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Development of a New Model Based Air-Fuel Ratio Control System

SAE International Journal of Engines

Toyota Motor Corporation-Shuntaro Okazaki, Naoto Kato, Junichi Kako, Akira Ohata
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0585
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
The second-generation air-fuel ratio control method has been developed to reduce exhaust gas emissions in accordance with the improvements in catalysts. The control system consists of a feedforward control using a fuel behavior model, a feedback control using an universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor and a feedback control utilizing the heated exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensor. This significantly improves air-fuel ratio tracking performance by feedforward control derived from the models that express the dynamic phenomena and the disturbance attenuation by UEGO feedback controller which compensates for the long dead-time characteristics by the state predictive control. The tracking performance and the disturbance attenuation can be achieved independently by a two-degree-of-freedom structure presented in this paper. The exhaust air-fuel ratio downstream of the catalyst precisely converges to stoichiometry, which maximizes the conversion efficiency of the catalyst. Experimental results on actual vehicles show the effectiveness of presented method.
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Advantages and Challenges of Introducing AUTOSAR for Safety-Related Systems

Mecel AB, Sweden-Hakan Sivencrona
PSA Peugeot Citroën, France-Marc Graniou
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
The AUTOSAR standard is a de facto software standard for the automotive industry, being used for existing and future safety-related functions. The new International Standard, ISO 26262 1, dedicated for automotive functional-safety, which can be viewed as an adaptation of the IEC 61508 2 onto automotive applications, will be applied to the design and implementation of safety-related systems containing electrical, electronic and programmable electronic components, so called E/E/PE systems, i.e. also on AUTOSAR software. This combination opens up several advantages and challenges for the design of safety related systems with respect to platform software. One main reason is that AUTOSAR is designed without a specific application in mind. Thus AUTOSAR must be configurable to meet changing requirements from an application point of view as well as safety requirements. This paper addresses some of the issues that the authors believe will occur for software developers, ECU manufacturers and OEMs. It also address why we believe that the AUTOSAR concept provides a good opportunity to address safety.
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B-COOL Project - Ford Ka and Fiat Panda R-744 MAC Systems

C. Malvicino, R. Seccardini, M. Markowitz, K. Schuermanns, A. Bergami, C. Arnaud, R. Haller, C. Petitjean, C. Strupp, N. Lemke, D. Clodic, C. Post, A. Hafner
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
The B-COOL project, funded by the European Union, is devoted to the development of low cost and efficient R-744 system for small cars.In the framework of this initiative a Fiat Panda and a Ford Ka prototype have been realized adopting two different R-744 systems and a testing procedure has been identified and adopted to qualify the vehicles in terms of fuel consumption and thermal comfort performance.The Project started in March 2005 and ended in November 2008, this paper presents the major project outcomes on R-744 mobile air conditioning systems (efficiency and related fuel consumption and LCCP, costs, architecture) synthesizing the remaining technology open issues
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Hydrogen Rich Gas Production in a Diesel Partial Oxidation Reactor with HC Speciation

Shell Global Solutions, UK-R. F. Cracknell, R. H. Clark
University of Birmingham,UK-S. Sitshebo, A. Tsolakis, U. Elghawi, K. Theinnoi, M. L. Wyszynski
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
In the present work, the partial oxidation of diesel (US07), rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and low temperature Fischer - Tropsch synthetic diesel (SD), almost 100% paraffinic, was investigated for the purpose of hydrogen and intermediate hydrocarbon species production over a prototype reforming catalyst, for the potential use in hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR) of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from diesel engines. The presence of small amounts of hydrogen can substantially improve the effectiveness of hydrocarbons in the selective reduction of NOx over lean NOx catalysts, particularly at low temperatures (150-350°C). In this study, the partial oxidation reactor was operating at the same input power (kW), based on the calorific values of the fed fuel. Hydrogen production was as high as 19%, from the partial oxidation of SD fuel, and dropped to 17% and 14% for RME and US07 diesel, respectively. In conjunction with the hydrogen production, the short chain HC species (C1 - C6) produced by the partial oxidation reforming of the respective fuels were measured. The results show that US07 diesel produced more short…
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Implications of Adaptive High Beam Headlighting Systems for Discomfort and Disability Glare

