperature in a spray mixture formation due to their smaller stoichiometric air/fuel ratio and larger latent heat for evaporation in comparison with conventional diesel fuels.
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Energy System with Enzyme Decomposition for a Fuel-Cell Electric Vehicle

Kogakuin University-Masato Iwami, Tetsuo Nohara, Takashi Saika
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Fuel without carbon is essential effective in preventing global warming by carbon dioxide. Hydrogen has no carbon and can be made also from the resources such as nuclear energy or renewable energies. However hydrogen is lack of portability for automobiles because of its difficulty in liquefying. Ammonia also has an advantage in terms of global warming because of carbon-free fuel. A hydrogen generation system fueled with ammonia from urea for a fuel-cell electric vehicle is described in this paper.In ammonia, the handling must be careful of safety specifically because toxicity of ammonia affects a human body and a fuel cell. On the other hand, urea can be easily changed into ammonia and dealt with safety. The license for handling of urea is unnecessary, and there are also achievements as a NOx reducing agent for diesel engines.The authors have proposed urea as a hydrogen carrier via ammonia. Urea is white, odorless, harmless and broadly used with moisturizers such as cosmetics, medical supplies, manure, etc as familiar applications. Urea of 20 kg can be estimated to operate…
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Performance Fuel Economy and CO2 Prediction of a Vehicle using AVL Cruise Simulation Techniques

Tata Motors Limited-P. Srinivasan, Kothalikar U. M
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
The determination of power train is one of the fundamental steps in any new vehicle development process. This process is generally iterative in manner and accurate prediction of performance and fuel consumption is required to achieve the different vehicle performance targets.The use of AVL cruise simulation techniques to improve the vehicle development process has been rapidly expanding over the last decade. This simulation technique allows us to speed up the optimization of vehicle and power train parameters (vehicle weights, frontal area, Cd, engine power, engine torque and gear ratios etc.,) in an early stage of the development process.This paper establishes the simulation model of a production vehicle through different stages of vehicle development process. The vehicle model was validated through a detailed comparison of the cruise simulation results with experimental data, including acceleration, drivability performance, average fuel consumption and CO2 emission values over typical driving cycles (UDC, EUDC).Finally, simulation techniques were applied to the analysis of impact of vehicle and power train modifications on vehicle performance and fuel economy and they have been proved to…
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Influence of Surface Modifications on Vehicle Disc Brake Squeal

Helwan University-Ibrahim Ahmed, Sameh Metwally, Eid Mohamed, Shawki Abouel-Seoud
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Squeal from brakes is a problem in the automotive industry and large efforts are made to understand the squeal tendencies. The approach taken is mainly to change the design of the caliper, fine-tune the brake pad material and finally to trim the introducing shims on the backside of the pads. Despite these efforts still no general solutions exist. To advance the situation, a deeper understanding of the actual source of excitation of the sound in the friction interface is needed. However, in the present investigation the surfaces modifications of brake disc and pad have been tested with respect to the understanding properties. The surfaces modifications are slotted pad material and coated disc. All tests have been made in a brake test stand consisting of a complete front wheel corner of a vehicle. The changes have resulted in a significant understand of the generated noise. This is due to the changing of the coefficient of friction between the disc and pads which has a strong influence on the squeal propensity.
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Exhaust Particle Number in Off-Road Engines of Different Generations

Turku University of Applied Sciences-Toomas Karhu, Mika Laurén, Krister Ekman, Pekka Nousiainen, Tommi Paanu
University of Vaasa-Seppo Niemi, Kaj Lundin
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
In diesel engine development, NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions have to be simultaneously reduced. Fuel consumption also has to be kept as low as possible. Today, exhaust PM is regulated based on particle mass. Ultra-fine particles are, however, known to be hazardous for human health but they do not very much affect the PM mass. Thus, the health effects of an engine can not be evaluated based only on PM mass.To assess the adverse effects of particles, the particle number should also be examined. In this study, particle number emissions were therefore analyzed in several off-road diesel engines of different ages. The engines were developed for low emissions and fuel consumption experimentally, by usually running them according to the 8-mode ISO 8178-4 C1 off-road test cycle. Modern low-sulfur diesel fuel oil was burned, the sulfur content of the batches varying from 8 to 60 mg/kg. In addition to regulated gaseous emissions, the exhaust smoke and particle number concentrations were determined. An ELPI analyzer was adopted for PM number recordings.The results showed that the number…
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Influence of Ethanol Blend Addition on Compression Ignition Engine Performance and Emissions Operated with Diesel and Jatropha Methyl Ester

Norwegian University of Science and Technology-Dhandapani Kannan, Md. Nurun Nabi, Johan Einar Hustad
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
The world is looking for an alternate fuel to replace the existing petroleum based products due to the depletion of natural resources and it has been projected for future unavailability and fluctuation of oil price in an international market. The EU directive targets 20% of all fuel should be from bio-fuels by 2020. There is a need to improve performance and emission levels in Compression Ignition (CI) or Spark Ignition (SI) engines to comply with stricter automotive norms and regulations due to the global warming issues. This research work is influenced by these factors and is expected to motivate the governing bodies to implement directives with higher bio fuel blends.In this context, a four stroke, single cylinder naturally aspirated (NA) direct injection (DI) diesel engine with 8 BHP @ 1500 rpm coupled with water cooled eddy current dynamometer was used for the experiments. The performance and emission tests were carried on Compression Ignition Engine using blends (B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100) of Jatropha Methyl Esters (JME) and diesel. Also 5% of Ethanol was injected…
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