Technische Universität Darmstadt-Jan Holger Sprute, Nils Haferkemper, Christoph Schiller, Tran Quoc Khanh
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
The Laboratory of Lighting Technology at the Technische Universität Darmstadt has conducted experiments to verify whether the prevalently reported different glare strains of the three light sources in automotive lighting, namely tungsten halogen lamps, high intensity discharge lamps and LEDs, can be verified in real traffic geometry.Furthermore, these light sources will be used for new adaptive driving beam functions. These systems will alter the conventional cut-off lines or simply switch off sectors where other road users have been detected. It is therefore probable that these other road users will experience more glare illuminance than they would, if the oncoming car would be equipped with a well aimed classical passing beam.The tests take place on a former air field now used as the university’s testing site. Apart from the glare sources no other visual disturbances are present. The geometry of the test setup is chosen to represent a real traffic situation.The overall results show no significant differences with regard to disability glare, although a minority of test subjects showed a significantly higher sensitivity to tungsten halogen…
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Optimizing Precision and Accuracy of Quantitative PLIF of Acetone as a Tracer for Hydrogen Fuel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Sandia National Laboratories-Victor M. Salazar, Sebastian A. Kaiser
Université d’Orléans, France-Fabien Halter
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1534
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of gaseous acetone as a fuel-tracer has been used in an optically accessible engine, fueled by direct hydrogen injection. The purpose of this article is to assess the accuracy and precision of the measurement and the associated data reduction procedures. A detailed description of the acetone seeding system is given as well. The key features of the experiment are a high-pressure bubbler saturating the hydrogen fuel with acetone vapor, direct injection into an optical engine, excitation of acetone fluorescence with an Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm, and detection of the resulting fluorescence by an unintensified camera. Key steps in the quantification of the single-shot imaging data are an in-situ calibration and a correction for the effect of local temperature on the fluorescence measurement. We assess the accuracy of the measurement in terms of drift in acetone-vapor concentration, linearity of fluorescence with laser energy, absorption of the beam within the probe volume, spatial inhomogeneity in the calibration measurements, and uncertainties in the temperature correction. The precision is impacted by camera read-out…
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Integrated Safety Planning According to ISO 26262

MB-technology, Germany-Horst Schubotz
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
In the automotive industry, the planning of safety activities is becoming a standard topic on the daily agenda of project centers and engineering departments. In the meantime, the entire planning and realization process of safety relevant functions is driven by the new safety standard for automotive electronics – ISO 26262. Safety planning as such is nothing new, but the question is how to achieve high planning efficiency on the one hand and conformance with the comprehensive requirements of the standard on the other hand. This paper reports on the concept of an integrated approach to plan, connect, track and evaluate defined safety activities along the safety lifecycle. The concept is based on using the original content of the standard as a reference then generating the headlines of various parts of the safety planning process. It demonstrates a way to register the required work products and to connect them to the corresponding documents, which are generated in a safety project. As a result, the stringent handling of all safety documents provides an initial input for the…
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Variability of Yaw Calculations from Field Testing

SAMAC Engineering Ltd.-Gilles Amirault, Steve MacInnis
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
This paper discusses the variability of critical speed calculations from controlled field tests. A total of 29 tests were conducted at speeds of 80 to 95 km/h, using three different vehicles, three tire types, and variable braking levels. Results of the testing are provided. Analysis of the data revealed: a chord length of 20 m measured from separation provided the most consistent results, non-ABS braking affects the results of the critical speed formula, whereas ABS braking provides similar results as non-braked vehicles, using 20 m chord measurements for the radius and the average braking coefficient of friction overestimated the measured speed at separation by 4.1% +/-6.3% (+/-1 standard deviation) for all non-braking and ABS braking tests, using centre of gravity measurements along the curve for the radius and the average braking coefficient of friction underestimated the measured speed at separation by 2.0% +/-5.2% (+/-1 standard deviation) for all non-braking and ABS braking tests, and there is a correlation between braking level and striation angle.
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Experimental Investigation of Instantaneous Cyclic Heat Transfer in the Combustion Chamber and Exhaust Manifold of a DI Diesel Engine under Transient Operating Conditions

National Technical University of Athens-G. C. Mavropoulos, C. D. Rakopoulos, D. T. Hountalas
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, the results are presented from the analysis of the second stage of an experimental investigation with the aim to provide insight to the cyclic, instantaneous heat transfer phenomena occurring in both the cylinder head and exhaust manifold wall surfaces of a direct injection (DI), air-cooled diesel engine. Results from the first stage of the investigation concerning steady-state engine operation have already been presented by the authors in this series. In this second stage, the mechanism of cyclic heat transfer was investigated during engine transient events, viz. after a sudden change in engine speed and/or load, both for the combustion chamber and exhaust manifold surfaces. The modified experimental installation allowed both long- and short-term signal types to be recorded on a common time reference base during the transient event. An updated version of an existing code implementing one-dimensional heat conduction theory with Fourier analysis techniques was used for the calculation of local surface heat flux evolution during each transient event. From the analysis of experimental results it is confirmed that each thermal transient…
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Application of Innovative PVD Coating to Stamping Dies for Processing Ultra-High Tensile Strength Steel Sheets

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

KOBAC, KOBELCO Advanced Coating America Inc-Yoshinobu Hosokawa, Kazuki Takahara
Kobe Steel Ltd-Kenji Yamamoto, Susumu Kujime, Tatsuya Yasunaga, Koichiro Akari
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1170
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
A novel nitride based coating system (BELCOAT-SS) was developed for the stamping dies for ultra high-tensile strength steel. It is characterized by an excellent wear resistance and low deposition temperature compare to the conventional diffusion coatings such as VC or TiC. High temperature wear test indicate that the wear rate of the new coating is 2 to 10 lower than conventional diffusion coatings. The result of stamping test using ultra-high tensile steel sheets indicate that life time of the die can be prolonged by the factor of at least 5 to 10 times.
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